Recent Submissions

  • Evaluación del aporte nutricional de los almuerzos brindados por el comedor de un colegio de Lima Metropolitana, 2016

    Maeshiro Nakasone, Karina Hatsue; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Rosas Díaz, Sara María (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-04-25)
    Introducción. El estado nutricional de los escolares no solo depende de lo que consumen en el hogar, sino de lo que consumen en las escuelas. Los comedores escolares son espacios para fomentar hábitos alimenticios saludables y proporcionar una alimentación nutritiva y balanceada para el óptimo crecimiento y desarrollo tanto físico como mental de los niños y adolescentes. En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés en evaluar la composición nutricional de los almuerzos brindados por los comedores escolares, y en el Perú existe poca información en cuanto a la evaluación nutricional de las raciones ofrecidas en los comedores escolares. Objetivo. Evaluar el aporte nutricional de los almuerzos que brinda el comedor de un colegio privado de Lima Metropolitana a alumnos de nivel primaria y secundaria. Material y métodos. Durante 13 días se evaluó el menú del almuerzo brindado por el comedor, a través de 2 métodos: pesado directo de los alimentos de la ración servida y recordatorio de ingredientes incorporados como parte del aderezos, edulcorantes y alimentos molidos o muy picados/deshechos. Resultados. Los menús ofrecidos aportaron entre 428,5 y 884,9 kcal (30,7 a 39,7% de las recomendaciones diarias). El aporte promedio diario de energía de las proteínas fue entre 10,9% y 16,5%, de las grasas 24,2% y 26,6%, de los hidratos de carbono 56,3% a 60,6% y el aporte de fibra a la recomendación diaria fue entre 8,1% y 10,2%. Dentro de los micronutrientes el zinc cubrió el mayor porcentaje del EAR (31,0% a 58,5%) y el calcio el menor (5,0% a 7,4%), seguido del hierro (26,5% a 41,6%) y vitamina A (32,6% a 34,7%). En el caso del sodio encontramos que solo la sal agregada cubrió entre el 42,0% a 86,0% del requerimiento al día. La azúcar añadida cubrió entre el 29,4% a 47,0% de lo recomendado al día y en las bebidas se excedió en más del 100% de la recomendación. Conclusiones. En general, la cantidad de energía, proteínas, grasas e hidratos de carbono fue adecuada en la población estudiada, a excepción de los grupos de mayor edad que sobrepasaron las recomendaciones para energía y los de menor edad que el aporte de grasas fue menor a lo recomendado. En todos los grupos el aporte de fibra, calcio, hierro, tiamina y riboflavina fue bajo, y el de sodio fue alto. Además, la azúcar añadida fue alta en los grupos de menor edad.
  • Estimación del contenido de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante del café arábiga (Coffea arabica) orgánico y convencional en el proceso de elaboración de yogur aromatizado con café

    Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Camacho Carrillo, Andrea Daniela; Merino Gamboa, Maria Gabriela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-02-12)
    Objetivo: Estimar el contenido de polifenoles y la capacidad antioxidante y del café arábiga (Coffea arabica) orgánico y convencional en el proceso de elaboración de yogur aromatizado con café. Metodología: Fue un estudio de tipo observacional comparativo, transversal. El análisis y preparación de todas las muestras, pasado de café, confitura tipo jalea de café y yogur aromatizado con café, se realizaron en los laboratorios de la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. La primera fase para la elaboración del producto fue el filtrado del café en donde se utilizaron dos tipos: café arábiga orgánico y café arábiga convencional; la siguiente fase fue la preparación de la confitura tipo jalea de café de ambos tipos, luego la preparación del yogur natural elaborado con cepas probióticas (S. salivarius subsp thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp) y la última fase fue la mezcla de la confitura tipo jalea de café con el yogur natural en concentraciones de 15%, 19% y 23%. Se practicaron análisis para determinar las características fisicoquímicas del producto final: pH, acidez(%), humedad(%), capacidad de retención de agua (%WHC) y sinéresis (%STS). Resultados: El contenido de polifenoles y la capacidad antioxidante es directamente proporcional con la concentración de confitura de café que posee el yogur aromatizado con café. Conclusiones: El café pasado, la confitura tipo jalea de café y el yogur aromatizado con café en su versión convencional presentó mayor contenido de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante que la versión orgánica. El yogur aromatizado con café orgánico al 23% fue el preferido por los consumidores en la evaluación sensorial.
  • Relación entre los niveles de hemoglobina en una población infantil de 9 a 36 meses de edad y el conocimiento sobre el uso de los micronutrientes en polvo de las madres en una población periurbana en Lima durante el 2017

