• Abandono de la terapia nutricional y pérdida de peso en pacientes bariátricos: Cohorte retrospectiva en Lima-Perú

      Bernabé Ortiz, Antonio; Baquerizo, Pamela; Carbone, Camila; Giacchetti, Monica (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-11-02)
      bjectives: To determine the proportion of patients who meet international recommendations for bariatric surgery and to assess the impact of weight loss in the first, third and sixth month of nutritional treatment on it’s abandonment. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy in a private clinic of Lima, Peru. Two outcomes were evaluated, eligibility for bariatric surgery according to international recommendations (BMI ≥40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) and abandonment before and after starting nutritional management (no nutritional assessment after 60 days from the previous visit without achieving ideal BMI). The exposure was the percentage of weight lost in the first five weeks after surgery split into <10% and ≥10%. Poisson regression was used and relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Results: Data from 423 medical records of bariatric patients, mean age 39.2 years (SD 12.3), 294 (69.5%) women, were analyzed. Only 117 (27.7%) patients met international recommendations for bariatric surgery. Before starting nutritional management, 48/117 (41%) abandoned treatment, whereas an additional 29/69 (42.0%) abandoned before six months of nutritional management. In multivariable model, a weight loss ≥10% in the first five weeks reduced the risk of abandoning nutritional management (RR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.68) in the first month. Conclusions: Despite of international recommendations, a great proportion of patients undergoing bariatric surgery did not meet the criteria. Rates of abandonment before and after starting nutritional management are high. Results highlight the urgency of having appropriate guidelines for managing bariatric surgery in our context.
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    • Adecuación nutricional de la prescripción médica en pacientes pediátricos atendidos en el periodo febrero-mayo 2011 en el Instituto Nacional Cardiovascular, Lima, Perú

      Bohórquez Medina, Andrea Lisbet; Valencia Tomás, Adela Jessie Zdenka (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2012-12)
      Introducción: Los niños con cardiopatías congénitas tienen un riesgo elevado de desnutrición debido al aumento de sus necesidades nutricionales y a la complejidad de su patología A la luz de esta condición, se ha analizado si la dieta prescrita por el personal médico cubre sus requerimientos. Objetivo: Determinar la adecuación nutricional de la dieta prescrita del paciente pediátrico cardiópata atendido en el Instituto Nacional Cardiovascular, en el periodo Febrero-Mayo 2011. Materiales y métodos: Metodología cuantitativa y diseño prospectivo transversal. El estudio incluyó 56 niños menores de 5 años con cardiopatía congénita. Se registró de forma diaria la dieta prescrita por el médico y se calculó el aporte nutricional de esta. Se calculó el requerimiento nutricional de cada niño y se obtuvo la adecuación nutricional de Calorías, Proteínas, Grasas, Carbohidrato, Calcio y Hierro. Resultados: De los 56 pacientes, 31 eran niños y 25 eran niñas. La cardiopatía congénita con flujo pulmonar aumentado fue la que presentó mayor prevalencia (27 niños). 19 pacientes presentaron Desnutrición y 16 Riesgo de Desnutrición. En los pacientes con cardiopatía congénita acianótica con flujo pulmonar normal o disminuido se halló la prevalencia más alta de Desnutrición (5 pacientes) y en los pacientes con cardiopatía cianótica con flujo pulmonar aumentado se halló la prevalencia más alta de Riesgo de Desnutrición (6 pacientes). El porcentaje de adecuación de Calorías, Grasas y Hierro no fue mayor a 75% en ninguna de las cardiopatías o grupos etáreos. Conclusiones: No se cubren de forma adecuada (>75%) los requerimientos de Calorías, Grasas y Hierro, los niños de 0 a 6 meses con cardiopatía congénita cianótica con flujo pulmonar aumentado son los que muestran un menor porcentaje de adecuación.
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    • Adherencia al régimen dietético según sus conocimientos en raciones alimentarias al egreso hospitalario en pacientes diabéticos reingresantes al Hospital Rebagliati, abril-junio 2012

