• Optimal mesh design methodology considering geometric parameters for rock fragmentation in open-pit mining in the Southern Andes of Peru

      Zamora-Paredes, V. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
      Blasting is one of the most important stages in the productive process of a mine due to its direct impact on rock fragmentation, which determines the degree of productivity of operations and the extraction costs generated. In this scenario, an optimized methodology is presented for designing blasting meshes by using mathematical models that help calculate the geometric parameters of a blasting mesh, such as burden, considering the variables of the rock mass and the type of explosive to measure its impact on rock fragmentation and loading productivity (tons/hour). The main advantage of this method is the reliability of the design, which takes into account a greater number of variables that influence fragmentation and uses the principle of distribution and amount of energy in an optimal way. The results obtained in the case of application show that a change in design (2.7 x 2.7 square mesh to 2.2 x 2.5 triangular mesh) reduces P80 by 65%, from 17 to 6 inches, approximately. Additionally, the results show that greater operational efficiency was achieved by increasing excavator productivity by approximately 15.6%.
      Acceso abierto
    • Optimized model for pre-cut blasting in mining operations in underground mining in Peru

      Pomasoncco, Alexander; Trujillo, Claudio; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      In the mining industry of Peru, as a consequence of large scale mineral extraction and a dynamic process of ore dressing, the different activities of the operation are neglected. This neglect, in some cases, generates collateral damages that affect the structures, generate extra costs, and result in constant accidents due to rock-fall and delays in the activities of the mining cycle and the ones following it, which seriously harms the Mining Unit and directly affects the workers. In addition, this is directly related to the progress of the daily work and, in turn, it is related to the design of the mine mesh that is prepared to extract the largest possible mineral amounts per shift. This means that, by modifying the design of the mine mesh, the blasting method, and the type of explosive used, the current scenario and the results could be modified. In this respect, a research was conducted, exclusively based on simulations using the JK Simblast software, applying the pre-splitting blast method in the underground mine of the Minera Aurífera Retamas SA company, resulting in a reduction of over break in more than 60% as compared to the mesh used initially. This has an impact on the level of support to be used, and therefore, on the maintenance costs, which were reduced by 18%. Therefore, this article presents the possibility of reducing maintenance costs in underground mining using pre-splitting blasting. Copyright 2019.
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    • Optimized pre-splitting model in controlled blasting to improve the speed of the slopes in the open pit mine in Perú

      Tamara, André; Arce, Bryan; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      Presplitting is a controlled-blasting technique with applications in open-pit mines. The main purpose of this technique is to prevent and control overbreaks caused by excessive vibrations due to blasting. This technique is especially effective in controlling overbreaks because it provides a separation surface between the main blasting pattern and the walls of the final slopes. The drilling mesh and loading conditions in the drill are designed in this study by considering the uncontrollable variables of the rock mass as important factors. The proposed model for the presplitting optimization process helps to optimize controlled-blasting designs. The main idea of the proposal is to develop a model that includes the most relevant processes, as well as the most suitable parameters for an efficient design. Copyright 2019.
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    • Optimized ventilation model to improve operations in polymetallic mines in peru

      Flores, Vladimir; Arauzo, Luis; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      Currently, deficient ventilation systems are a frequently observed problem in mining. Such deficient ventilation systems lead to the recirculation of stale air or air with toxic gases. This translates into an increase in the costs of ventilation and electrical consumption for the mining organizations as conventional and practical solutions simply include options such as buying a greater number of fans. Moreover, this problem also exposes the mine workers to an unsafe work environment with unfavorable conditions that could end in minor, incapacitating, or fatal accidents. Therefore, this research seeks to optimize ventilation systems by introducing the Ventsim software tool to develop efficient coverage, addressing, flow, circuit or network characterization, and air balancing in conjunction with avoiding the stagnation of toxic gases in underground work. The primary result of the proposed model’s application in this study was the reduction in ventilation costs related to electricity consumption.
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    • Predictive Model Influenced by External Factors to Reduce Uncertainty in the Budget Forecast of a Gold Mining Company

      Pillpe-Garcia, Cesar; Diaz-Huaina, Guillermo; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
      In this research we propose to apply the qualitative evaluation technique by points to the factors that influence the price of gold. In addition, we will simulate the context of 2015, a year in which the price of gold reached historical lows, and at the same time, a period in which the analyzed company was going through a period of crisis when seeing that its valuation was affected by the devaluation of its reserves and growth of debts with suppliers. The research was carried out for the forecast of the price of gold, the general budget of the company, the budget in the mine operations area and the budget of the plant operations area, but for reasons of space in the development of the paper we will only show the development with the price of gold and the area of operations in the process plant.
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    • Productivity analysis of LHD equipment using the multiple linear regression method in an underground mine in Peru

