• Comparación in vitro del desgaste compensatorio de tres instrumentos de acceso (Gates Glidden, IntroFile FlexMaster® y SX ProTaper®) utilizados en endodoncia

      Vértiz Falla, Augusto Rensso; Vargas Mateos, Shiovan Yamileth (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 01/12/2014)
      Objetivo: El presente estudio in vitro tuvo como finalidad comparar el desgaste compensatorio de tres instrumentos de acceso con Gates Glidden, IntroFile FlexMaster® y SX ProTaper®, utilizados en tratamiento endodóntico. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó el desgaste compensatorio sobre una muestra de 30 molares superiores de plástico (VDW, Alemania) estandarizados divididos en tres grupos de 10. Los dientes fueron divididos e instrumentados con Gates Glidden, IntroFile FlexMaster® y SX ProTaper®, lo cual fue realizado por un solo operador capacitado. Para la medición de los conductos radiculares, se cortó transversalmente las coronas de las piezas dentales a nivel de UCA con un disco fino diamantado. Se evaluó las medidas correspondientes a 5 referencias anatómicas que fueron: remanente mesial del conducto mesio vestibular, vestibular del conducto mesio vestibular, mesial del conducto disto vestibular, vestibular del conducto distal y distancia entre la pared distal del conducto mesio vestibular con la pared mesial del conducto vestíbulo distal. Los resultados fueron analizados en micras (µm) a través de un estereomicrooscopio con software (Leica Microsystems 56D). Resultados: Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos experimentales. Las limas IntroFile FlexMaster® producen menor discrepancia de desgaste compensatorio. La principal discrepancia se encontró en el grupo 1 (Gates Glidden) a diferencia de los demás instrumentos. Conclusiones: Las limas IntroFile FlexMaster® presentan menor ángulo de corte por lo que realiza un desgaste compensatorio conservador en comparación con las fresas Gates Glidden que realizan un desgaste compensatorio más agresivo. Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare preflaring of three instruments of access with Gates Glidden, IntroFile FlexMaster® and SX ProTaper® used in endodontic treatment. Materials and methods: The preflaring was performed over 30 plastic upper molars (VDW, Germany) standardized which were divided into three groups of ten. Teeth were divided and implemented with Gates Glidden, IntroFile FlexMaster® and SX ProTaper®. This procedure was done by a single trained operator. For measuring the root canals, crowns of teeth were cut transversely to UCA level with a fine diamond disc. Measures corresponding to 5 anatomical references were evaluated: remaining mesial of mesiobuccal canal, vestibular of mesiobuccal canal, mesial of distobuccal canal, vestibular of distal canal and distance between wall of distal of mesiobuccal canal with wall of mesial of distalbuccal canal. The results were analyzed in microns (µm) through a stereomicroscope with a Leica Microsystems 56D software. Results: Statistically significant differences between experimental groups were found. Introfile limes produce minor discrepancy of compensatory attrition. The main discrepancy was found in group 1 (Gates Glidden) unlike the other instruments. Conclusions: The IntroFile FlexMaster® limes present lower cutting angle which produce a conservative preflaring in comparison to Gates Glidden strawberries which produce a more aggressive preflaring.
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    • Comparación in vitro del efecto del tipo de luz led de tercera generación (Valo® - Ultradent©) vs. Luz led de segunda generación (Elipar™ - 3M Espe™) en la resistencia de unión del cemento Relyx® U200 al cerómero SR Adoro® - Ivoclar Vivadent®

