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  • Poverty, Household Structure and Consumption of Foods Away from Home in Peru in 2019: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Huamán, Franklin; Xirinachs, Yanira; Rivera-Lozada, Oriana; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (MDPI, 2022-09-01)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the probability of buying food away from home according to the type of household using the logit model, as well as the sociodemographic characteristics of the heads of household, and how much income expenditure represents. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the National Household Survey (ENAHO) 2019 database. After joining the database, the household type variables were created. To calculate the probability with the “logit” model of purchase, the variables—family size, income, types of household, and total expenditure—were selected as a measure of the purchasing power of the family. A statistically significant association (p < 0.05) was found between the probability of consumption and the variables: age of household members, predominance, nuclear without children–married, nuclear with children–cohabitant, nuclear with children–widowed, nuclear with children–separated, extended, compounded, poor not extreme, and not poor. The bulk of families was represented by nuclear families (61.97%). The highest expenditure in the CFAH was for families defined as composite with a yearly average of USD 1652.89 (equivalent to PEN 5520.67). Observing the expenditure on food consumed outside the home through the composition of households can allow a better approach to offer educational measures. This information can be helpful to developers of educational issues.
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  • Leadership and empowerment in businesswoman in Peru

    Tamara Tatiana, Pando Ezcurra; Luis Miguel, Cangalaya Sevillano; Zoran Evaristo, Herrera Mejía; Raúl Eduardo, Cabrejos Burga (Universidad del Zulia, 2022-01-01)
    Women’s ability to influence in the business sector is characterized by organization and the decisionmaking process. This study analyzes the leadership and empowerment of women entrepreneurs from Lima Norte in Peru. The research is carried out using the quantitative approach methodology; of non-experimental design, cross section, and probabilistic sampling, in which we worked with 70 businesswomen. The survey technique and the questionnaire instrument were used, validated through expert judgment, which obtained a high level of reliability. The results achieved allow us to affirm that empowerment influences the female leadership of businesswomen from Lima Norte in Peru and the individual capacity of each woman highlights autonomy, as well as self-sufficiency that account for empowerment in order to exert influence in the process. decision making It is concluded that the leadership exercised by women has a transformative vision, by providing the ability to influence business decision-making.
    Acceso abierto
  • Infancia y transgresión poética en la obra de Luis Hernández

    León Mango, Liz Fiorella (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), 2021-12-15)
    La infancia representó en el ideario del poeta moderno la avidez de conocimiento, el impulso lúdico-experimental y la conciencia material del arte. Estos rasgos pueden distinguirse en la obra de Luis Hernández, quien, revalorizando la infancia, planteó el ímpetu lúdico y la inocencia como claves de una producción artística original. Identificándose con la pureza de un niño, en un nivel temático, el poeta cuestionó la indolencia y el afán organizativo y alienante de todo autoritarismo. En cuanto al uso de los instrumentos técnico-formales, practicó con ellos tal y como un infante experimenta con sus objetos de juego, explotando sus posibilidades, despreocupado e irreverente. Dicho esto, nuestro objetivo es evidenciar cómo su reinterpretación de la infancia influyó en su cuestionamiento de los procesos de escritura, distribución y recepción de la literatura.
    Acceso abierto
  • Estrategias metodológicas en la educación ambiental. Estudio de caso de un docente de ciencias naturales de una institución educativa pública

    MARCELO VELIZ, BELMIRA YUNET (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), 2022-03)
    La investigación se enmarca en el enfoque ambiental que deben atender las instituciones educativas ante la urgencia que existe de actuar y asumir compromisos ambientales por amenazas ambientales locales, regionales y globales. Entonces, corresponde al docente aplicar estrategias metodológicas en la formación ambiental. La investigación nos brindará información de las acciones que viene realizando el docente desde su área de aprendizaje y poder identificar las estrategias aplicadas que permitan identificar y analizar un problema ambiental de su entorno para promover conciencia ambiental en los estudiantes.
    Acceso abierto
  • Themes of scientific production of the cuban journal of pharmacy indexed in scopus (1967-2020)

    Chung, Sun Ah; Olivera, Selma; Román, Brenda Rojas; Alanoca, Evelyn; Moscoso, Stephanie; Terceros, Bianca Limpias; Álvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: The Cuban Journal of Pharmacy celebrated this year its fifty-fourth anniversary, and during all these years it has successfully published more than 1110 works indexed in Scopus bibliographic database until 2020. Objective: Describe the scientific production from the thematic point of view of the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy indexed in Scopus. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out, based on the systematic review of scientific literature published by the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy, available in Scopus. Publications were grouped by thematic areas according to the authors' criteria, based on the keywords presented in the abstracts and the central theme of the article. The thematic areas defined were eight, with eight sub-themes. Conclusions: Since 1967, the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy has strived to promote the development of science and research in its home country, Cuba. However, because of the variety of its articles it is of great value to foreign researchers and students too. The studies presented have been characterized by the diversity of topics related to pharmacology, the use of Cuban medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes and the methodology for better drug’s production and laboratory procedures.
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  • Digital competence in teachers of health sciences in a private university in lima

