• Anxiety, distress, and turnover intention of healthcare workers in Peru by their distance to the epicenter during the COVID-19 crisis

      Yáñez, Jaime A.; Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Li, Jizhen; Zhang, Stephen X. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020-10-01)
      We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the anxiety, distress, and turnover intention (likelihood to leave their current job) of healthcare workers in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results reported that 21.7% healthcare workers in Peru experienced severe anxiety, whereas 26.1% of them experienced severe mental distress. A higher level of education related with a lower level of anxiety. Younger workers had a higher level of turnover intention than their older colleagues did. Healthcare workers in the private sector had a higher turnover intention than those in the public sector. Most importantly, people who were geographically far from Lima, the epicenter in Peru, during the outbreak experienced less anxiety and mental distress, corroborating the ripple effect and disconfirming the typhoon eye theory. However, the direction of these relationships can change depending on the type of institutions (public versus private) and the type of employees' contract (full time versus part time). Our research helps provide insights for clinical professionals in identifying the vulnerable groups to mental disorders in Peru. This is the first study to assess anxiety, mental distress, and turnover intention in healthcare workers in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright
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    • Extrinsic motivation: Determining factor in the medicine career?

      Sanchez Pimentel, Janett Isabel; Rosario Pacahuala, Emilio Augusto; Medina Gamero, Aldo Rafael (Elsevier Espana S.L.U, 2020-01-01)
      Carta al editor
      Acceso abierto
    • Higher medical education facing the covid-19 infodemia

      Félix Cayo Rojas, César; Miranda Dávila, Ana Sofía (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2020-01-01)
      Carta al editor
      Acceso abierto
    • The Peru approach against the COVID-19 infodemic: Insights and strategies

      Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Mejia, Christian R.; Delgado-Zegarra, Jaime; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J.; Del Portal, Mauricio Rosas; Villegas, León F.; Curioso, Walter H.; Sekar, M. Chandra; Yáñez, Jaime A. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020-08-01)
      The COVID-19 epidemic has spawned an "infodemic,"with excessive and unfounded information that hinders an appropriate public health response. This perspective describes a selection of COVID-19 fake news that originated in Peru and the government's response to this information. Unlike other countries, Peru was relatively successful in controlling the infodemic possibly because of the implementation of prison sentences for persons who created and shared fake news. We believe that similar actions by other countries in collaboration with social media companies may offer a solution to the infodemic problem.
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    • Self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic among the adult population in Peru: A cross-sectional survey

      Quispe-Cañari, Jean Franco; Fidel-Rosales, Evelyn; Manrique, Diego; Mascaró-Zan, Jesús; Huamán-Castillón, Katia Medalith; Chamorro–Espinoza, Scherlli E.; Garayar–Peceros, Humberto; Ponce–López, Vania L.; Sifuentes-Rosales, Jhesly; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Mejia, Christian R. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-01-01)
      Self-medication impacts both negatively and positively the health of people, which has become evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-medicated drugs used for respiratory symptoms, as COVID-19 preventive, for its symptoms or once tested positive. To determine the perception of symptom relief and demographic variables that promote self-medication in Peru. We performed a cross-sectional, analytical, multicenter study in 3792 study respondents on the use, the reason for use, and perception of relief after the use of six drugs during the quarantine period. An online questionnaire was developed, pretested and submitted to the general public. Multivariable logistic regression was used to ascertain factors that influence an individual's desire to self-medicate, associations were considered significant at p < 0.05 and using region (coast, mountain and jungle) as cluster group. The majority of respondents self-medicated with acetaminophen for respiratory symptoms and mainly because they had a cold or flu. It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty. Over 90% of respondents perceived relief of at least one symptom. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older people have a higher frequency of antiretroviral self-medication, respondents who currently have a job had a higher frequency of penicillin self-medication, and that respondents from the Andes consumed less acetaminophen, while the ones from the rainforest consumed it more. There were significant percentages of self-medication, including drugs without sufficient scientific evidence. Age, region where one lived and job status were variables associated with self-medication frequency. Continuous awareness and sensitization about the risks of self-medication are warranted.
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    • Self-Transcendent Aspirations and Life Satisfaction: The Moderated Mediation Role of Gratitude Considering Conditional Effects of Affective and Cognitive Empathy

