• Empirical and Numerical Finite-Element-Based Model to Improve Narrow Vein Mine Design in Peruvian Mining

      Belizario-Calsin, M. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
      This paper proposes a numerical finite-element-based model aimed at optimizing narrow-vein stope stability. This model combines empirical and numerical methods to develop a sequence, which may determine an acceptable stope safety factor. A stope stability analysis was conducted through the Mathews stability graph method, which requires two factors: the hydraulic radius (HR) and stability number (N'). The Mathews stability graph method is used to assess the stability of an underground design. Variations in stope dimensions are estimated by changing the HR and Factor A within the N', which is determined through numerical methods. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the HR increases with an increase in stope dimensions, while Factor A maintains an inverse relationship with the maximum stress induced on the excavation walls. This document demonstrates the potential of combining empirical and numerical methods in stope design optimization, especially when developed in small narrow vein mines.
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    • Filling Method Implementing Hydraulic Lime for Reusing Mine Tailings and Improve Sustainability in Conventional Peruvian Underground Mines

      Altamirano-Soto, Pablo; Supa-Urrutia, Jorge; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humbero; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Dominguez, Francisco (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      Mining in Peru has existed for several decades, and for several years, there has been no proper environmental management of the impact of this activity on the environment and society in general, whether it be gas emissions, the presence of acidic water, or the generation of mining tailings. One of the most prominent examples involve mine tailings; these are by-products of mining processing plants and are stored in a dam known as a tailings dam. Like any extraction activity, mining generates large amounts of waste material that could become potential risks to the environment and society. Using hydraulic fills, the mine tailings contained in tailings dams could be reused. These fills seek to decrease the volume of stored tailings to prevent any future dam collapses, as observed in Brazil with the Vale mining company, where its tailings dam collapsed and caused more than 200 deaths.
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    • Geostatistical Method Used in Quarry-Type Exploitation Based on Gaussian Simulation to Reduce the Uncertainty of Hydrogeological Values in Surface Mining in Peru

      Serrano-Rojas, Rafael; Muñoz-Orosco, Diego; Diaz-Huaina, Guillermo; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
      In this article the application of a geostatistical method based on Gaussian simulation is studied to reduce the uncertainty of atypical data related to the hydrogeological data of a quarry, for which the data of the hydrogeological model of the impact study was considered as a basis environment of a quarry. This research proposes the application of Gaussian Simulation to identify the data that generate uncertainties in the elaboration of the hydrogeological model; such as the identification of underground aquifer levels. This technique first develops the verification of the hydrogeological data, then identifies the outliers, which will allow a better application of the Gaussian Simulation technique with the Gaussian algorithm to obtain a more reliable hydrogeological model. Finally, it is geostatistically demonstrated that the application of the Gaussian simulation reduced the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model by 20%.
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    • Hydrabolt and Split Set Rock Bolt Selection Method Under the Bieniawski Rock Mass Rating for Improving Horizontal Access Support in Peruvian Mid-Scale Mining Activities

      Toscano-Alor, Carlos; Castillo-Rodil, Antoni; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      This paper illustrates how the Bieniawski rock mass rating geomechanics classification, within the support system used by medium-scale mining companies, allows for the development of a new anchor rock bolt selection method aimed at improving horizontal access stability in underground mines. However, this case study only seeks to select the most efficient anchor rock bolt for any given horizontal access. A proper support selection method is very important for mining companies because this decision will safeguard both miners and mining infrastructure. This selection process will ultimately prevent fatal accidents, which is critical for mining companies today, especially considering the constant operation standstills reported in Peru.
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    • Hydraulic Fill Assessment Model Using Weathered Granitoids Based on Analytical Solutions to Mitigate Rock Mass Instability in Conventional Underground Mining

      Portocarrero-Urdanivia, Cristhian; Ochoa-Cuentas, Angela; Arauzo-Gallardo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (2021-01-01)
      This study uses analytical solutions to assess a hydraulic fill model based on weathered granitoid to increase underground opening stability and mitigate rock bursts during mining operations in a conventional underground mining company located in the Coastal Batholiths of the Peruvian Andes. This study assesses the previous geological database provided by the mine, analyzes the on-site strengths produced by the exploitation works that will subsequently be filled, identifies the quality of the material used in the landfill (granitoids) through laboratory tests, and compares compressive strength at different depths, all contemplated within the landfill model used. This study focuses on the applicability of hydraulic fills in conventional underground mine using natural geological material such as granitoid.
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    • Lean Six Sigma Fleet Management Model for the Optimization of Ore Transportation in Mechanized Underground Mines in Peru