      Mauricio Alza, Saby; Aguirre Ipanaqué, Hector Oswaldo; Vargas Pinto, Valeria Cecilia (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2013-12)
      La diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que en el Perú se ha llegado a posicionar como la decimotercera causa de mortalidad. En el año 2000 había 754 mil diabéticos y se presume que esta cifra llegue alrededor de los dos millones de personas para el año 2030. Para su tratamiento es básico mantener un adecuado régimen alimenticio, realizar actividad física moderada, un tratamiento medicamentoso y una adecuada educación al paciente. La adherencia terapéutica se define como el grado en el que el comportamiento de una persona corresponde a las recomendaciones por el personal de salud. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo determinar la adherencia terapéutica al régimen dietético de alta hospitalaria y su impacto en la ingesta dietética en los pacientes diabéticos reingresantes al Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins según sus conocimientos en raciones alimentarias El estudio es de tipo cuantitativo, transversal, descriptivo, y analítico. La recolección de datos se realizó en una muestra de 50 pacientes, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta y por medio de una entrevista individual se les recabó la información. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadística descriptiva, prueba de correlación interna, Chi cuadrado, Kolmogorov – Smirnov. Además, se hizo uso de la prueba T de student y la prueba de ANOVA. Con los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, se determinó que solo el 30% de los pacientes reingresantes al HNERM son considerados Adheridos al régimen dietético (o dieta) de alta (Ad) según sus conocimientos en medidas caseras y porciones. Las personas consideradas como Adheridas tuvieron menor número de complicaciones (87%) y menor número de reingresos (67%). En cuanto al impacto en la ingesta dietética se muestra que mientras más alto es el puntaje de conocimientos de los pacientes, más adecuado es su consumo de energía y macronutrientes (entre 90% y 110% de adecuación). En conclusión, presente estudio logra demostrar el escaso conocimiento en raciones alimentarias de los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 del HNERM, que a su vez origina una deficiente adherencia terapéutica al régimen dietético entregado al alta hospitalaria y un impacto negativo en la ingesta alimentaria, pudiendo ser esta una causa del reingreso hospitalario. Los resultados sugieren continuar con estudios que indaguen y trabajen en estrategias que fortalezcan técnicas de educación nutricional en pacientes diabéticos con el fin de evitar las complicaciones de la enfermedad, evitar el reingreso hospitalario y mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente.
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    • Alimentos saludables para niños en edad preescolar

      Ríos Ramos, Franklin; Barriga Rodríguez, Dayana; Vera Díaz, Mariel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2014-11-11)
      Actualmente el interés por una correcta alimentación está en crecimiento tanto a nivel mundial como nacional. Las personas están brindándole mayor importancia al balance de sus alimentos para otorgar salud y bienestar general. Esto es un gran avance para el área de nutrición, especialmente en un país tan diverso en alimentos como lo es el Perú. Sin embargo falta aplicar el interés con la práctica real de hábitos alimenticios saludables. Consideramos dos factores esenciales que determinan la situación actual: la información mal orientada y la falta de oferta de productos en el mercado actual. En primer lugar, la fascinación por el tema ha resultado en una gran cantidad de información divulgada en los diferentes medios de comunicación, servicios de alimentación, establecimientos relacionados con los alimentos e incluso entre las personas que tienen conocimiento básico sobre el tema. Sin embargo, todo esto se traduce en exceso de información y, muchas veces, de información orientada o explicada inadecuadamente. Por ello, consideramos que es importante recurrir a profesionales de la salud para así conseguir la información adecuada.
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    • Aporte nutricional de los almuerzos brindados por un concesionario a estudiantes universitarios

      Huamán Margarito, Luz; Aparicio Camargo, Valia Milagritos; Ávila Tijero, Alexandra Elizabeth (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2014-12)
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    • Asociación entre la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad y la disponibilidad de alimentos en América Latina y el Caribe

      Cusirramos Jiménez, Sandra E.; Flores Alvarado, Melody Olenka; Olivos Meza, Mariella Cristina (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2014-11)
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    • Asociación entre la Escala de Adicción al Internet de Lima y el estado nutricional en adolescentes del nivel secundario

