• Capacidad antioxidante in vitro de extractos fenólicos libres y ligados en harinas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Chanamé Rodríguez, Cinthya Maritza; Cruz Reyes, Miriam Gisela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-11)
      Antioxidants can act to protect cells from the oxidative damage, so they may play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Andean cereals are foods originating from Perú that stand out for their nutritional value and antioxidant capacity. Whole grains can be subjected to grinding processes thus obtaining flours. Antioxidant capacity can be affected to the type of processing and the way it is sold to the public. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare antioxidant capacity by free radical sequestration methods, iron chelation and the composite index of antioxidant potency between kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa in its three presentations: artisanal, bulk and industrial. Methodology: The analysis was performed in food biochemistry laboratories at the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences (2016). The antioxidant capacity of the kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa flour samples was analyzed in their bulk, industrial and artisanal presentations through the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, after a composite index of antioxidant potency was determined. All samples were analyzed by molecular spectroscopy and riplicate. Results: The antioxidant capacity was higher in kañiwa than in the samples of kiwicha and quinoa (DPPH:19.20-120.41; ABTS: 30.70-320.59 y FRAP: 88.23-269.28 μmol TE/g) in its three types of extractions. This was confirmed by the composite index of antioxidant capacity. The major results were found in the acid and alkaline extract. The bulk and industrial presentations showed greater antioxidant capacity but this does not happen in all cases. Conclusions: The kañiwa flour had a higher antioxidant capacity. The alkaline and acid extractions presented greater antioxidant capacity. A greater antioxidant capacity was obtained by the bulk and industrial presentations.
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    • Determinación de la cantidad de Polifenoles y su Actividad Antioxidante en el Zapallo Loche (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) fresco, sancochado y frito procedente del departamento de Lambayeque.

      Longa López, Rosa Alejandra; Henderson Negrillo, Carmen del Pilar; Yapias Muñoz, Emili Edith (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2014-01)
      Objetivo: Determinar el contenido de polifenoles y su actividad antioxidante del zapallo loche (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) fresco, sancochado y frito. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de tipo experimental in vitro. Los zapallos loches fueron obtenidos delGran Mercado Mayorista de Lima, ubicado en el distrito de Santa Anita, procedentes del departamento de Lambayeque. La muestra fue el extracto etanólico de zapallo fresco, sancochado y frito. Para la determinación de fenoles totales se utilizó el método espectrofotométrico desarrollado por Folin-Ciocalteu, en el cual los resultados se expresan como equivalente de ácido gálico. Por otro lado, para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante se utilizó el método desarrollado por Brand-Williams basado en la reducción del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). Resultados: El contenido de polifenoles en el zapallo loche fresco (103.869 mg ácido gálico/ 100g muestra) fue mayor que en el zapallo loche sancochado (48.000 mg ácido gálico/ 100g muestra), seguido del zapallo loche frito (43.804 mg ácido gálico/ 100g muestra). La capacidad antioxidante del zapallo loche sancochado destacó ya que inhibió en un 95% a los radicales libres, comparado con zapallo loche frito (86%) y zapallo loche fresco (80%). Conclusión: El zapallo loche fresco presenta mayor cantidad de polifenoles.El zapallo loche sancochado tiene una mayor capacidad antioxidante para inhibir los efectos de los radicales libres. Palabras Claves: Zapallo loche, actividad antioxidante, polifenoles, fenoles totales, DPPH.
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    • Efecto de diferentes materiales educativos en el nivel de conocimientos sobre grupo de alimentos en adultos mayores