      Oriol, Xavier; Unanue, Jesús; Miranda, Rafael; Amutio, Alberto; Bazán, César (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-08-25)
      Life aspirations are considered one of the most relevant components for human beings to give meaning and purpose to their existence. Different studies emphasized the relevance of intrinsic life aspirations to promote life satisfaction. However, few studies analyze the specific role of the intrinsic aspirations that have been recently categorized as self-transcendent. Self-transcendent aspirations are focused on helping others and improving society and, consequently, are considered aspirations whose purpose transcends oneself. In this sense, the objective of this study is to observe how self-transcendent aspirations are related to life satisfaction through dispositional gratitude. Additionally, we aim to study the moderating role of cognitive and affective empathy. There were 1,356 students (mean age = 21.5, standard deviation = 2.35 years) who took part in a scholarship program funded by the Education Ministry of Peru (PRONABEC), of which 57.7% were men and 42.3% were women. Results show a strong relationship between self-transcendent aspirations, gratitude, and cognitive and affective empathy. In the mediation analysis, an indirect effect of self-transcendent aspirations is observed on life satisfaction via gratitude. However, the moderated mediation showed that the addition of cognitive and affective empathy conditions the mediation effect. In this way, cognitive empathy has a significant interaction in the relationships between self-transcendent aspirations and gratitude, and between self-transcendent aspirations and life satisfaction. Results are discussed to emphasize the relevance of the mediating and moderating mechanisms considered in this study for the understanding of how self-transcendent life aspirations may promote life satisfaction.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Telemedicine in Peru as a Result of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspective from a country with limited internet access

      Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Yañez3, Jaime A. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2021-07-01)
      The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the worldwide implementation of telemedicine because of the need for medical care for patients, especially those with chronic diseases. This perspective paper presents the current situation of telemedicine in Peru, showing advances in regulation, cases of successful implementation, and the current challenges. Access to health should be available to all, and more efforts need to be implemented to offer access to the internet to achieve high-quality telemedicine to all the vulnerable groups in Peru.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Telemedicine in the medical curriculum for the care of geriatric patients after COVID-19

      Medina-Gamero, Aldo Rafael; Sanchez-Pimentel, Janett Isabel; Rosario-Pacahuala, Emilio Augusto (Ediciones Doyma, S.L., 2021-03-01)
      Carta al editor
      Acceso abierto
    • Treatment of COVID-19 in peru and bolivia, and self-medication risks

      Román, Brenda Rojas; Moscoso, Stephanie; Chung, Sun Ah; Terceros, Bianca Limpias; Álvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2020-04-01)
      Introduction: Various drugs are being used against the symptoms caused by COVID-19, without being approved for these purposes. Many of these drugs have small safety margin and very risky adverse effects on health, a reason why they require prescription and, above all, medical monitoring and follow-up. Unfortunately, there are many cases of self-medication in Peru and Bolivia that require prompt management. Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature that presents evidence about the effectiveness and adverse reactions of the drugs currently used against COVID-19 in Peru and Bolivia. Methods: Qualitative research based on the systematic review of the scientific literature available in PubMed, as well as in the national regulations of Peru and Bolivia related to the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, as well as treatments approved and discontinued by both countries since the exacerbation of the COVID-19 crisis and the completion of clinical studies to date. Conclusions: The drugs used in Peru and Bolivia for treating COVID-19 have side effects and possible risks to the health of people who unfortunately self-medicate. Greater control of these drugs is required to avoid their free acquisition, and to improve the national and regional strategy to evaluate the possible symptomatic treatments of COVID-19, taking into consideration the high probability of survival of the disease and the risk posed by using these drugs, which, in the future, could cause serious adverse effects on public health in the two countries.
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