    Segura Paucar, Eddy Roberto; Rodríguez Mier y Terán, Luz Marina; Zambrano Pino, Lorena Guadalupe (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-03-02)
    Introduction: Knowledge about the use of micronutrients in powder (MNP) is fundamental for its proper use of them and thus achieves the increase of hemoglobin levels in your child. Objective: To evaluate the association between the knowledge of the use of MNP by mothers and the hemoglobin levels of their children between 9 and 36 months of age in a peri - urban area of Lima, Peru during 2017. Materials and methods: Analytical cross-sectional study. It was carried out in mothers and their children between the ages of 9 and 36 months that attended the Health Post of Oasis de Villa, Villa El Salvador. We evaluated the knowledge of the use of the MNPs of the mothers by a survey and we measured the level of hemoglobin of the minor with a hemoglobinometer. The knowledge of the use was classified as “high, regular and low” and the hemoglobin was classified according to the MINSA cut-off points in anemia or non- anemia. Analytical statistics, generalized linear models, with Poisson family, log link function and robust variances were used. Results: We surveyed 340 mothers and we screened the hemoglobin of their children. The mean hemoglobin was 11,9 g/dL with a standard deviation of 0,9. There were 130 children with anemia. We found that 54.7% of the mothers had a low level of knowledge of the use and their children were anemic. We found an association between levels of knowledge of the use and hemoglobin levels. There was 96% higher frequency of anemic children in mothers with low knowledge of the use (RPa: 1,96; 95% CI: 1,41-2,72; p<0,001). Conclusions: Knowledge of use influences hemoglobin levels. There are other factors that can influence the final results and for this, new studies are suggested to explore these assumptions.
  • Asociación entre la talla alta y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles (diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial) en adultos peruanos en el año 2015

    Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Guerrero Gallarday, José Eduardo; Olano Yalta, Anthonny Micheel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-02-08)
    Objective: To determine the association between high height and the presence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (diabetes mellitus-DM and Arterial hypertension-HTA) in the Peruvian adult population at the national level in 2015. Methodology: Secondary analysis of the study database cross section National Demographic and Family Health Survey-ENDES, 2015. Adults 18 to 59 years of age were included. Height was classified by sex as: short height (men <155.0 cm and women <145.0 cm), normal size (men 155.1 cm - 174.9 cm and women 145.1 cm - 164.9 cm) and high size (men >175.0 cm and women >165.0 cm). The HTA measured / reported was classified as: HTA (systolic pressure >140 mmHg and / or diastolic pressure <90 mmHg and those that reported being hypertensive) and normal (systolic pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic pressure <90 mmHg). For the DM classification, the one reported by the subjects was considered (yes, no). To assess the association between high height and the presence of DM and HT, crude prevalence (RPc) and adjusted (RPa) ratios were calculated through the Poisson regression, with robust variance. Results: 26,858 participants were evaluated, the average age was 34.8 + 10.6, 55.8% were women and 44.2% were men. The prevalence of tall stature in men was 5.0% and in women 1.8% (total: 3.2%). The prevalence of HBP measured / reported was 10.9% and DM 1.7%. Subjects with high stature had a 44% greater probability of HTA than those of normal height (RPa: 1.44, CI: 1.23-1.69, p<0.001), but this was not associated with reported DM (RPA: 0.99; CI: 0.99-1.00; p = 0.501). Conclusion: High height was associated with higher HTA but not with DM. It is recommended, on the one hand, to make studies that measure the association between high stature and DM measured and not only reported, and at the same time it is necessary to continue studying this association between high stature and chronic diseases and look for strategies to control it.
  • Factores asociados al estado nutricional en el adulto mayor, en base a la Encuesta Demográfica y Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2015

    Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Núñez Sánchez, Mery Cristy; Reyes Huarcaya, Rossy María Elena (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-18)
    Objective: Determine the factors associated with nutritional status in the Peruvian elderly. Methods: Secondary analysis of the ENDES 2015 cross-sectional study of older adults. The nutritional status was measured by the BMI, taking the cut-off points for the elderly (low weight: ≤23 kg / m², normal weight: 23.1-27.9 kg / m², overweight: 28-31.9 kg / m² and obesity: > 32 kg / m²). To evaluate factors associated with nutritional status, two independent Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were run, one to compare groups with and without malnutrition and the other to groups with and without overweight / obesity. The raw prevalence ratio (RPc) and adjusted prevalence (RPa) were obtained at a 95% confidence interval, using Poisson family regression with robust variance. Results: 30.0% presented acute malnutrition, 20.6% overweight and 9.8% obesity. The factors associated with acute malnutrition were: age (PR: 70-79 years: 1.29 [1.13-1.48]; 80 plus: PR: 1.54 [1.32-1.80] vs 60 to 69 years), in rural vs. urban area (PR: 1.25 [1.04- 1.50]), higher in sierra and selva vs. Lima Metropolitan and Callao (Rest of Coast: PR: 1.96 [1.29-2.99], Sierra: PR: 1.74 [1.17-2.62]; Jungle: PR: 1.96 [1.29-2.99] ), lower probability as the wealth quintile increases (Upper Quintile: PR: 0.45 [0.31-0.67]), higher probability of having optimal blood pressure vs high blood pressure (PR: 1.40 [1.17-1.67]), higher probability of not having diabetes (PR: 1.56 [1.06-2.28]), lower probability of consuming fruits and vegetables (PR: 0.79 [0.66-0.95]). The factors associated with overweight / obesity were: female sex (PR: 1.64 [1.43-1.88]), lower probability as age increases (PR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.51-0.75), lower in sierra vs. Metropolitan Lima and Callao (PR: 0.79 [0.64-0.98]), higher probability as the wealth quintile increases: (PR: 3.14 [2.39-4.12]), lower probability of having optimal blood pressure (PR: 0.53 [0.43-0.66]), lower in non-diabetics (RP: 0.81 [0.67-0.99]) and increase in those with depressive symptoms (RP: 1.25 [0.06-1.48]). Conclusions: The factors associated with malnutrition in the elderly were age, living in rural areas, in the mountains and jungle, lower quintile of well-being, optimal blood pressure, not being diabetic and less consumption of fruits and vegetable salad. In overweight or obesity were female sex, age, living in the sierra, greater quintile of well-being, a greater measure of blood pressure, diabetics and with depressive symptoms.
  • Composición nutricional, propiedades funcionales, componentes bioactivos y actividad antioxidante de dos variedades de semillas de chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) De cultivo convencional y orgánico en el Perú.

    Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Garcia Gutierrez, Mirina Rosabell; Miranda Rodríguez, Camila Lucía (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-12-31)
    Objetivo: Caracterizar las propiedades nutricionales, funcionales y bioactividades de dos variedades de semillas de chía blanca y negra (Salvia hispanica L.) provenientes de cultivos convencionales y orgánicos. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo. Este trabajo fue analizado mediante diferentes métodos analíticos. Se analizó la composición química proximal y las propiedades funcionales mediante análisis gravimétricos. Para la determinación de polifenoles y flavonoides totales se utilizó el método de Folin-Cicalteu. La actividad antioxidante se analizó mediante el método estandarizado DPPH. Resultados: El contenido de proteínas en las semillas de chía negra de cultivo convencional y semilla de chía blanca de cultivo orgánico fue de 21, 78 y 17,34%. El mayor contenido total de fenoles fue de la chía orgánica blanca (2,21 mg GAE/g) mientras que el mayor contenido total de flavonoides fue de la chía orgánica negra (1,57 mg CE/g). La actividad antioxidante medida por DPPH mostró diferencias significativas siendo el de mayor contenido la chía negra convencional (528,95 µmol TE/g). Conclusión: Se encontró diferencias significativas en su capacidad antioxidante (evaluado por DPPH) siendo la semilla chía negra convencional la que obtuvo el mayor valor.
  • Componentes fitoquímicos y capacidad antioxidante de cáscaras de frutas de mayor consumo en el Perú

