Recent Submissions

  • Rock mass classification method applying neural networks to minimize geomechanical characterization in underground Peruvian mines

    Brousset, Julyans; Pehovaz, Humberto; Quispe, Grimaldo; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Elsevier Ltd, 2023-09-01)
    This research aims to enhance the classification of the rock mass in underground mining, a common problem due to geological alterations that do not fit existing methods. Artificial neural networks are proposed as a solution, which use input/output data to learn and solve problems. The process involves gathering data on rock properties and training the neural networks to identify and classify various types of rock. Once trained, the neural networks can classify the rock mass in real-time during mine design and progression, adapting to different rock types with a low margin of error of 0.279% in determining the RMR index. This research overcomes the limitations of current classification methods, providing a more accurate and reliable solution for the classification of the rock mass in underground mining. In summary, artificial neural networks are utilized to improve the classification of rock mass in underground mining by adapting to geological changes and providing precise classification results.
    Acceso abierto
  • Pre-split blasting design to reduce costs and improve safety in underground mining

    Pomasoncco-Najarro, Alexander; Trujillo-Valerio, Claudio; Arauzo-Gallardo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos; Quispe, Grimaldo; Dominguez, Francisco (Elsevier Ltd, 2022-11-01)
    To control the overbreaking of an underground mining development gallery, the controlled blasting technique was proposed and as a result it was possible to reduce costs and improve the physical stability of the periphery of the opening, achieving greater safety for personnel and equipment. With the support of the geomechanical studies, the rock quality of the advancing front was determined, serving for the design of the drilling mesh and the choice and distribution of the explosives in the respective drills. This study demonstrates that it is possible to make progress in efficient mining preparation and development work, achieving minimal damage to the roof and walls of the mining work. Performing the simulation with the software determines a difference between conventional blasting with the design of the pre-cut technique, optimizing the parameters of the perforation mesh, selection of the explosive charge, the order of detonation. As a result, the study found a 60%–70% reduction in excess excavation, showing a better finish of the tunnel contour, yielding a 16% reduction in support costs.
    Acceso abierto
  • Predictive Model Influenced by External Factors to Reduce Uncertainty in the Budget Forecast of a Gold Mining Company

    Pillpe-Garcia, Cesar; Diaz-Huaina, Guillermo; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    In this research we propose to apply the qualitative evaluation technique by points to the factors that influence the price of gold. In addition, we will simulate the context of 2015, a year in which the price of gold reached historical lows, and at the same time, a period in which the analyzed company was going through a period of crisis when seeing that its valuation was affected by the devaluation of its reserves and growth of debts with suppliers. The research was carried out for the forecast of the price of gold, the general budget of the company, the budget in the mine operations area and the budget of the plant operations area, but for reasons of space in the development of the paper we will only show the development with the price of gold and the area of operations in the process plant.
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  • Geostatistical Method Used in Quarry-Type Exploitation Based on Gaussian Simulation to Reduce the Uncertainty of Hydrogeological Values in Surface Mining in Peru

    Serrano-Rojas, Rafael; Muñoz-Orosco, Diego; Diaz-Huaina, Guillermo; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    In this article the application of a geostatistical method based on Gaussian simulation is studied to reduce the uncertainty of atypical data related to the hydrogeological data of a quarry, for which the data of the hydrogeological model of the impact study was considered as a basis environment of a quarry. This research proposes the application of Gaussian Simulation to identify the data that generate uncertainties in the elaboration of the hydrogeological model; such as the identification of underground aquifer levels. This technique first develops the verification of the hydrogeological data, then identifies the outliers, which will allow a better application of the Gaussian Simulation technique with the Gaussian algorithm to obtain a more reliable hydrogeological model. Finally, it is geostatistically demonstrated that the application of the Gaussian simulation reduced the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model by 20%.
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  • Calculation of the Probability of Landslides Caused by Precipitation Applying the Janbu and MonteCarlo Method in Skarn-Type Mineral Deposits

    Castañeda, Carlos; Dibucho, Koseth; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    In this research, we will focus on analyzing the influence of the rains on mining companies in the district of San Marcos in the department of Ancash, Peru. To do in this investigation, a stability analysis of slopes with limit equilibrium methods, being the Janbú the one selected for said study. On the other hand, it calculated the probability of failure of the slopes using methods probabilistic such as Monte Carlo. Such studies mentioned were applied with the help of the Slide software.
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  • Compressive Stress Analysis in an Underground Mining Geomechanical Model with Long Holes for Stability in Advance Work through Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Torres-Candia, Miguel; Alayo-Leon, Edgar; Aramburu-Rojas, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    Currently, the way of working was affected by the pandemic we are experiencing and mining is not exempt from this. For this reason, preventive action plans had to be implemented to restart operations in all areas involved in the mining sector. In the execution of these operations it is necessary to review the operating protocols and see if they are effective for the continuity of the mine as well as the stability at the time of exploitation. Mining is carried out under different methods depending on various geomechanical, geotechnical and design factors, where balance is sought. The different mining methods include cutting and descending fill with long underground drills. For this reason, the current geomechanical design should be reviewed in order to identify the stress values that indicate better stability and that have as a consequence the reduction of events caused by rock fall.
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  • Productivity analysis of LHD equipment using the multiple linear regression method in an underground mine in Peru