    Trujillo, María de los Ángeles Sánchez; Flores, Eduar Antonio Rodríguez (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: This work responds to the need of developing digital skills in teachers, who can take advantage of the different potentialities of technological resources in order to achieve better learning in their students. Objective: To determine the differences between the dimensions of the digital competence of teachers of the School of Health Sciences of a private university in Lima, Peru, according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: A comparative descriptive design was used. It should also be noted that a total population composed of 40 teachers was considered, of which 34 agreed to collaborate in the research. The instrument used to collect information was an adaptation of the Teaching Digital Competence Questionnaire, prepared by Javier Tourón, Deborah Martín, Enrique Navarro, Silvia Pradas and Victoria Íñigo in 2018. In addition, a sociodemographic record was addressed to teachers. Subsequently, statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 25 software. Results: It was found that there were no significant differences between the dimensions of digital competence, according to the sociodemographic variables of sex, age, maximum level of study reached, and years of teaching experience. Even so, the differences evidenced in some of these variables could be subject of future studies. Conclusions: The dimension in which teachers have the greatest problems is security, while the one in which they have the least difficulties is problem solving.
    Acceso abierto
  • Influence of technostress on academic performance of university medicine students in peru during the covid-19 pandemic

    Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Rosen, Marc A.; Mejia, Christian R. (MDPI, 2021-08-02)
    The current study aims to validate and apply an instrument to assess the relationship between communication overload, social overload, technostress, exhaustion and academic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, analytical study of 2286 university medical students to assess the influence of technostress as a mediator of social media overload, communication overload and mental exhaustion and its detrimental effect on the academic performance of university students in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research model was validated using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to establish the influence of variables on the model. Communication and social overload were found to positively influence technostress by correlations of 0.284 and 0.557, respectively. Technostress positively influenced exhaustion by 0.898, while exhaustion negatively influenced academic performance by-0.439. Bootstrapping demonstrated that the path coefficients of the research model were statistically significant. The research outcomes may help university managers understand students’ technostress and develop strategies to improve the balanced use of technology for their daily academic activities.
    Acceso abierto
  • Telemedicine in Peru as a Result of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspective from a country with limited internet access

    Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Yañez3, Jaime A. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2021-07-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the worldwide implementation of telemedicine because of the need for medical care for patients, especially those with chronic diseases. This perspective paper presents the current situation of telemedicine in Peru, showing advances in regulation, cases of successful implementation, and the current challenges. Access to health should be available to all, and more efforts need to be implemented to offer access to the internet to achieve high-quality telemedicine to all the vulnerable groups in Peru.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Higher medical education facing the covid-19 infodemia

    Félix Cayo Rojas, César; Miranda Dávila, Ana Sofía (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2020-01-01)
    Carta al editor
    Acceso abierto
  • Self-Transcendent Aspirations and Life Satisfaction: The Moderated Mediation Role of Gratitude Considering Conditional Effects of Affective and Cognitive Empathy

    Oriol, Xavier; Unanue, Jesús; Miranda, Rafael; Amutio, Alberto; Bazán, César (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-08-25)
    Life aspirations are considered one of the most relevant components for human beings to give meaning and purpose to their existence. Different studies emphasized the relevance of intrinsic life aspirations to promote life satisfaction. However, few studies analyze the specific role of the intrinsic aspirations that have been recently categorized as self-transcendent. Self-transcendent aspirations are focused on helping others and improving society and, consequently, are considered aspirations whose purpose transcends oneself. In this sense, the objective of this study is to observe how self-transcendent aspirations are related to life satisfaction through dispositional gratitude. Additionally, we aim to study the moderating role of cognitive and affective empathy. There were 1,356 students (mean age = 21.5, standard deviation = 2.35 years) who took part in a scholarship program funded by the Education Ministry of Peru (PRONABEC), of which 57.7% were men and 42.3% were women. Results show a strong relationship between self-transcendent aspirations, gratitude, and cognitive and affective empathy. In the mediation analysis, an indirect effect of self-transcendent aspirations is observed on life satisfaction via gratitude. However, the moderated mediation showed that the addition of cognitive and affective empathy conditions the mediation effect. In this way, cognitive empathy has a significant interaction in the relationships between self-transcendent aspirations and gratitude, and between self-transcendent aspirations and life satisfaction. Results are discussed to emphasize the relevance of the mediating and moderating mechanisms considered in this study for the understanding of how self-transcendent life aspirations may promote life satisfaction.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Telemedicine in the medical curriculum for the care of geriatric patients after COVID-19

    Medina-Gamero, Aldo Rafael; Sanchez-Pimentel, Janett Isabel; Rosario-Pacahuala, Emilio Augusto (Ediciones Doyma, S.L., 2021-03-01)
    Carta al editor
    Acceso abierto
  • Self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic among the adult population in Peru: A cross-sectional survey