    Ramos Escudero, Diomedes Fernando; Hurtado Vidarte, Rosa del Milagro; Ortiz Robles, Liset Sofía (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-18)
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify phytochemical compounds in 10 fruit peels of greatest consumption in Peru. Methodology: Descriptive-experimental study. The samples were: lemon, tangerine, mango, apple, orange, avocado, papaya, banana, watermelon and grape. The fruit peels were dehydrated for study purposes (103°C/ 3h). Fruits were characterized by maturity index, soluble solids, pH determination and titratable acidity while, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins and plant pigments) and determination of antioxidant activity (DPPH and CUPRAC) were determined in the peels of fruits. Results: The avocado peel presented a higher content of polyphenols and vegetable pigments. Likewise, an order of classification of properties was carried out, where also the avocado peel was the one that possessed the greatest antioxidant potential. Conclusions: Of all the analyzed fruit peels, the avocado peel showed a higher content of chlorophyll and polyphenols, therefore it was considered as the fruit with the highest antioxidant properties.
  • Presencia asintomática de Helicobacter pylori y composición de la microbiota intestinal en escolares entre 6 y 12 años.

    Liria Domínguez, Reyna; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Benavides, Araceli (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-12-01)
    Marco teórico: El interés por la microbiota intestinal ha incrementado notablemente, por tener un rol fundamental en el cuerpo humano. Esta puede ser afectada por diversos factores, pero se desconoce la interacción directa con la infección causada por Helicobacter pylori. Objetivo: Comparar la composición de la microbiota intestinal de los niños escolares infectados con Helicobacter pylori en relación con los niños que no están infectados. Metodología: Análisis secundario de datos de un estudio transversal en muestras fecales de 56 escolares de San Pablo, Cajamarca: 28 muestras fueron positivas y 28 muestras negativas a H. pylori mediante la amplificación del gen 23S rRNA y pruebas serológicas. Se analizaron 13 géneros de bacterias de la microbiota intestinal mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR). Los resultados se presentaron en promedios para las variables continuas y en porcentaje para variables categóricas. Se utilizó las pruebas t-test, Kruskal Wallis, chi2 y exacta de Fisher para evaluar las diferencias entre grupos. Resultados: Los niños con presencia de H. pylori tienen el doble de probabilidad de presentar de 3-9 géneros de bacterias en la microbiota intestinal. Las bacterias que se presentaron significativamente con mayor frecuencia en los niños con presencia de H. pylori fueron: Proteobacteria (p=0.008), Clostridium (p=0.040), Firmicutes (p=0.001) y Prevotella (p=0.006). Conclusiones: La microbiota intestinal de los niños con presencia de H. pylori era más abundante y variada en comparación a los niños con sin H. pylori.
  • Evaluación de la asociación entre la anemia y el sobrepeso y/u obesidad en las mujeres en edad fértil en el Perú, según la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar ENDES 2014

    Liria-Dominguez, Reyna; Córdova Castillo, Sandra Ximena; Mori Vasquez, Luis Miguel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-18)
    Background: Public health issues such as high BMI (overweight OW or obese O) and anemia cause adverse consequences, not only for the population at stake but also for the economic and social development of the country. Studies associate obesity with inflammation, which is associated with iron deficiency (ID). In Peru, there is a high prevalence of both OW/O and anemia. One of the vulnerable groups are women of reproductive age (WRA). However, there are not as many studies in Peru that associate both diseases. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anemia and high BMI in women of reproductive age in Peru based on ENDES 2014. Methods: Of the total sample interviewed (26347 WRA: 15-49 years), only 24396 WRA were analyzed that met inclusion criteria. The dependent variable was anemia (hemoglobin adjusted for meters above sea level-mamsl <12.0 mg/dL) and the independent variable of interest was the nutritional status measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2, overweight (25-29.9), obesity I (30-34.9), and obesity II (35-59.9)). Differences were evaluated between means (continuous variables), chi squared (categorical variables) and crude (RPc) and adjusted (RPa) prevalence ratios were used through Poisson Regression. Results: Total prevalence of anemia was 20.91%, overweight 21.13% obesity I 18.93% and 15.64% obesity II. In the first adjusted model, RPa1 overweight was 0.91 (IC 0.84-0.98), obesity I 0.78 (IC 0.71-0.87) and obesity II 0.64 (IC 0.53-0.78). In the second adjusted model, RPa2 overweight was 0.92 (IC 0.85-0.99), obesity I 0.80 (IC 0.72- 0.89) and obesity II 0.65 (IC 0.53-0.79). Overweight, obesity I and II are associated with a lower probability of anemia when compared with normal BMI. Conclusion: This study did not find any association between OW/O and anemia. Instead, the prevalence of anemia was lowest within h the OW/O group. However, there were limitations because of ENDES’ design. Therefore, it is monumental to continue investigations, and to utilize more iron deficiency biomarkers aside from hemoglobin.
  • Relación entre los estratos socioeconómicos y la composición nutricional de los menús de los establecimientos que expenden alimentos en Lima Metropolitana