      Casas Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Cafferata Montoya, Paola Antonella; Araujo Herrera, Nicoll Antuanette; Behrens Peñaloza, Sebastian (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-30)
      Purpose: Make an in vitro comparison of the effect of using a second- and third-generation LED curing light on the bond strength of an indirect resin composite to dental enamel cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and methods: 44 SR ADORO® indirect resin composite blocks were cemented on 44 bovine incisors using two LED curing lights: ELIPAR™ - 3M ESPE™ (second-generation, 1150 mW/cm2) and VALO® - ULTRADENT© (third-generation - 1400 mW/cm2) and a self-adhesive resin cement (RELYX® U200). The dental curing units’ light intensities were previously measured with a radiometer (Monitex; DigiRate LM 100 - China). The samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=22): Group 1: polymerization was done using the VALO® - ULTRADENT© dental curing unit, group 2: polymerization was done using the ELIPAR™ - 3M ESPE™ dental curing unit. The indirect resin composite blocks were made in a 4mm x 6mm matrix. The cementation of the indirect composite blocks was done with slight vertical pressure on the center of the buccal surface of the tooth and removing the excess resin cement with a microbrush. The curing light was applied for 20 seconds on four sides of the sample. The shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (3382 INSTRON®-U.S.A). The results of each group were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Group 1 (VALO® - ULTRADENT©) resulted in an average bond strength of 5.84 MPa +-2.04, while group 2 (ELIPAR™ - 3M ESPE™) showed an average of 4.16 MPa +-1.25. Statistically significant differences were found (p= 0.0045). Conclusion: Third-generation LED curing lights generate a higher bond strength compared to second-generation curing lights when used to cement indirect resin composites with self-adhesive resin cements.
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    • Comparación in vitro del grado de adaptación de cofias coladas unitarias de cromo níquel antes y después de la aplicación de la cerámica

      Pagán Yábar, Luis; Riega Huatuco, Juan Carlos (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 11/08/2014)
      El propósito del estudio fue comparar in vitro la adaptación marginal de cofias coladas unitarias de cromo níquel antes y después de la aplicación de la cerámica. La investigación fue experimental in vitro. Treinta y dos premolares inferiores artificiales fueron divididos en dos grupos. Un grupo fue realizado por el Laboratorio Oral Lab S.C.R.L. y el otro por Servicios Médicos Quirúrgicos VADI S.A.C. Las cofias y la aplicación de cerámica fueron elaboradas siguiendo los estándares de cada laboratorio. La adaptación marginal fue medida por un Estereomicroscopio (Leica Microsystems LAS EZ versión 2.0.0, Suiza) en micras en cuatro zonas (mesial, distal, lingual y vestibular) antes y después de la aplicación de cerámica. La mejor adaptación marginal se obtuvo en el grupo 1A (cofia antes de la aplicación de cerámica) con un promedio de 54.97µm, mientras que un promedio de menor adaptación marginal fue la registrada en el grupo 1B (cofia posterior a la aplicación de cerámica) con una media de 69.08 µm. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar la adaptación antes y después de la aplicación de la cerámica (p = 0.569) ni al comparar ambos laboratorios (p = 0.851). La menor desadaptación marginal se encontró en el grupo 2B (cofia posterior a la aplicación de cerámica). Se concluyó que la aplicación de la cerámica mejoró la adaptación marginal, sin embargo se tiene que tener en cuenta distintos parámetros como por ejemplo la manufactura de cada laboratorio, el tiempo de cocción, etc. Hubo diferencia significativa en la adaptación marginal comparando los dos laboratorios.
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    • Comparación in vitro del grado de conversión de dos resinas bulk fill (tetric n-ceram® - ivoclar vivadent y sonicfill™ - kerr) y una resina nanoparticulada (Filtek ™ Z350 XT - 3M Espe) en diferentes profundidades

      Correa Medina, Alberth; Benites Zevallos, Carmen Matilde (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 22/02/2017)
      Objective: To compare in vitro the conversion degree of the Tetric N-Ceram®, SonicFill™ and control resin Filtek ™ Z350 XT. Materials and Methods: 90 plastic matrix of 4x5mm were confectioned and divided on 3 groups of 30 for each evaluated resin brand and subdivided in 10 samples for each evaluated depth (superficial, middle and bottom). The material was insert according each maker indications in an incremental 2mm or unique 4mm way and photopolymerized with a light font (LEDition – Ivoclar Vivadent) with 810 mw/cm2. The values were evaluated by moving the absorbance (A) results obtained in a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with an Attenuated Total Reflactance unit (ATR) to an equation that allowed obtaining the CD in percents (%). Results: There were statistically significant differences found between the values of conversion degree of the different resins brands that were evaluated. CD values on surface, middle and bottom of the samples for Tetric N-Ceram® resin were 96.76 + 0.69, 75.09 + 0.51 and 44.30 + 0.80; 96.76 + 0.69, for SonicFill™ were 96.53 + 0.59, 77.45 + 0.92 and 58.64 + 0.59; and for Filtek ™ Z350 XT were 88.69 + 0.78, 80.61 + 1.90 and 65.56 + 1.01 respectively. Conclusions: It was found that CD of Bulk Fill resins was decreasing as the depth increased caused by more material quantity needs a higher penetration of the LED light.
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    • Comparación in vitro del pH, contenido de azúcar y acidez titulable (ácido cítrico) de bebidas endulzadas consumidas por niños en etapa escolar