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Cusirramos Jiménez, Sandra Edith; Márquez Hinojosa, Alexandra; Mesones Tello, Rossana (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-11-17)
      Objective: Estimate the association between the use and Internet addiction (IA), with obesity in adolescent students from a private high school in Lima, Peru. Methodology: The cross-sectional type study was done on November 2014. Students between 12 and 17 years old were included. Obesity, as one possible consequence of use and IA, was measured by nutritional status with BMI adjusted to age and gender; abdominal obesity with waist-to-height ratio. Results could be affected by physical activity (PA). Due to this it was measured with PAQ-A; IA risk with EAIL. Weekly time usage of Internet (TUI) was divided into three groups, and the association between Internet usage and addiction to it with obesity was evaluated with Adjusted Prevalence Ratios (aPR). Results: 544 students, with an average age of 14.5 years were evaluated. Out of these students, 51.3% were male, 90.3% used Internet from their Smartphones and 67.7% were sedentary. Out of the total 28.5% had overweight/obesity, 9.7% had abdominal obesity; 32.9% used more than 32 hours on Internet and the remaining 28.9% had a high IA risk. It was found that a higher TUI was associated with overweight/obesity (aPR: 1,45; IC95%:1,04-2,00), also to abdominal obesity: (aPR: 2,25; IC95%:1,19-4,27) and a lower PA: (aPR: 1,23; IC 95% 1,06-1,42) on a higher number of students. No association was found between obesity and IA risk (p>0,05). Conclusion: There is an association between higher TUI, overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in adolescent school students. Therefore it is suggested to control the TUI by adolescents.
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    • Asociación entre la inseguridad alimentaria y las dimensiones de la elección de alimentos en pacientes diabéticos de un centro especializado del seguro social en salud : análisis exploratorio

      Segura Paucar, Eddy; Astete Robilliard, Laura; Arenas, Mariana; Rivero, Barbara (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-12-04)
      Objective: Evaluate the association of food insecurity and the dimensions of food choice in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study at a specialized diabetes and hypertension center attached to Social Security in Health of Lima, Peru. We used the ELCSA questionnaire to assess food insecurity. Food choice was evaluated with the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which consist of seven dimensions: price, mood, health and natural content of food, weight control, sensory appeal, convenience and familiarity. We examined the internal reliability of each FCQ dimension by calculating Cronbach's alpha. We reported the dimensions according to the presence of mild food insecurity and food security. We performed linear regression analyses for the dimensions that were significantly different between groups, considering food security as the main predictor and adjusting for significant covariates in the bivariate analysis. Results: We enrolled 206 subjects of both sexes with diabetes mellitus. We found 42,2%, 3,4% and 0,5% of subjects with mild, moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. The variables educational level and hospitalization were associated with a state of mild food insecurity (p <0,001, p=0,004). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were determined to be between 0.60 and 0.80 for the dimensions of the FCQ. There was only direct association between food insecurity and price dimension of food choices with a adjusted β coefficient of 0,43 (p=0,025). Conclusion: There was a direct association between food insecurity and the price dimension of food choice. There was no association between food insecurity and the other dimensions of food choice.
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    • Asociación entre la participación en programas de asistencia alimentaria y patrones del perfíl lipídico en Perú

      Bernabe – Ortiz, Antonio; Paredes Aramburú, Jacqueline Sibeli (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-11-28)
      Objective: To assess whether the participation in food assistance programs (Community Kitchens and Glass of Milk) was associated with lipid profile patterns in Peruvian population. Method: Secondary data analysis using data from the National Survey of Nutritional, Biochemical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Indicators related to Chronic Degenerative Diseases. The sample included individualds aged 20 years and over, by multistage sampling by selecting five strata in Peru. In each stratum, clusters were selected by random sampling. Different Poisson regression models with robust variance were built to determine the association between food assistance programs and the participants' lipid profile assessed by total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Results: Data of 4028 participants was analyzed, only 123 (3.1%) reported being beneficiary of the Community Kitchens program, while 827 (20.5%) reported having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk. In multivariable model, an association between being a beneficiary of Community Kitchens and increased LDL-c (PR = 2.33; CI95%: 1.18–4.59) was found. On the other hand, having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk increased the probability of having low HDL-c levels (PR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02–1.14), but reduced the probability of hypertriglyceridemia (PR = 0.70, CI95%: 0.56–0.88). Conclusions: Being a beneficiary of the Community Kitchen program was associated with increased LDL-c levels; while, having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk increased the probability of low HDL-c, but reduced the probability of developing hypertriglyceridemia.
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    • Asociación entre la percepción de la imagen corporal y el riesgo de desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en bailarines de ballet, deportistas de nado sincronizado y gimnastas de la selección nacional del Perú