    Prudencio, Gerald; Pino, Diego; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
    The current study is based on a multiple linear regression analysis with an objective to formulate an equation related to the productivity analysis of LHD equipment using independent variables such as the effective utilization of the equipment. To identify the independent variables, main productive factors, such as the actual capacity of the buckets, the transport cycles in the cleaning process, and the performance by means of curves, were analyzed. Comparisons of a Peruvian underground mine case study exhibited that the battery-powered equipment denoted similar production efficiencies to that exhibited by its diesel counterparts; however, the three-tier approach observed that the battery-powered equipment could achieve production efficiencies that are up to 13.8% more as compared to that achieved using its diesel counterparts because of increased effective utilization that can be attributed to long MTBF. The results of this study exhibit that LHDs under battery-powered storage are feasible for underground mining not only because of the fact that they do not emit any polluting gases, which helps to mitigate pollution, but also because of their good production performance that can be considered to be an important pillar in deep mining. Copyright 2019.
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  • Optimized pre-splitting model in controlled blasting to improve the speed of the slopes in the open pit mine in Perú

    Tamara, André; Arce, Bryan; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
    Presplitting is a controlled-blasting technique with applications in open-pit mines. The main purpose of this technique is to prevent and control overbreaks caused by excessive vibrations due to blasting. This technique is especially effective in controlling overbreaks because it provides a separation surface between the main blasting pattern and the walls of the final slopes. The drilling mesh and loading conditions in the drill are designed in this study by considering the uncontrollable variables of the rock mass as important factors. The proposed model for the presplitting optimization process helps to optimize controlled-blasting designs. The main idea of the proposal is to develop a model that includes the most relevant processes, as well as the most suitable parameters for an efficient design. Copyright 2019.
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  • Model for monitoring socioenvironmental conflicts in relation to the emission of particulate matter in the prehauling phase of a surface mine in Peru

    Filomeno, Marcio; Heracles, Josemaria; Aramburu, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01)
    This research will focus on proposing a model based on surveys conducted among people of the affected area. The questions were classified by indicators and variables selected to generate solutions to reduce social conflicts, which arise due to the emission of the particulate matter generated in the area before hauling tasks. Particulate matter is produced by hydraulic shovels, which load mineralized material and discharge it to a dump truck in mining operations. This survey was conducted among people who are specifically located in the Huari region. A study of the Social Conflict Monitoring Model (MMCS) tool was executed. It is used for recording, monitoring, and controlling this type of social conflicts, so that mining operations will not be affected in the short or long term. In addition, this model will help in discovering the opinions and/or comments when they are informed on a new method, which decreases generated particulate matter.
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  • Adaptation of the raise borer elaboration method to a short ore pass by evaluating its efficiency

    Huaynate, Andree; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
    The recent climate change has forced people to live in extreme conditions, either excessive heat or cold, implying that they must adapt to survive in these situations. However, there are people who, because of their geographical condition and lack of resources, lack the means and tools to combat these climate changes. The context of this study is provided in a rural town located in the Arequipa region (Peru), whose inhabitants have to fight against frosts of up to −20 °C in an area without electricity. A viable solution to this problem is found through the design and implementation of a heating system using geothermal and photovoltaic energy, which are resources found in the area, according to a report of the Ministry of Energy and Mines. This study analyzes and researches the geographical and meteorological conditions of the region, for validating, through theory and simulations, whether the proposed system can supply the thermal energy required to maintain the indoor temperature at a minimum of 15 °C under extreme conditions. The system is designed after analyzing the best technological options and techniques currently available in the context studied for its ultimate financing and establishing guidelines and indicators for monitoring results.
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  • Model for dilution control applying empirical methods in narrow vein mine deposits in Peru