      Oliva Valencia, Milagros Teresa; Caballero García, Carmen Stefany; Tovar Zevallos, Olenka Ximena (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-12-04)
      Objetivo: Comparar in vitro el pH, contenido de azúcar, acidez titulable (ácido cítrico) de los grupos de bebidas endulzadas (jugos de fruta artificial, gaseosas, lácteos azucarados, bebidas deportivas y grupo control) consumidas por niños en etapa escolar. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una encuesta a 40 escolares de un colegio público de Chorrillos para recolectar información sobre las bebidas endulzadas que consumen usualmente. En base a los resultados, se seleccionaron 15 bebidas más una muestra control (agua destilada), distribuidas en 5 grupos. Se evaluaron las características químicas de pH, contenido de azúcar y acidez titulable (ácido cítrico) con el uso del pHmetro (Hanna® HI2221-01, USA), el refractómetro (Abba® HI96801) y método de titulación de la AOAC, respectivamente. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva univariada y bivariada inferencial por la prueba de Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: Al comparar los grupos, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para las variables de pH y contenido de azúcar, mas no para la acidez titulable (ácido cítrico). Asimismo, los resultados del presente estudio hallaron que las gaseosas presentan el pH más bajo (2.96), los lácteos azucarados el mayor contenido de azúcar (14.48) y los jugos de fruta junto a las bebidas deportivas la mayor cantidad de acidez titulable (ácido cítrico) (0.23). Conclusiones: Se identificó que todos los grupos evaluados, en combinación con otros factores, pueden desencadenar enfermedades como caries y erosión dental. Objective: To compare in vitro the pH, sugar content, titratable acidity (citric acid) of the groups of sweetened beverages (artificial fruit juices, soft drinks, sweetened dairy products, sports drinks and control group) consumed by children at school age. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among 40 schoolchildren in a public school in Chorrillos to collect information about the sweetened beverages they usually consume. Based on the results, 15 drinks plus a control group (distilled water) were selected, distributed in 5 groups. The chemical characteristics of pH, sugar content and titratable acidity (citric acid) were evaluated using the pHmeter (Hanna® HI2221-01, USA), refractometer (Abba® HI96801) and the AOAC titration method, respectively. The results were analyzed by univariate descriptive and bivariate inferential statistics by the Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Statistically significant differences were found when compared the pH and sugar content variables, but not for titratable acidity (citric acid) when comparing the beverages. Likewise, this study found that soft drinks have the lowest pH (2.96), sweetened dairy products have the highest content of sugar (14.48) and the group of sports drinks and fruit juices has the highest titratable acidity (citric acid) (0.23). Conclusion: In combination with other factors, all the groups of beverages tested can trigger diseases like dental caries or erosion.
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    • Correlación entre el patrón facial y esquelético de pacientes con deformidad dentofacial clase II

      Ghersi Miranda, Hugo Dante; Huanca Gonzales, Jorge Caleb (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-03)
      One of the important means to make an adequate diagnosis and treatment plan in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery is the evaluation of the facial and skeletal pattern. Objective: The main purpose of this paper is to correlate both patterns using the Steiner analysis for hard tissue and Burstone and Legan for soft tissue on cephalometric radiographs of patients with Class II dentofacial deformity who attended the Institute of Maxillofacial Diagnostics in the year 2015. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 92 digital cephalometric radiographs (46 male and 46 female) between 18 and 45 years of age, analyzed with Planmeca Romexis® 4.0 software. Results: . The results indicated that in the male sex with a Class II skeletal pattern was 67.39%, while in the female sex with the same skeletal pattern was 39.13%. Conclusions: Based on the aforementioned data, it can be determined that sex influences the diagnosis and treatment plan.
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    • Determinación de la contaminación bacteriana por aerosoles según localización y tiempo en los ambientes de la clínica docente de la UPC