      Hernandez, Adrian V.; Denisse Verand Escudero; Sánchez Díaz , Andrea (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-01-25)
      ABSTRACT Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are diseases that can endanger a person’s life significantly. We evaluated the relation between body image perception and eating disorders in gymnasts, ballet dancers and synchronized swimmers. Methods: Synchronized swimmers and gymnasts from the Peruvian Sports Institute (IPD) and ballet dancers from the Lima Municipal Theatre were evaluated. The risk of developing an ED was measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26) questionnaire and the body dissatisfaction with the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Potential confounders were gender, age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The relationship between BSQ and EAT- 26 scores was measured with linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: A sample of 53 individuals was obtained: synchronized swimmers, gymnasts and ballet dancers. A 77,4% chance of developing an ED and a 32,1% chance for body dissatisfaction was found, with no differences between disciplines. All individuals who had body dissatisfaction had an ED. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant positive correlation between BSQ and EAT-26 scores (r=0,372, p=0,006). Conclusions: A greater degree of body dissatisfaction is highly correlated with increased risk of developing an ED in elite athletes. The strong tendency to develop ED is important for health and nutrition of Peruvian athletes.
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    • Asociación entre la talla alta y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles (diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial) en adultos peruanos en el año 2015

      Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Guerrero Gallarday, José Eduardo; Olano Yalta, Anthonny Micheel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-02-08)
      Objective: To determine the association between high height and the presence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (diabetes mellitus-DM and Arterial hypertension-HTA) in the Peruvian adult population at the national level in 2015. Methodology: Secondary analysis of the study database cross section National Demographic and Family Health Survey-ENDES, 2015. Adults 18 to 59 years of age were included. Height was classified by sex as: short height (men <155.0 cm and women <145.0 cm), normal size (men 155.1 cm - 174.9 cm and women 145.1 cm - 164.9 cm) and high size (men >175.0 cm and women >165.0 cm). The HTA measured / reported was classified as: HTA (systolic pressure >140 mmHg and / or diastolic pressure <90 mmHg and those that reported being hypertensive) and normal (systolic pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic pressure <90 mmHg). For the DM classification, the one reported by the subjects was considered (yes, no). To assess the association between high height and the presence of DM and HT, crude prevalence (RPc) and adjusted (RPa) ratios were calculated through the Poisson regression, with robust variance. Results: 26,858 participants were evaluated, the average age was 34.8 + 10.6, 55.8% were women and 44.2% were men. The prevalence of tall stature in men was 5.0% and in women 1.8% (total: 3.2%). The prevalence of HBP measured / reported was 10.9% and DM 1.7%. Subjects with high stature had a 44% greater probability of HTA than those of normal height (RPa: 1.44, CI: 1.23-1.69, p<0.001), but this was not associated with reported DM (RPA: 0.99; CI: 0.99-1.00; p = 0.501). Conclusion: High height was associated with higher HTA but not with DM. It is recommended, on the one hand, to make studies that measure the association between high stature and DM measured and not only reported, and at the same time it is necessary to continue studying this association between high stature and chronic diseases and look for strategies to control it.
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    • Asociación entre los tipos de fuentes de información y el nivel de conocimientos sobre diabetes en el Centro Integral de Diabetes e Hipertensión CEDHI durante el año 2014

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Cántaro Bernardo, Katherine Paola; Jara Rodríguez, Jimena (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-03-23)
      Objetivo: Evaluar si existe asociación entre el tipo de fuente de información y el nivel de conocimiento sobre la diabetes mellitus en pacientes diabéticos. Metodología: Estudio transversal analítico, realizado en el Centro de Atención Integral de Diabetes e Hipertensión (CEDHI) durante la segunda mitad del año 2014. Se midió el nivel de conocimientos con el diabetes knowledge questionnaire (DKQ-24) y el uso 12 fuentes de información. Se consideró con buen conocimiento a aquellos con un 75% de respuestas correctas. Se calculó razones de prevalencia ajustadas (RPa). Resultados: Se incluyó 464 pacientes diabéticos, 52,2% fueron mujeres, y 20,3% usaron Internet como fuente de información. La media de conocimientos fue de 12,9 ±4,8, solo 17,0% obtuvo un conocimiento bueno, y estuvo asociado con obtener información de diabetes de Internet (RP= 2,03, IC95% 1,32-3,14), y también de otros pacientes (RP=1,99, IC95% 1,20-3,31). Asimismo, haber desarrollado posgrados frente a educación primaria (RP= 3,66, IC95% 1,21-11,09), un tiempo de enfermedad mayor de 12 años frente a <5 años (RP= 1,91, IC95% 1,22-3,01) y una edad mayor de 70 años frente a <60años (RP=0,39, IC95% 0,21-0,72). Conclusión: La búsqueda de información Internet está asociada positivamente a un buen nivel de conocimientos. Se propone enseñar a los diabéticos a buscar información en internet y por otro lado desarrollar espacios virtuales para la interacción con los pacientes diabéticos.
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    • Asociación entre Sarcopenia y Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 en adultos mayores