    Maguiña, Jorge Luis; Benavides Chávez, María Alejandra; Vizarreta Donayre, Daniela Jaqueline (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-01-29)
    Introduction: The patterns of food consumption are changing globally due to the influence of various factors, where the socioeconomic level is one of those that directly impact the decision to consume food outside the home. Objective: To determine the relationship between the socioeconomic strata and the nutritional composition of the menus of the restaurants in Lima Metropolitana. Methods: The study corresponds to a secondary analysis of the data base for which the " Encuesta para medir la Composición Nutricional de los Principales Alimentos Consumidos Fuera Del Hogar” (ENCONUT), 2013" was used. It is observational, of cross-sectional type, analytical. The primary study consisted of two stages of research to determine the number of establishments to survey and determine the most sold dishes. The study population consisted of a set of 1646 establishments that sell food located in Lima Metropolitana which will be called restaurants. Our dependent and independent variables were the nutritional composition of the menus and socioeconomic strata, respectively. The independent variable was classified into 5 strata (A, B, C, D and E), from Encuesta Nacional de Presupuestos Familiares 2008 - 2009 (ENAPREF). Results: Significant differences were found when analyzing the nutritional components by total weight in energy, proteins, carbohydrates, iron and sodium (p <0.05). In the percentage adjustment of nutrients according to the population requirement, it was observed that of the total "seconds" evaluated (n = 599), 63.9% were found in excess energy, 70.5% were found in excess carbohydrates, 64.4% had an excess of sodium. These excesses were found with a higher percentage in the lower-middle strata C, D and E. Proteins were 49.6% in excess, mostly belonging to the upper strata A and B. Conclusion: There is a direct relationship between the level socioeconomic and its impact on the consumption of food in quality and nutritional quantity.
  • Efecto de la cocción de papas comerciales con y sin cáscara en la concentración de glicoalcaloides

    Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Burgos Zapata, Gabriela del Pilar; Arnaiz Seminario, Paloma; Hilbck Arambulo, Estefanía (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2018-01-31)
    Introduction: The glycoalkaloids (GA) may be present in various foods and the potato is one of them. These are antinutrients that when ingested can affect the digestive and nervous system. Objective: To determine the effect of the cooking of 3 varieties of commercial potatoes with and without peel in the GA concentration. Methodology: The protocols of the International Potato Center (CIP) were followed for the processing, determination, extraction and quantification of GA. 54 samples of potato were analyzed. GA was extracted from each sample in triplicate and each analysis was performed twice and if the previous results did not coincide, they were very high or low, a third was performed. The potato samples were analyzed on a dry basis and the results were converted to fresh base. These are presented in mean and standard deviation, and in median and interquartile range. To evaluate differences, t-test was used for paired samples at a level of 95% significance. The data was analyzed in STATA v13. Results: It was found that the content of GA is significantly higher in potato with peel in relation to no peel. There is no clear pattern in the comparison and differences between the amount of GA of potatoes by variety and form of presentation, with and without peel. Conclusion: Removing the potato skin decreases GA content. Regarding the reduction by cooking the data obtained do not follow a clear pattern.
  • Asociación entre la participación en programas de asistencia alimentaria y patrones del perfíl lipídico en Perú