      Yovera, Ana July; Rojas Infante, Olenka (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-02-08)
      Objective: Determine the bacterial microorganisms present in sprays originated by dental handpieces according to it´s location and time spent on Clinica Docente de la UPC´s environment. Materials and methods: A total of 90 blood agar plates were used in three groups of 30 plates each. The first group consisted of 30 control plates that were exposed before the opening of the clinical shift and without contact with patients. The second group also consisted of 30 plaques that were exposed to the aerosols for fifteen minutes. Two plates were used for each dental unit, located in two different sites. One plaque was placed in the lavatory and the other on the patient's breast. The third group of plaques were exposed under the same protocol, but for 120 minutes. Subsequently, counts of Colony Forming Units (UFC), Gram staining and identification tests were performed, with the objective of identifying the genus of microorganisms in the oral cavity. Results: Most bacteria found are Gram positive belonging to Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp. Conclusions: There is more bacterial contamination near a rotating instrument and a longer time of its use.
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    • Determinación del nivel de riesgo y su relación como guía para un manejo clínico según el índice bewe en los estudiantes de 12 a 16 años de una escuela pública de chorrillos

      Casas Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Gallo Oropeza, Angie Rosse (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-01)
      Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el nivel de riesgo y su relación con el manejo clínico proporcionado por el índice BEWE en los estudiantes de 12 a 16 años de una escuela pública de Chorrillos. Metodología: Se evaluaron 382 fichas obtenidas del estudio “Prevalencia de erosión dental en estudiantes de 12 a 16 años utilizando Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) en una institución educativa del distrito de Chorrillos”. Se determinó el tamaño de muestra utilizando la fórmula de estimación de una proporción, tomando un nivel de confianza de 95%, precisión de 5% y una proporción esperada de 12.04%. Para la evaluación del índice BEWE, se registró la superficie más afectada de cada sextante según la codificación de este índice- 4 niveles (0, 1, 2,3) y se obtuvo el score acumulativo de los sextantes para determinar el nivel de riesgo y guía de tratamiento. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva y se aplicó la prueba efectiva de Chi2 para relacionar el nivel de riesgo con las variables género y edad (α=0,05). Resultados: El score acumulativo más prevalente fue el score 2 tanto en género femenino y masculino con 5.35% (10) y 6.15% (12) estudiantes, respectivamente. El nivel de riesgo más prevalente fue "No presenta riesgo" en género masculino con 97.44% (190) y en femenino con 95.72% (179). Según la edad, el score más prevalente fue el score 2 para la edad de 16 con 7.89% (6) y para la edad de 14 con 6.41% (5). En cuanto al nivel de riesgo, el rango más prevalente fue el "No presenta riesgo" en la edad de 12 con 97.59% (81) y para la edad de 14 con 98.72% (77) seguido del riesgo "bajo" con 6.58% (5) para la edad de 16 y con 3.80%(3) para la edad de 13 años. Conclusiones: El score acumulativo con mayor prevalencia fue el score 2 tanto para las variables de género y edad. El nivel de riesgo más prevalente fue el nivel de "no presenta riesgo".
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    • Determinación del pico máximo de crecimiento puberal mandibular mediante la maduración ósea cérvico vertebral y la edad cronológica en pacientes adolescentes que acuden a la Clínica Dental Docente UPC : marzo 2011 - 2013