    Salgado-Medina, Luis; Núñez-Ramírez, Diego; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01)
    Empirical methods play an important role in the field of geomechanics due to the recognized complexity of the nature of rock mass. This study aims to analyze the applicability of empirical design methods in vein-shaped hydrothermal mining deposits (narrow vein) using Bieniawski and Barton classification systems, Mathews stability graphs, Potvin and Mawdesley geomechanics classification systems, and mining pit dilution based on the equivalent linear overbreak/slough (ELOS). In most cases, these methods are applied without understanding the underlying assumptions and limits of the database in relation to the inherent hidden risks. Herein, the dilutions obtained using the empirical methods oscillate between 8% and 11% (according to the frontal dimension), which are inferior to the operative dilution of the mine at 15%. The proposed model can be used as a practical tool to predict and reduce dilution in narrow veins.
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  • Reuse method for deposits of polymetallic tailings in a state of abandonment through the application of mineral flotation

    Anchiraico, Anthony; Bazo, José; Aramburú, Vidal; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
    In the mining industry, due to the extraction and processing of ore, a significant amount of tailings are produced which are discharged into deposits. In some cases, these are in contact with effluents and generate acid waters that pollute the environment and affect the health of the inhabitants. Additionally, these tailings within their composition contain valuable metals that can be reused through a process of mineral flotation. As a part of this research, a study based exclusively on laboratory tests was performed on the tailings deposit located in the Recuay–Peru district, where the presence of concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ag at 48.36% was obtained, 23% and 250 g/TM. Thus, this study aims to take advantage of polymetallic tailings deposits that are in an abandonment state by extracting valuable ore through the flotation process based on their chemical composition and mineralogical characterization.
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  • Optimized ventilation model to improve operations in polymetallic mines in peru

    Flores, Vladimir; Arauzo, Luis; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
    Currently, deficient ventilation systems are a frequently observed problem in mining. Such deficient ventilation systems lead to the recirculation of stale air or air with toxic gases. This translates into an increase in the costs of ventilation and electrical consumption for the mining organizations as conventional and practical solutions simply include options such as buying a greater number of fans. Moreover, this problem also exposes the mine workers to an unsafe work environment with unfavorable conditions that could end in minor, incapacitating, or fatal accidents. Therefore, this research seeks to optimize ventilation systems by introducing the Ventsim software tool to develop efficient coverage, addressing, flow, circuit or network characterization, and air balancing in conjunction with avoiding the stagnation of toxic gases in underground work. The primary result of the proposed model’s application in this study was the reduction in ventilation costs related to electricity consumption.
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  • Optimized model for pre-cut blasting in mining operations in underground mining in Peru

    Pomasoncco, Alexander; Trujillo, Claudio; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
    In the mining industry of Peru, as a consequence of large scale mineral extraction and a dynamic process of ore dressing, the different activities of the operation are neglected. This neglect, in some cases, generates collateral damages that affect the structures, generate extra costs, and result in constant accidents due to rock-fall and delays in the activities of the mining cycle and the ones following it, which seriously harms the Mining Unit and directly affects the workers. In addition, this is directly related to the progress of the daily work and, in turn, it is related to the design of the mine mesh that is prepared to extract the largest possible mineral amounts per shift. This means that, by modifying the design of the mine mesh, the blasting method, and the type of explosive used, the current scenario and the results could be modified. In this respect, a research was conducted, exclusively based on simulations using the JK Simblast software, applying the pre-splitting blast method in the underground mine of the Minera Aurífera Retamas SA company, resulting in a reduction of over break in more than 60% as compared to the mesh used initially. This has an impact on the level of support to be used, and therefore, on the maintenance costs, which were reduced by 18%. Therefore, this article presents the possibility of reducing maintenance costs in underground mining using pre-splitting blasting. Copyright 2019.
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  • Model for Optimization of Drilling, Blasting and Fragmentation Processes in medium mining

    Caballero, Erick; Calixto, Rosa; Arauzo, Luis; Raymundo, Carlos (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2019-01-01)
    This study aims to propose a new alternative to optimize drilling and blasting processes from the mathematical and geological viewpoint using simulation software. The main objective is to design a systematic model of steps that can generate a simulation through JkSimBlast. This simulation must represent the best alternative for the design of drilling mesh and explosive selection to be implemented in the field. To achieve this goal, a seven-step process diagram was proposed, including geology, design aspects (burden and spacing across the areas of influence algorithm), analysis of physical parameters such as detonation rate, drill-mesh design, explosives selection and fragmentation analysis, simulation tests that could represent the field designs, and selection of the most optimal simulation. For the collection of parameters in the field, we have used MicroTrap Software and WipFrag, which have allowed the design of a mesh according to the needs of the rocky massif. The most optimal simulation was implemented at Caravelí Mining Company-Estrella Unit and had a positive impact on the optimization of drilling and blasting, as the costs of these processes were reduced by 14.6%. Specifically, the costs of explosives were reduced by 2.6% and the costs of drilling steels by 10.4%. The performance of the loading machine advance/shot increased by 13.2% and 15.6%, respectively. Copyright 2019.
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  • Six sigma-based optimization model in hauling cut and fill exploitation activities to reduce downtime in underground mines in Peru

