A Mechanical Development of a Dry Cell to Obtain HHO from Water Electrolysis(2021-01-01)This article proposes a mechanical development of a dry cell in order to obtain HHO through water electrolysis. Calculations and technical specifications of the materials used for implementation are supported by mathematical, physical and chemical formulas and theories (Faraday´s Law, electrolysis process and mechanical design). The importance of mechanical design is focused on achieving efficient use of the energy provided to the cell that allows the H2 and O2 molecules to be separated without overheating the cell, evaporating the water, loss of current due to the geometry of the electrodes (Foucault Current). Moreover, choosing materials for proper implementation and physical robustness is mandatory. In addition, the mechanical design is not justified in different articles. Nevertheless, the mechanical design of the cell and the efficiency in the production of HHO are related. Therefore, the mechanical design and the calculations were performed, as well as the construction of the dry cell to obtain HHO. The results of the implementation and production were placed and compared with what theoretically the dry cell should produce from the law of Faraday. Finally, the volumetric flow of HHO obtained was 2.70 L per minute. It means a production efficiency of 98.68%. It is higher than the majority of the dry cells.Acceso abierto
An Automated System for the Stage of Hydrolysis and Filtration in the Extraction of Pectin from the Cocoa Shell(2021-01-01)Pectin obtained from cocoa husks has recently been investigated because of its gelling and stabilizing properties that have great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, its production at the industrial level has not been studied or developed in Peru. A fundamental part of the extraction process is the stage of hydrolysis and filtering of the cocoa shell. Because of this, an automated system for acid-thermal hydrolysis and shell filtration is proposed. The control of both processes is of great importance because the quality and efficiency of the extracted pectin will depend on it. The tests will be carried out in a cylindrical taper with a 100 L capacity which is adapted to contain a 20 L cylindrical filter, both made of AISI 304 stainless steel. The filter has a motor to homogenize the temperature and pH of the mix. The pH of the process is 2 and the temperature is 90 ± 2 °C, since in these ranges the pectin is released more easily from the cocoa shell. The method consists of the structural design of the tank and the filter, and in the design of the pH regulator and the heating system. The yield of the extraction process was achieved by 10%.Acceso abierto
An Automatic Biodiesel Decanting System for the Optimization of Glycerin Separation Time by Applying Electric Field and Temperature(2021-01-01)During biodiesel production, crude biodiesel and glycerin are separated in resting tanks due to gravity and differences in density, glycerin accumulates at the base of the contender; such operation is called decantation. The decantation stage, within the production of biodiesel based on recycled oil, takes from 8 to 24 h to complete. Therefore, the development of an automatic biodiesel decanting system is presented in order to optimize the production time in the line of this bio-fuel. The process consists of applying an electric field through two electrodes at 9 kV and simultaneously applying temperature. The results of the implementation showed that the production time was reduced by up to 99% without affecting the quality of biodiesel, according to the parameters of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).Acceso abierto
Study of internal flow of a bipropellant swirl injector of a rocket engine(Asociacion Interuniversitaria de Investigacion en Pedagogia, 2018-06)The main objective of this research was to determine the differences among the components of burnout in professors from a private university in Lima according to socio-demographic variables. With this aim in mind, a comparative descriptive research design was used. Also, a specific sample quota was not applied. We collected a total population composed of 260 professors of humanities at said educational institution who teach the following courses: Language, Research, Ethics and Citizenship and Creativity Workshop. In addition, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory Adaptation and a socio-demographic record handout for university professors as measuring instruments. Finally, from the processing and statistical analysis of the data obtained, we found the following: there are significant differences in the levels of emotional exhaustion by sex and class schedule; also, personal fulfillment according to age, marital status, specialty, highest level of educational attainment and years of teaching experience, among other results. Some results of previous research were corroborated or refuted, especially in relation to the variables sex, age, marital status, level of education and class schedule. Also, from this research, it was identified that the place of undergraduate studies, specialty and years of teaching experience, aspects not studied in depth in the previous studies, could be variables associated with some components of burnout. Finally, in addition to the significant differences mentioned, it was concluded that there are average levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, distortion of the work environment, personal and professional fulfillment in the teachers who formed the study sample. © 2018 Asociacion Interuniversitaria de Investigacion en Pedagogia.