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Dejo Seminario, Christine Amelí; Palacios Chávez, Milenka (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-10-09)
      Objective: To compare the association between physical performance (PP) and muscle strength (MS) in older people with and without diabetes in a public hospital of Lima, Peru. Patients and methods: Cross sectional analysis of 60 years and older patients with and without diabetes. MS was measured with a handheld dynamometer and PP with the “Timed get-up-and-go” Test. The nutritional status was determined using the body mass index, the body fat percentage using a handheld fat loss monitor and the protein intake using the 24 hours Recall. Furthermore, age, gender, history of hospitalization and supplementation were registered. The association was evaluated with adjusted prevalence ratios. Results: 139 patients with diabetes (26.6% had low PP and 13.7% diminished MS) and 382 counterparts without diabetes (36.6% had low PP and 23.0% diminished MS) were evaluated. No association was found between MS and T2D (aPR: 0.99; IC95%: 0.67- 1.57), nor with PP (aPR: 1.13; IC95%: 0.84-1.52). Protein and supplement consumption were not related either (p> 0.05); however, age and history of hospitalization, gender, nutritional status and body fat percentage were linked (p< 0.05). Conclusions: No association was found between T2D, MS and PP. Nevertheless, low PP was associated with female sex and overweight/obesity; and diminished MS was linked to high body fat percentage and underweight. Moreover, MS and PP were related to age and history of hospitalization.
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    • Cambios en el estado nutricional del paciente quirúrgico coronario hospitalizado en el INCOR – EsSalud

      Mauricio Alza, Saby; Mauricio Alza, Saby; Bustamante Carlín, María del Carmen; Pflucker Sicheri, Stephanie Mariel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2012-12)
      Objetivo: Comparar el cambio nutricional en los pacientes coronarios con indicación quirúrgica en el INCOR-EsSalud pre y post operatorio evaluando variables antropométricas y bioquímicas. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo de 92 pacientes coronarios con indicación quirúrgica atendidos en el INCOR durante el periodo de marzo a junio del 2011. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas, registro de datos de la historia clínica y datos bioquímicos. Resultados: En nuestra población, 60 pacientes (65,6%) fueron varones y 32 (34,4%) mujeres. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente encontrada en 51 pacientes (54,8%). El tipo de intervención más común fue CVC presente en 46 pacientes (49%). El peso, IMC, CB, PCT y CMB de la población pre cirugía fue 69,0+14,5, 26+4,3, 28,6+3,6, 16,2+5,9, 23,5+3,2, respectivamente; en tanto post cirugía para el peso, IMC, PCT, CB y CMB fueron 66,1+14,5, 24,8+4,4, 26,8+3,4, 14,4+5,9, 22,3+3,1, respectivamente. Los indicadores bioquímicos pre operatorios fueron 12,7+1,8 para la hemoglobina, 1911,0+651,1 para el RTL y 4,0+0,5 para la albúmina; y post cirugía 10,3+1,3 para la hemoglobina, 1749,3+734,3 para el RTL y 3,3+0,4 para la albúmina. Se encontró que los dias de ayuno y la estancia hospitalaria también alteran el estado nutricional del paciente afectándolo de una manera negativa. Conclusiones: Se comprobó que existe un deterioro nutricional en los pacientes coronarios luego de ser quirúrgicamente intervenidos. Las variables antropométricas y composición corporal disminuyeron luego de la cirugía, así como también la hemoglobina y albúmina. Los días de ayuno y la estancia hospitalaria estuvieron relacionados con estos cambios. Es importante conocer el estado nutricional del paciente previo a la intervención quirúrgica porque nos permite diseñar y plantear una adecuada terapia nutricional que garantice el éxito de de la terapéutica clínica.
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    • Capacidad antioxidante in vitro de extractos fenólicos libres y ligados en harinas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Chanamé Rodríguez, Cinthya Maritza; Cruz Reyes, Miriam Gisela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-11)
      Antioxidants can act to protect cells from the oxidative damage, so they may play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Andean cereals are foods originating from Perú that stand out for their nutritional value and antioxidant capacity. Whole grains can be subjected to grinding processes thus obtaining flours. Antioxidant capacity can be affected to the type of processing and the way it is sold to the public. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare antioxidant capacity by free radical sequestration methods, iron chelation and the composite index of antioxidant potency between kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa in its three presentations: artisanal, bulk and industrial. Methodology: The analysis was performed in food biochemistry laboratories at the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences (2016). The antioxidant capacity of the kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa flour samples was analyzed in their bulk, industrial and artisanal presentations through the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, after a composite index of antioxidant potency was determined. All samples were analyzed by molecular spectroscopy and riplicate. Results: The antioxidant capacity was higher in kañiwa than in the samples of kiwicha and quinoa (DPPH:19.20-120.41; ABTS: 30.70-320.59 y FRAP: 88.23-269.28 μmol TE/g) in its three types of extractions. This was confirmed by the composite index of antioxidant capacity. The major results were found in the acid and alkaline extract. The bulk and industrial presentations showed greater antioxidant capacity but this does not happen in all cases. Conclusions: The kañiwa flour had a higher antioxidant capacity. The alkaline and acid extractions presented greater antioxidant capacity. A greater antioxidant capacity was obtained by the bulk and industrial presentations.
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    • Comparación de la aceptabilidad del sabor de preparaciones con bajo contenido de sodio usando glutamato monosódico, sal común y cloruro de potasio combinado con sal común en sujetos con prescripción de dieta hiposódica