      Hidalgo Sifuentes, Caridad Virginia; Avila Villalobos, Marco Antonio (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-12-12)
      Objetivo: Determinar el pico máximo de crecimiento mandibular puberal en una población peruana a través de la edad cronológica y la maduración de las vértebras cervicales en pacientes de entre 8 a 16 años de edad, que recibieron tratamiento en la Clínica Dental Docente Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), entre 2011 - 2013. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue de tipo observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo donde se trabajó con 137 radiografías digitales cefalométricas de pacientes adolescentes entre 8 a 16 años de edad, obtenidas de la base de datos SMILE de la clínica dental docente UPC. Dichas radiografías fueron evaluadas por el método de maduración cérvico vertebral (MCV) propuesto por Tiziano Baccetti (2005) donde se observa la morfología de la segunda (C2), tercera (C3) y cuarta (C4) vértebra cervical, clasificándolas en 6 estadíos de maduración (T1-T6) de acuerdo a las características morfológicas de cada una. Las radiografías digitales fueron analizadas por 2 examinadores calibrados (KAPPA = 0.7). Resultados: Se realizó el análisis estadístico (Kruskall Wallis, p<0.05) para evaluar la relacione entre la edad cronológica con el estadío de maduración cérvico vertebral 3-4, con la finalidad de determinar el pico máximo de crecimiento mandibular puberal. En las mujeres el pico máximo de crecimiento ocurrió a los 10.48 años de edad y en los hombres ocurrió a los 11.21 años de edad. Conclusiones: El pico máximo de crecimiento mandibular puberal se produce primero en mujeres (10.48) antes que los hombres (11.21), existiendo una diferencia aproximada de un año entre ambos sexos.
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    • Determinación del pico máximo de crecimiento puberal mandibular mediante la maduración ósea cérvico vertebral y la edad cronológica en pacientes adolescentes que acuden a la clínica dental docente UPC marzo 2011 - 2013

      Hidalgo Sifuentes, Caridad Virginia (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-01-01)
      Objective: The aim of this study was to determinate the peak of mandibular growth by the chronological age and the cervical vertebrae maturation in patients between 8-16 years of age, who received treatment in the clinic of the School of dentistry UPC (Peruvian University of Applied Science), between March 2011 and 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective and used 137 cephalometric digital radiographs obtained from the data base program: SMILE® used in the Dental Clinic of UPC. These digital radiographs were of patients between 8-16 years, who attended the Dental Clinic for dental treatment, and were evaluated with the Method of Vertebral Cervical Maturation proposed by T. Baccetti in 2005. This method analysis the morphological characteristics of the bodies of the second, third and fourth cervical vertebra to determine the peak in mandibular growth. This method classifies six maturational stages, T1-T6. The digital cephalograms were analyzed by two calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.7). Results: Statistical analysis (Kruskal Wallis, p < 0.05) was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the chronological age and the appearance of the cervical vertebral maturation stage 3 and 4 to determining the peak of pubertal mandibular growth. In girls, the peak of mandibular growth occurred at the age 10.48 and in boys this occurred at the age of 11.21 Conclusions: The peak of pubertal mandibular growth occurred earlier in girls (10.48 years) than in boys (11.21years), having a difference of approximately one year between the two sexes.
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    • Efectividad del Alcohol Isopropílico, Hipoclorito de Sodio, Ácido Peracético y Clorexhidina en la desinfección de conos de gutapercha expuestos a Enterococcus faecalis ATCC (29212)

      Gamarra Luna, Karina; Valle Mendoza, Juana del; Challco Achaya, Maritza (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 28/02/2017)
      Effectiveness of Isopropyl Alcohol, Sodium Hypochlorite, Peracetic Acid and Chlorhexidine in the disinfection of gutta-percha cones exposed to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC (29212). Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of 70% Isopropyl Alcohol, 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 1% Peracetic Acid and 2% Chlorhexidine in the disinfection of guttapercha cones exposed to Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Methodology: 144 gutta percha cones were used. The microorganism used was Enterococcus faecalis. The chemical compounds were 70 ° Isopropyl Alcohol, 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 1% Peracetic Acid and 2% Chlorhexidine. The immersion period for each chemical was 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute and 5 minutes. Gutta percha cones were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and then immersed in each chemical. Each cone was then placed into a sterile tube containing Brain Heart Infusion broth and incubated at 37 ° C for 48 hours. Subsequently, the bacterial viability of Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated. Results: In this study, 1% Peracetic Acid and 2% Chlorhexidine showed the best antibacterial efficacy values throughout all exposure times. In contrast, 5% Sodium Hypochlorite presented it beginning the minute, while the 70 ° Isopropyl Alcohol just after 5 minutes of exposure revealed an antibacterial activity. Conclusions: 1% Peracetic Acid and 2% Chlorhexydin were the most effective along the different exposure times in the disinfection of guttapercha cones, since the viability of Enterococcus faecalis decreased by approximately 90%.
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    • Efecto antibacteriano y citotóxico de dos extractos metanólicos a base de Moringa oleifera (moringa) y Azadirachta indica (neem) sobre cepas de Enterococcus faecalis