      Huaira-Perez, Jorge; Llerena-Vargas, Orlando; Pehóvaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Solis-Sarmiento, Hugo; Aramburu-Rojas, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos (2021-01-01)
      Mining activities around the world are undergoing constant change and modernization owing to technological and scientific advancements. Consequently, there are frequent proposals to streamline and enhance processes in mining operations. This study deals with ore transportation in mechanized mining units and aims to optimize fleet management using the Lean Six Sigma methodology to obtain a model in this specific process. The proposed method was implemented using a Lean Six Sigma instrument known as DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control). The case study was applied to an underground mine located in the Huancavelica region, Peru. The simulation showed that 24% of the time in the ore transport cycle is un-productive time and the improvement potential time represents 53% of the transportation process time.
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    • Mathematical Model of a Drilling Mesh to Reduce Dilution in the Sublevel Stoping Method in Peru’s Underground Mines

      Zelaya-Reyes, Yadira; Arauzo-Gallardo, Luis; Diaz-Huaina, Guillemo; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      This research study focuses on creating a drill pattern for the Condestable mine, which will allow us to assess the percentage of dilution. For these purposes, we used the Pearse formula proposed in 1955, which allowed us to find the burden and later, the spacing that each drill hole should have in the pattern. Once we had collected all the numerical data, we used the JK SimBlast program to design the proposed drill pattern and analyze the damage zones, the tonnage acquired and the existing dilution. According the results obtained, the smaller the hole diameter, the less dilution will be generated when diversifying the wall and ceiling explosives.
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    • Method for the Interpretation of RMR Variability Using Gaussian Simulation to Reduce the Uncertainty in Estimations of Geomechanical Models of Underground Mines

      Rodriguez-Vilca, Juliet; Paucar-Vilcañaupa, Jose; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      The application of conventional techniques, such as kriging, to model rock mass is limited because rock mass spatial variability and heterogeneity are not considered in such techniques. In this context, as an alternative solution, the application of the Gaussian simulation technique to simulate rock mass spatial heterogeneity based on the rock mass rating (RMR) classification is proposed. This research proposes a methodology that includes a variographic analysis of the RMR in different directions to determine its anisotropic behavior. In the case study of an underground deposit in Peru, the geomechanical record data compiled in the field were used. A total of 10 simulations were conducted, with approximately 6 million values for each simulation. These were calculated, verified, and an absolute mean error of only 3.82% was estimated. It is acceptable when compared with the value of 22.15% obtained with kriging.
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    • Model for dilution control applying empirical methods in narrow vein mine deposits in Peru

      Salgado-Medina, Luis; Núñez-Ramírez, Diego; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01)
      Empirical methods play an important role in the field of geomechanics due to the recognized complexity of the nature of rock mass. This study aims to analyze the applicability of empirical design methods in vein-shaped hydrothermal mining deposits (narrow vein) using Bieniawski and Barton classification systems, Mathews stability graphs, Potvin and Mawdesley geomechanics classification systems, and mining pit dilution based on the equivalent linear overbreak/slough (ELOS). In most cases, these methods are applied without understanding the underlying assumptions and limits of the database in relation to the inherent hidden risks. Herein, the dilutions obtained using the empirical methods oscillate between 8% and 11% (according to the frontal dimension), which are inferior to the operative dilution of the mine at 15%. The proposed model can be used as a practical tool to predict and reduce dilution in narrow veins.
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    • Model for monitoring socioenvironmental conflicts in relation to the emission of particulate matter in the prehauling phase of a surface mine in Peru

      Filomeno, Marcio; Heracles, Josemaria; Aramburu, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01)
      This research will focus on proposing a model based on surveys conducted among people of the affected area. The questions were classified by indicators and variables selected to generate solutions to reduce social conflicts, which arise due to the emission of the particulate matter generated in the area before hauling tasks. Particulate matter is produced by hydraulic shovels, which load mineralized material and discharge it to a dump truck in mining operations. This survey was conducted among people who are specifically located in the Huari region. A study of the Social Conflict Monitoring Model (MMCS) tool was executed. It is used for recording, monitoring, and controlling this type of social conflicts, so that mining operations will not be affected in the short or long term. In addition, this model will help in discovering the opinions and/or comments when they are informed on a new method, which decreases generated particulate matter.
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    • Model for Optimization of Drilling, Blasting and Fragmentation Processes in medium mining