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Angela Aurora Ayerbe Azabache; Nancy Calderón Ramírez (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-12-15)
      The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the acceptability of the taste of preparations with low sodium in diabetic and hypertensive patients. It was conducted between April and May 2015 at the Centro de Atención Integral de Diabetes e Hipertensión (CEDHI) in Lima, Peru. Sixty-seven outpatient subjects from CEDHI were assessed; they were over 18 years of both genders, diagnosed with hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2. In total 134 sensory tests were applied and 402 prepared food samples. The evaluated samples were rice, broth, chicken and cooked vegetables that were added with common salt, potassium chloride [25%] with salt [75%] and monosodium glutamate. In order to measure the results two hedonic tests were applied, ordered by preference and acceptability test (score of 1 to 5) were used. No significant global differences were found regarding the acceptability and preference in low sodium preparations. Therefore, the replacement of common salt by any of the substitutes is viable for patient’s prescribed low-sodium diet (1500mg Na / day).
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    • Comparación del grado de deshidratación entre ejercicios anaeróbicos y ejercicios aeróbicos en un grupo de sujetos físicamente activos

      Agüero Soto, Víctor; Roosvell Paraizaman, Josue; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Martin Ledesma, Andrea Alexandra; Talancha Moreno, María Olivia (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-02-22)
      Dehydration differences between anaerobic and aerobic exercises in physically active male Objective: dehydration differences between anaerobic and aerobic exercises in physically active males using the sweating rate at the end of each exercise. Method: a self-controlled, crossover pilot study was made with physically active males. The tests were conducted at a 40% VO2max for the aerobic and 80% for the anaerobic with the same caloric expenditure; two sessions were conducted for each type of exercise. The dehydration degree was measured with the sweating rate. The differences between sweating rates were measured using simple and multiple lineal regression models. Results: 15 males were enrolled in the age 29.4 (4.8), with a body fat of 13.3% (2.3) and a VO2max 48.2% (6.9). A higher sweating rate was found in anaerobic exercise (16.2 ± 1.2) compared to aerobic exercise (6.1 ± 0.7), the difference was the same after adjusting body mass index, fat percentage , age and waist circumference (B: 10.1, 95% CI 7.7 to 12.6; p <0.001). Conclusion: In isocaloric conditions, anaerobic exercise generates higher sweat rate than aerobic exercise, this aspects should be considered in prescribing fluid replacement.
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    • Comparación del índice glicémico de tres variedades de Chenopodium Quinoa Wildenow (quinua): Salcedo INIA, INIA 420 Negra Collana e INIA 415 Roja Pasankalla