      Gonzáles Soto, Néstor; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Arévalo Híjar, Olga Lucía (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 22/02/2017)
      Objective: To evaluate in vitro the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of two methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera on strains of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Methods: The methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera were prepared in vitro. The antibacterial effect of the extracts against strains of Enterococcus faecalis were evaluated by agar diffusion technique (gel perforation). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution method and cytotoxicity using the MDCK cell line. Results: The methanolic extract that obtained the highest antibacterial effect in 24 and 48 hours against Enterococcus faecalis was Moringa oleifera, obtaining a halo of 35.5 ± 1.05 and 44.83 ± 0.98, respectively. The MIC for both extracts was 75 μg / ml. The bactericidal effect for Azadirachta indica extract was 25 μg / ml and for Moringa oleifera extract it was 75 μg / ml. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera have an antibacterial effect against strains of Enterococcus faecalis at 24 and 48 hours. Neither extract was toxic to cell lines at low concentrations.
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    • Efecto in vitro de las bebidas carbonatadas en la degradación de la fuerza tensional residual de las cadenas elastoméricas de ortodoncia

      Córdova Berrocal, Andrés; Lengua Calero, Andrea Alexandra (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 22/02/2017)
      Objective: To compare the in vitro force decay of orthodontic elastomeric chains exposed to carbonated beverages. Materials and Methods: 224 elastomeric chains (GAC International®) were used, being distributed into 16 groups: one for the initial time and the other 15 were divided according to the time period (initial, 1 hour, 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days) and the test solutions used (artificial saliva, Inca Kola® and Coca Cola®). The elastomeric chains were placed in acrylic containers so that they could stretch 25 mm. Two three-minute daily exposures to carbonated beverages were made, samples were placed in artificial saliva and then they were taken to the incubator until the next exposure. Control group kept immersed in artificial saliva. The force decay was measured through universal testing machine Instron® in the aforementioned six periods of time. Inferencial estatistics tests were applied: ANOVA one-way, Kruskal-Wallis test, Tukey’s post-hoc test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the five periods of time when the force decay according to the time. However, significant differences (p<0.001) were found when comparing the force decay according to the group of study. Conclusions: Under in vitro conditions, the carbonated beverages did not cause a higher loss of force decay the elastomeric chains compared to the control group.
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    • Estimación de la edad basada en el volumen de la cámara pulpar de primeras molares superiores mediante tomografías computarizadas en una muestra de adultos en Lima

      Agurto Huerta, Andrés; MOLINA SUSANO, EDSON BRANDON (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-11-15)
      Objetivo: Estimar la edad basada en el volumen de la cámara pulpar de primeras molares superiores permanentes mediante tomografías computarizadas de haz cónico (CBCT) obtenidas en un centro radiológico de Lima, 2016. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó a 300 primeras molares superiores permanentes sanas y vistas en CBCT para establecer un modelo matemático de 99 mujeres y 95 pacientes varones entre 11 y 70 años. Todas las imágenes CBCT se adquirieron por el equipo PROMAX 3D de la Empresa Planmeca® y se reconstruyeron con un tamaño vóxel de 0,16 mm. Posteriormente, las imágenes se exportaron como conjuntos de datos DICOM y se importaron en una imagen 3D de segmentación automática y software de conteo de vóxeles ROMEXIS 3.4.0.R para el cálculo de los volúmenes de la cámara pulpar. Un análisis de regresión lineal se llevó a cabo con la edad como variable dependiente y el volumen de la cámara pulpar como variable independiente para establecer un modelo matemático. Se consideró a una persona como cluster. Inicialmente, evaluamos la correlación (Coeficiente de Pearson) entre la edad real y el volumen de la cámara pulpar. Para identificar la exactitud del modelo matemático se evaluó el error estándar para calcular el intervalo de confianza al 95% de los estimados. Además, se comparó los coeficientes de determinación entre la muestra total con ambos sexos. Resultados: La correlación entre la edad cronológica y el volumen de la cámara pulpar fue de –0.83. El modelo matemático de estimación para toda la muestra fue: EDAD=-1.197444*(volumen de la cámara pulpar)+61.33765. Las regresiones fueron estadísticamente significativas (p<0,001). El coeficiente de determinación (R2) para la muestra total fue de 0.695. Sin embargo, al estratificar por sexo fue más alto (0.733) en el sexo femenino. El modelo mostró una precisión de ± 4.94 años en la edad estimada. Conclusión: El volumen de la cámara pulpar explica el 70% de la variabilidad de la edad, por lo tanto podría ser un indicador útil para la estimación de la edad humana con una exactitud razonable.
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    • Estudio comparativo del índice de placa posterior a la aplicación de dos materiales educativos en diferentes intervalos de tiempo