    Rojas, Kevin; Aramburú, Vidal; Ramos, Edgar; Raymundo, Carlos; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer Verlag, 2019-06-06)
    In the mining industry, the mining cycle is a very important part in the operating stage of every mining unit. Through the exploitation method used, the mining cycle provides mineral ore, which subsequently undergoes various metallurgical processes and its commercialization and thereby generates profits to the mining company. Currently, within this cycle, the hauling and transportation stages are those that have a lower efficiency with respect to the drilling and blasting stages. Therefore, the sector is always seeking effective ways to optimize these processes, reduce downtime and increase productivity. Six Sigma is a technique that allows for the continuous process improvement. In this study, the factors that generate inefficiency in the hauling cycle are determined, and alternatives are implemented to solve the main problem and improve the operations cycle.
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  • Six sigma model optimized for reducing downtime in an open-pit mine

    Gargate, Josemaria; Fung, Sian A.; Jara, Juan; Raymundo, Carlos (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2019-01-01)
    Currently, in open-pit mining operations, the highest cost among all processes is that of transporting trucks, whether in fuel, roads, tires, or spare parts, among other factors. Therefore, this article proposes the use of the Six Sigma methodology of continuous improvement as a quality management tool to reduce the downtime of the truck fleet to obtain better productivity in operations. The results of the investigation in the case study allowed to visualize that with the election of an optimal fleet appropriate for the conditions given in a mining project, the values of productivity and efficiency improve considerably. This is reflected in a better use of the machinery and in the reduction of unproductive times.
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  • Mathematical Model of a Drilling Mesh to Reduce Dilution in the Sublevel Stoping Method in Peru’s Underground Mines

    Zelaya-Reyes, Yadira; Arauzo-Gallardo, Luis; Diaz-Huaina, Guillemo; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
    This research study focuses on creating a drill pattern for the Condestable mine, which will allow us to assess the percentage of dilution. For these purposes, we used the Pearse formula proposed in 1955, which allowed us to find the burden and later, the spacing that each drill hole should have in the pattern. Once we had collected all the numerical data, we used the JK SimBlast program to design the proposed drill pattern and analyze the damage zones, the tonnage acquired and the existing dilution. According the results obtained, the smaller the hole diameter, the less dilution will be generated when diversifying the wall and ceiling explosives.
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  • Method for the Interpretation of RMR Variability Using Gaussian Simulation to Reduce the Uncertainty in Estimations of Geomechanical Models of Underground Mines

    Rodriguez-Vilca, Juliet; Paucar-Vilcañaupa, Jose; Pehovaz-Alvarez, Humberto; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
    The application of conventional techniques, such as kriging, to model rock mass is limited because rock mass spatial variability and heterogeneity are not considered in such techniques. In this context, as an alternative solution, the application of the Gaussian simulation technique to simulate rock mass spatial heterogeneity based on the rock mass rating (RMR) classification is proposed. This research proposes a methodology that includes a variographic analysis of the RMR in different directions to determine its anisotropic behavior. In the case study of an underground deposit in Peru, the geomechanical record data compiled in the field were used. A total of 10 simulations were conducted, with approximately 6 million values for each simulation. These were calculated, verified, and an absolute mean error of only 3.82% was estimated. It is acceptable when compared with the value of 22.15% obtained with kriging.
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  • A Cyanide Tailings Management Method Using Pseudomonas Fluorescens to Improve Conventional Treatments for Progressive Closure at Small Gold Mines

    Barrezueta-Delgado, Erika; Blas-Trujillo, Naysha; Vasquez-Olivera, Yaneth; Raymundo, Carlos; Mamani-Macedo, Nestor; Moguerza, Javier M. (Springer, 2020-01-01)
    Based on the review of different research studies, we could assess that, due to their unique biological features, microbes, specifically bacteria, could be used to repair damaged soils with heavy metal and toxic compound contents. Furthermore, these microorganisms are metabolically capable to oxidize cyanide and its by-products to generate less-toxic compounds at the end of the process. This research proposal seeks to improve conventional mine closure designs, thus counteracting their negative short-term, medium-term, and long-term after-effects to the environment. The proposed technique as a solution, therefore, is microbial remediation, using pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria to oxidize this compound to non-toxic components. It will ensure operational continuity for the deposits and, in turn, the sustainability of the entire mining industry.
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