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Benites Velásquez, Bach Beker; Chávez Alonso, Ximena (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2014-12)
      Objetivo: determinar el efecto de tres materiales educativos en el nivel de conocimientos sobre grupo de alimentos en una población de adultos mayores autosuficientes del Centro de EsSalud de San Borja. Material y método: ss un estudio experimental de tipo cuasi-experimental. Se elaboraron 3 materiales educativos (franelógrafo, rotafolio y juego), los cuales se validaron y aplicaron. La sesión educativa se realizó en el Centro del Adulto Mayor de EsSalud en el distrito limeño de San Borja; se seleccionaron sesenta adultos mayores por conveniencia y se dividieron en tres grupos de veinte adultos mayores para cada aplicación. Resultados: los tres materiales educativos se validaron por grupo focal y por juicio de expertos, cuyos comentarios sirvieron para la reelaboración de los materiales. En la sesión educativa se encontró que en el pretest de la aplicación de los materiales educativos, se obtuvo un mayor puntaje en orden descendente, juego (6.05±1.10), franelógrafo (5.00±0.86), rotafolio (4.85±1.18). En el postest se obtuvo un mayor puntaje en orden descendente, franelógrafo (7.7±1.03), rotafolio (6.85±0.81) y el juego (6.05±1.32). En la comparación de los resultados del pre test y post test hubo un mayor efecto en el incremento de conocimientos. Se obtuvo una mayor diferencia para el franelógrafo (2.70±1.26), rotafolio (2.00±1.34) y juego (0.00±0.92). Conclusión: los materiales educativos empleados, tanto el franelógrafo, como el rotafolio tienen efecto en la mejora del nivel de conocimientos sobre grupo de alimentos en los adultos mayores autosuficientes del Centro de EsSalud de San Borja.
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    • Efecto de la fermentación alcohólica en el contenido de polifenoles y la actividad antioxidante en el extracto del fruto maduro del noni (Morinda Citrifolia L.)

      Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Robledo Pérez, Karla Paola; Buenaño Schol, Jimena; Maúrtua Morales, Stefania (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 15/02/2017)
      Background and Objective: In fact, a big variety of fruits which differ in shape, color, taste and nutritional value are available in the market and many are widely used for production of fermented beverages. In this study, the physicochemical characteristics (pH, EBrix and acidity), total phenol content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic-fermented noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) must were evaluated. Methodology: The noni wine was analyzed using physicochemical analysis (volumetric titrations, potentiometric and refractometry methods). The total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity by visible molecular absorption spectroscopy and the chemometric analysis by supervised pattern recognition techniques. Results: The effect of alcoholic fermentation on the pH and oBrix in presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (experimental group) produces a decrease in these parameters and an increase of the acidity; these changes are significant at p<0.05. The total polyphenol content varied during the alcoholic fermentation. The highest content was produced in the 4th week containing 612 mg GAE LG1. The antioxidant activity (DPPH) as measured by the inhibition coefficient (IC50) reflects an increase in this activity and in the 4th week increased upto 18.75%. In the first 4 weeks, there was a better correlation between the total polyphenol content and the IC50 radical scavenging capacities. A satisfactory SLDA result for the alcoholic fermentation according to pH, EBrix and acidity, total phenols content and antioxidant activity was obtained, in which the correct classification was 100%. Conclusion: Alcoholic fermentation induces significant changes in composition, mainly the total phenol content.
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    • Polifenoles totales y flavonoides en diferentes extractos de harinas industriales, a granel y artesanales de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amarantus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Viñas Ospino, Adriana Margarita (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-01)
      Introduction: Andean cereals from Peru are rich in a wide range of bioactive compounds e.g. flavonoids phenolic acids with known effects on human health. These cereals are sold as grains and as flours. The transformation of these cereals can affect their healthy properties. Objective: Compare the total phenolic and contents of different forms of extractable phenolics (free, acidic and basic flavonoid hydrolysis) from artisanal, bulk and industrial flours of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amarantus caudatus) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Methodology: This analysis was performed in Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Chorrillos. Were analyzed three kinds of cereals: kañiwa, kiwicha and quinua and three presentations of them: artisanal, in bulk and industrial and three extractions: non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed in acid and basic mediums. The samples were analyzed using visible molecular absorption spectroscopy. For the determination of polyphenols, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used and for the determination of flavonoids the colorimetric reaction of aluminium chloride was applied. Results: The results indicated that the amount of total polyphenols (548.07mg GAE/100G) and total flavonoids (409.01mg CE/100G) was higher in kañiwa flour samples, and the acid and basic hydrolysis increased the total polyphenols and flavonoids. The majority of the results indicated high values of polyphenols in artisanal and in bulk samples. In flavonoids, the results were variable. Discussion: The high content of bioactives in kañiwa flour samples was due to the resistance in strong weather and the pigmentation. The results found in the artisanal, bulk and industrial presentations showed a difference of content of polyphenols but this was not a pattern in all the samples. It is because other factors can affect: the variety of the product, harvest conditions, storage, industrial and sale process. Conclusion: the kañiwa flour had the highest score of biocomponents and the liberation of them increased in the acid and basic hydrolysis. The artisanal, in bulk and industrial flours showed a higher content of polyphenols, but it did not occur with the content of flavonoids. The content of phenolic compounds was affected by the process of transformation but the flours analyzed maintained important content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Therefore, the consumption of these products has benefits in health.
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