      Berastain Arenas, Juan Francisco; Maccha, Lessly; Montenegro Guzman, Heydi Margarita (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-11-09)
      Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the plaque index after the application of two educational materials in different time intervals. Materials and Methods: 100 students aged 10 to 12 years old were evaluated. The sample was divided into four groups, received educational interventions on oral health in different periods of time (every 15 or 30 days) and educational material (physical or multimedia) for three months. Subsequently, the index of the dental plate was evaluated according to O'Leary plaque index. Results: The analysis showed statistically significant differences in the four groups when evaluating the plaque index after performing the educational interventions (p <0.01). In the last control, plaque values of 20.2 and 19.4 were found for groups educated every 15 days with physical and multimedia material. In the groups with interventions every 30 days with physical and multimedia material, values of 15.3 and 15.2 were found, respectively, with no significant difference between the latter results. Conclusion: Better results were obtained in the educated groups every 30 days, regardless of the educational material applied. Educational interventions could help improve the oral health of schoolchildren in this population.
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    • Estudio de la anatomía de las raíces y conductos radiculares en segundas molares permanentes mandibulares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico.

      Agurto Huerta, Andrés; Granda Morón, Germán Augusto (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2016-12-01)
      Objective: Determine the anatomy of roots and root canals in mandibular second permanent molars by cone beam computed tomography Materials and Methods: 400 mandibular second permanent molars views in CT of patients treated at the Instituto de Diagnóstico Maxilofacial (IDM) in a period January - June 2015. The anatomy of the pieces was analyzed in the axial and sagittal planes, which determined the number of roots and root canals, canals type according to the classification of Vertucci in the mesial and distal root, the presence of C-shaped canals and type of C-shaped canals according to the classification of Melton. Results: SMMP was found with two roots 287 (71.75%). On the other hand, three Canals was observed in 282 (70.50%) teeth. It was also noted that for the type of canals in the mesial root of Type II showed 66 (16.50%) and Type III showed 66 (16.50%). Also, in distal root was found Type I 357 (89.25%). In addition to the presence of C-shaped root canals system was observed in 113 (28.25%) pieces and in 287 (71.75%) was absent. Finally, for the type of C-shaped canals the most predominant type was "c3" 61 (15.25%). Conclusion: We conclude that the SMMP have two roots with three root canals and canals settings in the mesial root is Type II and III, while the distal root is the type I. There is also a high prevalence of ducts C-shaped, being the most prevalent type "c3".
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    • Evaluacion in vitro de la rugosidad superficial de la resina compuesta Filtek Z350 XT utilizando tres sistemas de pulido: Jiffy® (Ultradent), Optimize® (TDV) y Sof-Lex Spiral™ (3M ESPE)

      Hermoza Novoa, Mónica; Bautista Loayza, Lineth Angélica (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2016-12-14)
      Aim: To evaluate in vitro the surface roughness of a composite resin submitted to different polishing systems. Materials and Methods: Twenty four specimens were prepared (15 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm) with resin composite Filtek Z350 XT (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA)). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and randomly divided into three groups of 8. The surface roughness of the samples was determined with a mechanical roughness tester (TRI 00 Surface Roughness Tester). Then, each group was subjected to finishing and polishing procedures: Group I: Jiffy® (Ultradent); Group II: Optimize® (TDV); Group III: Sof-Lex spiral ™ (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The polishing time was 30 seconds for each instrument. Then, it was made the final reading. The data were analyzed by t-Student test and ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: There were statistically significant differences found between polishing systems. Group I showed a roughness of 0.118μm ± 0.066; Group II: 0.278 ± 0.088 µm; and group III: 0.216 μm ± 0.030. Conclusion: The use of Jiffy® polishing system (Ultradent) provides a better surface smoothness of a composite relative to other polishing systems resin.
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    • Evaluación clínica de 6 meses de restauraciones clase i de resina compuesta en la clínica docente UPC