      Prudencio, Gerald; Pino, Diego; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      The current study is based on a multiple linear regression analysis with an objective to formulate an equation related to the productivity analysis of LHD equipment using independent variables such as the effective utilization of the equipment. To identify the independent variables, main productive factors, such as the actual capacity of the buckets, the transport cycles in the cleaning process, and the performance by means of curves, were analyzed. Comparisons of a Peruvian underground mine case study exhibited that the battery-powered equipment denoted similar production efficiencies to that exhibited by its diesel counterparts; however, the three-tier approach observed that the battery-powered equipment could achieve production efficiencies that are up to 13.8% more as compared to that achieved using its diesel counterparts because of increased effective utilization that can be attributed to long MTBF. The results of this study exhibit that LHDs under battery-powered storage are feasible for underground mining not only because of the fact that they do not emit any polluting gases, which helps to mitigate pollution, but also because of their good production performance that can be considered to be an important pillar in deep mining. Copyright 2019.
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    • Reuse method for deposits of polymetallic tailings in a state of abandonment through the application of mineral flotation

      Anchiraico, Anthony; Bazo, José; Aramburú, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      In the mining industry, due to the extraction and processing of ore, a significant amount of tailings are produced which are discharged into deposits. In some cases, these are in contact with effluents and generate acid waters that pollute the environment and affect the health of the inhabitants. Additionally, these tailings within their composition contain valuable metals that can be reused through a process of mineral flotation. As a part of this research, a study based exclusively on laboratory tests was performed on the tailings deposit located in the Recuay–Peru district, where the presence of concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ag at 48.36% was obtained, 23% and 250 g/TM. Thus, this study aims to take advantage of polymetallic tailings deposits that are in an abandonment state by extracting valuable ore through the flotation process based on their chemical composition and mineralogical characterization.
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    • SCAT Model Based on Bayesian Networks for Lost-Time Accident Prevention and Rate Reduction in Peruvian Mining Operations

      Ziegler-Barranco, Ana; Mera-Barco, Luis; Aramburu-Rojas, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Dominguez, Francisco (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      Several factors affect the activities of the mining industry. For example, accident rates are critical because they affect company ratings in the stock market (Standard & Poors). Considering that the corporate image is directly related to its stakeholders, this study conducts an accident analysis using quantitative and qualitative methods. In this way, the contingency rate is controlled, mitigated, and prevented while serving the needs) of the stakeholders. The Bayesian network method contributes to decision-making through a set of variables and the dependency relationships between them, establishing an earlier probability of unknown variables. Bayesian models have different applications, such as diagnosis, classification, and decision, and establish relationships among variables and cause–effect links. This study uses Bayesian inference to identify the various patterns that influence operator accident rates at a contractor mining company, and therefore, study and assess the possible differences in its future operations.
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    • Six sigma model optimized for reducing downtime in an open-pit mine

      Gargate, Josemaria; Fung, Sian A.; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      Currently, in open-pit mining operations, the highest cost among all processes is that of transporting trucks, whether in fuel, roads, tires, or spare parts, among other factors. Therefore, this article proposes the use of the Six Sigma methodology of continuous improvement as a quality management tool to reduce the downtime of the truck fleet to obtain better productivity in operations. The results of the investigation in the case study allowed to visualize that with the election of an optimal fleet appropriate for the conditions given in a mining project, the values of productivity and efficiency improve considerably. This is reflected in a better use of the machinery and in the reduction of unproductive times.
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    • Six sigma-based optimization model in hauling cut and fill exploitation activities to reduce downtime in underground mines in Peru

      Rojas, Kevin; Aramburú, Vidal; Ramos, Edgar; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-06-06)
      In the mining industry, the mining cycle is a very important part in the operating stage of every mining unit. Through the exploitation method used, the mining cycle provides mineral ore, which subsequently undergoes various metallurgical processes and its commercialization and thereby generates profits to the mining company. Currently, within this cycle, the hauling and transportation stages are those that have a lower efficiency with respect to the drilling and blasting stages. Therefore, the sector is always seeking effective ways to optimize these processes, reduce downtime and increase productivity. Six Sigma is a technique that allows for the continuous process improvement. In this study, the factors that generate inefficiency in the hauling cycle are determined, and alternatives are implemented to solve the main problem and improve the operations cycle.
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