      Mezones Holguín, Edward; Bellido Boza, Luciana Elena; Flores Barrantes, Paloma; Gallegos González, Natalie; Gonzales – Daly Gamboa, María Alejandra (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2016-10-03)
      Objective: To compare the glycemic index (GI) of three varieties of Chenopodium Quinoa Wildenow (CQW) from Peru. Materials and methods: - 26 participants apparently healthy volunteers living in Lima: a quasi-experimental study according to the ISO 26642 standard was conducted. Exposure variables were three varieties of quinoa: Blanca CQW Salcedo (CQW - B), CQW Black Collana (CQW - N) and CQW Red Pasankalla (CQW - R). Capillary blood samples were taken seven times over a period of two hours and analyzed by the glucose oxidase method. IG estimation was based on the areas under the curve obtained by the trapezoidal method. The comparison of GI values was performed by multiple analysis of variance for dependent samples (MANOVA). Results: The GI of CQW - B and CQW - N were classified as medium-GI, with values of 63.1 ± 22.3 and 62.3 ± 22.5 respectively, and CQW - R was classified as high-GI with a value of 74.8 ± 29.7. No statistically significant both crude level (p = 0.33) differences were found, as adjusted by age and sex (p = 0.27). Conclusion: IG quinoa varieties studied is not low and therefore should be incorporated in the diet therapy of patients requiring glycemic control through proper portion control advice from a dietitian nutritionist.
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    • Comparación del perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de chía (Salvia hispánica L.) orgánica y convencional (variedades blanca y negra) cultivadas en el Perú, como una alternativa para aceites vegetales comestibles

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Alvites Misajel, Kiara Carolina (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-07)
      Objective: To compare the fatty acid profile of organic and conventional chia (Salvia hispanica L.) cultivars (white and black varieties) cultivated in Peru as an alternative for edible vegetable oils. Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out, which included a sample of chia seeds, from which the oil was extracted in Soxhlet oil ether machine. The acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. The sums of monounsaturated and saturated polyunsaturated fatty acids were determined. Likewise, the rates of atherogenicity, thrombogenicity and hypo / hypercholesterolemic were estimated. Median and interquartile range were obtained and the Friedman test was used. To evaluate the normality, the Shapiro-wilk test was used. For the quantification of the fatty acids of the chia, organic and conventional seed samples, the services of Certifications of Peru S.A. (CERPER) ®. Results: The main fatty acids present in organic and conventional chia oil, according to the order of abundance, were alpha-linolenic acid> linoleic acid> oleic acid> palmitic acid> stannic acid. As for the alpha-linolenic fatty acid (omega 3), the oil obtained from organic black and white chia seeds presented values slightly higher 63.65 (63.59-63.70) and 64.56 (63.70 -64.42) compared to conventional culture oil 63.05 (62.40-63.70) and 63.52 (63.34-63.70). The content of fatty acids, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated in chia oil, organic, showed values of 82.33% and 6.05%, being higher than those found in oil obtained from chia, from conventional culture 81, 78% and 6.17%. The content of saturated fatty acids presented a lower value of 10.70% in organic chia oil and 11.06% in chia oil obtained from conventional culture seed. The omega-3 / omega-6 ratio of chia oil, organically grown, had a higher value of 3.52, while in the conventional oil, a value of 3.42. Finally, the atherogenic and thrombogenic index showed low values, indicating high amounts of fatty acids with antiatherogenic properties in chia oil. Conclusion: The content of fatty acids in organic and conventional chia oil is within the range reported for other countries. No statistical difference was found in the comparison of both cultures.
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    • Componentes fitoquímicos y capacidad antioxidante de cáscaras de frutas de mayor consumo en el Perú

      Ramos Escudero, Diomedes Fernando; Hurtado Vidarte, Rosa del Milagro; Ortiz Robles, Liset Sofía (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-18)
      Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify phytochemical compounds in 10 fruit peels of greatest consumption in Peru. Methodology: Descriptive-experimental study. The samples were: lemon, tangerine, mango, apple, orange, avocado, papaya, banana, watermelon and grape. The fruit peels were dehydrated for study purposes (103°C/ 3h). Fruits were characterized by maturity index, soluble solids, pH determination and titratable acidity while, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins and plant pigments) and determination of antioxidant activity (DPPH and CUPRAC) were determined in the peels of fruits. Results: The avocado peel presented a higher content of polyphenols and vegetable pigments. Likewise, an order of classification of properties was carried out, where also the avocado peel was the one that possessed the greatest antioxidant potential. Conclusions: Of all the analyzed fruit peels, the avocado peel showed a higher content of chlorophyll and polyphenols, therefore it was considered as the fruit with the highest antioxidant properties.
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