      Hermoza Novoa, Mónica; Hermoza Novoa, Mónica; Arnáez Talavera, Daniela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 11/03/2016)
      Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance Class I composites performed by undergraduate students at the Teaching Clinic UPC after 6 months. Material and Methods: A total of 47 class I restorations were clinically evaluated 6 months after placement, using USPHS criteria, describing color match, marginal adaptation, roughness, marginal staining, anatomy and secondary caries. Alpha, Bravo and Charlie where the coding, being excellent restorations, acceptable and unacceptable condition respectively. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, all restorations received the same initial scores with respect to each evaluation criterion. Color match, marginal adaptation, roughness, marginal staining and secondary caries scored Alfa at 100% (n = 47), and anatomical shape scored Alfa at 87.23 % (n = 41) and Bravo at 12.77 % (n = 6). Conclusion: All composites were clinically functional after 6 month and received the same initial scores with respect to each evaluation criterion.
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    • Evaluación de la ansiedad dental aplicando 3 escalas en niños que asisten por primera vez a un centro universitario de salud

      Ramírez Torres, María Cecilia; Gutierrez Almenara, Mirella Alexandra; Walde Díaz, Xiomi Fiorella (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-12-12)
      The first dental visit of pediatric patients could generate reactions and positive or negative behavior in future appointments, this product of the anxiety that the child may present to new events in his life. For this reason, it’s important that the dentist can count on instruments that allow assessing the level of anxiety and then deciding which behavior management technique is appropriate for the job. Objective: To evaluate the levels of dental anxiety using 3 scales in children from 5 to 10 years old who attend a University Health Center for the first time. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 203 children between the ages of 5 and 10 who visited the University Health Center of the UPC for the first time during the period July-December 2016. Results: In the evaluation with the RMS-Pictorial scale. The age range 9-10 years, the male gender obtained the highest average (±1.97). In the Venham scale, in the age range 5-6 years, the female gender obtained the highest average (±0.063) a difference than in the male sex (±0.00). In the FIS scale, in the 9-10 age range, the female gender obtained the highest average (±2), as did the male gender, in the age range 7-8 years, obtained (±2). The RMS-Pictorial scale was the highest acceptance rate (54.67%), followed by the FIS scale (24.63%) and, finally, the Venham scale (20.68%). Conclusion: It is concluded that the RMS-Pictorial, Venham and FIS scales allowed assessing dental anxiety in children from 5 to 10 years before the first dental visit in the University Health Center UPC.
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    • Evaluación de la ansiedad dental en pacientes adultos en el proceso de la colocación de la anestesia dental en la clínica universitaria UPC en el periodo 2016-II

      Ghersi Cordano, Vanessa; Balladares Espinosa, Alvaro Emilio (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-20)
      Introduction. Dental anesthesia has been recognized as an important cause of anxiety. The aim of this study is to evaluate anxiety before, during and after the placement of the local anesthesia in adult patients in a university health center in Lima, 2016. Methods. Longitudinal study evaluating adult patients in the course of 5 months. There was a single examiner and he evaluated the anxiety using the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR) instrument before the anesthesia was placed, just after the placement of the anesthesia and 15 minutes after the infiltration was completed. The differences between the means were evaluated with the T-Student test or Analysis of Variance one way ANOVA to obtain the results about the anxiety in the 3 different moments and the post –hoc Bonferroni test. Results. 170 patients were evaluated, 55% were male. It was found that there were no significant differences by gender. In all three moments, the anxiety was different. (Before = 3.05, for = 3.65, then = 1.86, p=<0.001). As for ages, the ranges between 18-29 years and 30-59 years had a similar behavior (the highest score being during and the lowest after the injection) but patients aged 60 and over showed that the highest level of anxiety was after 15 minutes of finishing the procedure. Conclusion. The levels of anxiety in the 3 different moments are different from each other. According to gender, no significant differences were found. According to age, the participants 60 years or older behaves differently (where anxiety increases as the procedure progresses).
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