      Caballero, Erick; Calixto, Rosa; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      This study aims to propose a new alternative to optimize drilling and blasting processes from the mathematical and geological viewpoint using simulation software. The main objective is to design a systematic model of steps that can generate a simulation through JkSimBlast. This simulation must represent the best alternative for the design of drilling mesh and explosive selection to be implemented in the field. To achieve this goal, a seven-step process diagram was proposed, including geology, design aspects (burden and spacing across the areas of influence algorithm), analysis of physical parameters such as detonation rate, drill-mesh design, explosives selection and fragmentation analysis, simulation tests that could represent the field designs, and selection of the most optimal simulation. For the collection of parameters in the field, we have used MicroTrap Software and WipFrag, which have allowed the design of a mesh according to the needs of the rocky massif. The most optimal simulation was implemented at Caravelí Mining Company-Estrella Unit and had a positive impact on the optimization of drilling and blasting, as the costs of these processes were reduced by 14.6%. Specifically, the costs of explosives were reduced by 2.6% and the costs of drilling steels by 10.4%. The performance of the loading machine advance/shot increased by 13.2% and 15.6%, respectively. Copyright 2019.
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    • Optimal mesh design methodology considering geometric parameters for rock fragmentation in open-pit mining in the Southern Andes of Peru

      Zamora-Paredes, V. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
      Blasting is one of the most important stages in the productive process of a mine due to its direct impact on rock fragmentation, which determines the degree of productivity of operations and the extraction costs generated. In this scenario, an optimized methodology is presented for designing blasting meshes by using mathematical models that help calculate the geometric parameters of a blasting mesh, such as burden, considering the variables of the rock mass and the type of explosive to measure its impact on rock fragmentation and loading productivity (tons/hour). The main advantage of this method is the reliability of the design, which takes into account a greater number of variables that influence fragmentation and uses the principle of distribution and amount of energy in an optimal way. The results obtained in the case of application show that a change in design (2.7 x 2.7 square mesh to 2.2 x 2.5 triangular mesh) reduces P80 by 65%, from 17 to 6 inches, approximately. Additionally, the results show that greater operational efficiency was achieved by increasing excavator productivity by approximately 15.6%.
      Acceso abierto
    • Optimized model for pre-cut blasting in mining operations in underground mining in Peru

      Pomasoncco, Alexander; Trujillo, Claudio; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      In the mining industry of Peru, as a consequence of large scale mineral extraction and a dynamic process of ore dressing, the different activities of the operation are neglected. This neglect, in some cases, generates collateral damages that affect the structures, generate extra costs, and result in constant accidents due to rock-fall and delays in the activities of the mining cycle and the ones following it, which seriously harms the Mining Unit and directly affects the workers. In addition, this is directly related to the progress of the daily work and, in turn, it is related to the design of the mine mesh that is prepared to extract the largest possible mineral amounts per shift. This means that, by modifying the design of the mine mesh, the blasting method, and the type of explosive used, the current scenario and the results could be modified. In this respect, a research was conducted, exclusively based on simulations using the JK Simblast software, applying the pre-splitting blast method in the underground mine of the Minera Aurífera Retamas SA company, resulting in a reduction of over break in more than 60% as compared to the mesh used initially. This has an impact on the level of support to be used, and therefore, on the maintenance costs, which were reduced by 18%. Therefore, this article presents the possibility of reducing maintenance costs in underground mining using pre-splitting blasting. Copyright 2019.
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    • Optimized pre-splitting model in controlled blasting to improve the speed of the slopes in the open pit mine in Perú

      Tamara, André; Arce, Bryan; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      Presplitting is a controlled-blasting technique with applications in open-pit mines. The main purpose of this technique is to prevent and control overbreaks caused by excessive vibrations due to blasting. This technique is especially effective in controlling overbreaks because it provides a separation surface between the main blasting pattern and the walls of the final slopes. The drilling mesh and loading conditions in the drill are designed in this study by considering the uncontrollable variables of the rock mass as important factors. The proposed model for the presplitting optimization process helps to optimize controlled-blasting designs. The main idea of the proposal is to develop a model that includes the most relevant processes, as well as the most suitable parameters for an efficient design. Copyright 2019.
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    • Optimized ventilation model to improve operations in polymetallic mines in peru

      Flores, Vladimir; Arauzo, Luis; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      Currently, deficient ventilation systems are a frequently observed problem in mining. Such deficient ventilation systems lead to the recirculation of stale air or air with toxic gases. This translates into an increase in the costs of ventilation and electrical consumption for the mining organizations as conventional and practical solutions simply include options such as buying a greater number of fans. Moreover, this problem also exposes the mine workers to an unsafe work environment with unfavorable conditions that could end in minor, incapacitating, or fatal accidents. Therefore, this research seeks to optimize ventilation systems by introducing the Ventsim software tool to develop efficient coverage, addressing, flow, circuit or network characterization, and air balancing in conjunction with avoiding the stagnation of toxic gases in underground work. The primary result of the proposed model’s application in this study was the reduction in ventilation costs related to electricity consumption.
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    • Predictive Model Influenced by External Factors to Reduce Uncertainty in the Budget Forecast of a Gold Mining Company

