• The stress from my tour leading job: Differences between genders

      Carrillo, Brendali; Barbieri, Carla; Knollenberg, Whitney; Edwards, Michael B. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-09-01)
      This study compared job stressors between female and male Tour Leaders (TLs) operating in South America, mainly Peru and Bolivia. In 2017, 82 TLs were surveyed about their level of stress on 30 items representing four sources of job stress: job roles, nature of the job, tourists’ attitudes and behaviors, and external factors. Statistical tests determined that female TLs perceive higher levels of stress from sexual harassment, natural disasters, facilitating the tourists-locals interaction, having limited free time during trips and constant packing/unpacking. Male TLs reported higher levels of stress when tourists supersede their authority. These results indicate the need to amend policy and managerial guidelines to increase gender equity in the tour leading profession.
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    • Tour Leading in South America: Job Inputs and Outcomes

      Carrillo, Brendali; Barbieri, Carla; Knollenberg, Whitney; Edwards, Michael B. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-09-01)
      Tour Leader’s (TLs) performance is a key determinant of tourists’ satisfaction. Yet, research on the set of rewards and stressors (job inputs) that TLs experience and how these affect their quality of life and job satisfaction (job outcomes) is scant. This study, framed within the facet analysis model, fills this knowledge gap using data collected from 82 TLs operating in South America. Respondents were satisfied with nonfinancial rewards and perceived low stress levels resulting from their jobs. Although most reported positive psychological outcomes, they also acknowledged a decrease in their quality of convivial life. Analysis indicated that job inputs significantly affected TLs’ psychological and convivial well-being and job satisfaction. Study results expand the scholarship of the inputs and outcomes of tour leading and provides managerial and policy insights to increase TLs’ quality of life and job satisfaction, which is critical to enhance job performance.
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