    Quispe-Cañari, Jean Franco; Fidel-Rosales, Evelyn; Manrique, Diego; Mascaró-Zan, Jesús; Huamán-Castillón, Katia Medalith; Chamorro–Espinoza, Scherlli E.; Garayar–Peceros, Humberto; Ponce–López, Vania L.; Sifuentes-Rosales, Jhesly; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Mejia, Christian R. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-01-01)
    Self-medication impacts both negatively and positively the health of people, which has become evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-medicated drugs used for respiratory symptoms, as COVID-19 preventive, for its symptoms or once tested positive. To determine the perception of symptom relief and demographic variables that promote self-medication in Peru. We performed a cross-sectional, analytical, multicenter study in 3792 study respondents on the use, the reason for use, and perception of relief after the use of six drugs during the quarantine period. An online questionnaire was developed, pretested and submitted to the general public. Multivariable logistic regression was used to ascertain factors that influence an individual's desire to self-medicate, associations were considered significant at p < 0.05 and using region (coast, mountain and jungle) as cluster group. The majority of respondents self-medicated with acetaminophen for respiratory symptoms and mainly because they had a cold or flu. It was observed that all the surveyed drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, azithromycin, penicillin, antiretrovirals and hydroxychloroquine) were consumed for various symptoms including: fever, fatigue, cough, sneezing, muscle pain, nasal congestion, sore throat, headache and breathing difficulty. Over 90% of respondents perceived relief of at least one symptom. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older people have a higher frequency of antiretroviral self-medication, respondents who currently have a job had a higher frequency of penicillin self-medication, and that respondents from the Andes consumed less acetaminophen, while the ones from the rainforest consumed it more. There were significant percentages of self-medication, including drugs without sufficient scientific evidence. Age, region where one lived and job status were variables associated with self-medication frequency. Continuous awareness and sensitization about the risks of self-medication are warranted.
    Acceso abierto
  • Treatment of COVID-19 in peru and bolivia, and self-medication risks

    Román, Brenda Rojas; Moscoso, Stephanie; Chung, Sun Ah; Terceros, Bianca Limpias; Álvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2020-04-01)
    Introduction: Various drugs are being used against the symptoms caused by COVID-19, without being approved for these purposes. Many of these drugs have small safety margin and very risky adverse effects on health, a reason why they require prescription and, above all, medical monitoring and follow-up. Unfortunately, there are many cases of self-medication in Peru and Bolivia that require prompt management. Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature that presents evidence about the effectiveness and adverse reactions of the drugs currently used against COVID-19 in Peru and Bolivia. Methods: Qualitative research based on the systematic review of the scientific literature available in PubMed, as well as in the national regulations of Peru and Bolivia related to the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, as well as treatments approved and discontinued by both countries since the exacerbation of the COVID-19 crisis and the completion of clinical studies to date. Conclusions: The drugs used in Peru and Bolivia for treating COVID-19 have side effects and possible risks to the health of people who unfortunately self-medicate. Greater control of these drugs is required to avoid their free acquisition, and to improve the national and regional strategy to evaluate the possible symptomatic treatments of COVID-19, taking into consideration the high probability of survival of the disease and the risk posed by using these drugs, which, in the future, could cause serious adverse effects on public health in the two countries.
    Acceso abierto
  • Extrinsic motivation: Determining factor in the medicine career?

    Sanchez Pimentel, Janett Isabel; Rosario Pacahuala, Emilio Augusto; Medina Gamero, Aldo Rafael (Elsevier Espana S.L.U, 2020-01-01)
    Carta al editor
    Acceso abierto
  • The Peru approach against the COVID-19 infodemic: Insights and strategies

    Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Mejia, Christian R.; Delgado-Zegarra, Jaime; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J.; Del Portal, Mauricio Rosas; Villegas, León F.; Curioso, Walter H.; Sekar, M. Chandra; Yáñez, Jaime A. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020-08-01)
    The COVID-19 epidemic has spawned an "infodemic,"with excessive and unfounded information that hinders an appropriate public health response. This perspective describes a selection of COVID-19 fake news that originated in Peru and the government's response to this information. Unlike other countries, Peru was relatively successful in controlling the infodemic possibly because of the implementation of prison sentences for persons who created and shared fake news. We believe that similar actions by other countries in collaboration with social media companies may offer a solution to the infodemic problem.
    Acceso abierto
  • Anxiety, distress, and turnover intention of healthcare workers in Peru by their distance to the epicenter during the COVID-19 crisis

    Yáñez, Jaime A.; Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Li, Jizhen; Zhang, Stephen X. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020-10-01)
    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the anxiety, distress, and turnover intention (likelihood to leave their current job) of healthcare workers in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results reported that 21.7% healthcare workers in Peru experienced severe anxiety, whereas 26.1% of them experienced severe mental distress. A higher level of education related with a lower level of anxiety. Younger workers had a higher level of turnover intention than their older colleagues did. Healthcare workers in the private sector had a higher turnover intention than those in the public sector. Most importantly, people who were geographically far from Lima, the epicenter in Peru, during the outbreak experienced less anxiety and mental distress, corroborating the ripple effect and disconfirming the typhoon eye theory. However, the direction of these relationships can change depending on the type of institutions (public versus private) and the type of employees' contract (full time versus part time). Our research helps provide insights for clinical professionals in identifying the vulnerable groups to mental disorders in Peru. This is the first study to assess anxiety, mental distress, and turnover intention in healthcare workers in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright
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