      Pillpe-Garcia, Cesar; Diaz-Huaina, Guillermo; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
      In this research we propose to apply the qualitative evaluation technique by points to the factors that influence the price of gold. In addition, we will simulate the context of 2015, a year in which the price of gold reached historical lows, and at the same time, a period in which the analyzed company was going through a period of crisis when seeing that its valuation was affected by the devaluation of its reserves and growth of debts with suppliers. The research was carried out for the forecast of the price of gold, the general budget of the company, the budget in the mine operations area and the budget of the plant operations area, but for reasons of space in the development of the paper we will only show the development with the price of gold and the area of operations in the process plant.
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    • Productivity analysis of LHD equipment using the multiple linear regression method in an underground mine in Peru

      Prudencio, Gerald; Pino, Diego; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
      The current study is based on a multiple linear regression analysis with an objective to formulate an equation related to the productivity analysis of LHD equipment using independent variables such as the effective utilization of the equipment. To identify the independent variables, main productive factors, such as the actual capacity of the buckets, the transport cycles in the cleaning process, and the performance by means of curves, were analyzed. Comparisons of a Peruvian underground mine case study exhibited that the battery-powered equipment denoted similar production efficiencies to that exhibited by its diesel counterparts; however, the three-tier approach observed that the battery-powered equipment could achieve production efficiencies that are up to 13.8% more as compared to that achieved using its diesel counterparts because of increased effective utilization that can be attributed to long MTBF. The results of this study exhibit that LHDs under battery-powered storage are feasible for underground mining not only because of the fact that they do not emit any polluting gases, which helps to mitigate pollution, but also because of their good production performance that can be considered to be an important pillar in deep mining. Copyright 2019.
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    • Reuse method for deposits of polymetallic tailings in a state of abandonment through the application of mineral flotation

      Anchiraico, Anthony; Bazo, José; Aramburú, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      In the mining industry, due to the extraction and processing of ore, a significant amount of tailings are produced which are discharged into deposits. In some cases, these are in contact with effluents and generate acid waters that pollute the environment and affect the health of the inhabitants. Additionally, these tailings within their composition contain valuable metals that can be reused through a process of mineral flotation. As a part of this research, a study based exclusively on laboratory tests was performed on the tailings deposit located in the Recuay–Peru district, where the presence of concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ag at 48.36% was obtained, 23% and 250 g/TM. Thus, this study aims to take advantage of polymetallic tailings deposits that are in an abandonment state by extracting valuable ore through the flotation process based on their chemical composition and mineralogical characterization.
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    • SCAT Model Based on Bayesian Networks for Lost-Time Accident Prevention and Rate Reduction in Peruvian Mining Operations

      Ziegler-Barranco, Ana; Mera-Barco, Luis; Aramburu-Rojas, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Dominguez, Francisco (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      Several factors affect the activities of the mining industry. For example, accident rates are critical because they affect company ratings in the stock market (Standard & Poors). Considering that the corporate image is directly related to its stakeholders, this study conducts an accident analysis using quantitative and qualitative methods. In this way, the contingency rate is controlled, mitigated, and prevented while serving the needs) of the stakeholders. The Bayesian network method contributes to decision-making through a set of variables and the dependency relationships between them, establishing an earlier probability of unknown variables. Bayesian models have different applications, such as diagnosis, classification, and decision, and establish relationships among variables and cause–effect links. This study uses Bayesian inference to identify the various patterns that influence operator accident rates at a contractor mining company, and therefore, study and assess the possible differences in its future operations.
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    • Six sigma model optimized for reducing downtime in an open-pit mine

      Gargate, Josemaria; Fung, Sian A.; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
      Currently, in open-pit mining operations, the highest cost among all processes is that of transporting trucks, whether in fuel, roads, tires, or spare parts, among other factors. Therefore, this article proposes the use of the Six Sigma methodology of continuous improvement as a quality management tool to reduce the downtime of the truck fleet to obtain better productivity in operations. The results of the investigation in the case study allowed to visualize that with the election of an optimal fleet appropriate for the conditions given in a mining project, the values of productivity and efficiency improve considerably. This is reflected in a better use of the machinery and in the reduction of unproductive times.
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