    Bernabe – Ortiz, Antonio; Paredes Aramburú, Jacqueline Sibeli (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-11-28)
    Objective: To assess whether the participation in food assistance programs (Community Kitchens and Glass of Milk) was associated with lipid profile patterns in Peruvian population. Method: Secondary data analysis using data from the National Survey of Nutritional, Biochemical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Indicators related to Chronic Degenerative Diseases. The sample included individualds aged 20 years and over, by multistage sampling by selecting five strata in Peru. In each stratum, clusters were selected by random sampling. Different Poisson regression models with robust variance were built to determine the association between food assistance programs and the participants' lipid profile assessed by total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Results: Data of 4028 participants was analyzed, only 123 (3.1%) reported being beneficiary of the Community Kitchens program, while 827 (20.5%) reported having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk. In multivariable model, an association between being a beneficiary of Community Kitchens and increased LDL-c (PR = 2.33; CI95%: 1.18–4.59) was found. On the other hand, having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk increased the probability of having low HDL-c levels (PR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02–1.14), but reduced the probability of hypertriglyceridemia (PR = 0.70, CI95%: 0.56–0.88). Conclusions: Being a beneficiary of the Community Kitchen program was associated with increased LDL-c levels; while, having a member of the beneficiary household of the Glass of Milk increased the probability of low HDL-c, but reduced the probability of developing hypertriglyceridemia.
  • Asociación entre la inseguridad alimentaria y las dimensiones de la elección de alimentos en pacientes diabéticos de un centro especializado del seguro social en salud : análisis exploratorio

    Segura Paucar, Eddy; Astete Robilliard, Laura; Arenas, Mariana; Rivero, Barbara (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-12-04)
    Objective: Evaluate the association of food insecurity and the dimensions of food choice in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study at a specialized diabetes and hypertension center attached to Social Security in Health of Lima, Peru. We used the ELCSA questionnaire to assess food insecurity. Food choice was evaluated with the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which consist of seven dimensions: price, mood, health and natural content of food, weight control, sensory appeal, convenience and familiarity. We examined the internal reliability of each FCQ dimension by calculating Cronbach's alpha. We reported the dimensions according to the presence of mild food insecurity and food security. We performed linear regression analyses for the dimensions that were significantly different between groups, considering food security as the main predictor and adjusting for significant covariates in the bivariate analysis. Results: We enrolled 206 subjects of both sexes with diabetes mellitus. We found 42,2%, 3,4% and 0,5% of subjects with mild, moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. The variables educational level and hospitalization were associated with a state of mild food insecurity (p <0,001, p=0,004). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were determined to be between 0.60 and 0.80 for the dimensions of the FCQ. There was only direct association between food insecurity and price dimension of food choices with a adjusted β coefficient of 0,43 (p=0,025). Conclusion: There was a direct association between food insecurity and the price dimension of food choice. There was no association between food insecurity and the other dimensions of food choice.
  • Evaluación del efecto del consumo agudo de semillas de chía (salvia hispanica l.) en agua sobre la glicemia posprandial en sujetos sanos

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Carreño van Oordt, Talía; Castagnino Augusto, Mariangela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-06-07)
    Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del consumo agudo de semillas de chía (Salvia hispanica L.) en agua sobre la respuesta glicémica posprandial en sujetos sanos. Materiales y métodos: estudio experimental, autocontrolado, no ciego, cruzado. Se tomó muestras de sangre capilar a 15 sujetos mediante glucómetros para determinar la glicemia basal en el tiempo 0 y la posprandial a los 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 minutos, tras ingesta de tres preparaciones distintas, siendo estas: agua y pan blanco con 50g de carbohidrato disponible (Control), 24g de chía puesta en agua durante 15 minutos y pan blanco (Chía Remojada), y 24g de chía agitada en agua sin remojo y pan blanco (Chía Instantánea). Se obtuvo la curva de glucosa y se determinó el área bajo la curva (ABC). Resultados: Se encontró diferencias significativas entre las ABC de las tres preparaciones evaluadas (p<0,05). El ABC de la chía instantánea presentó un valor mayor (2535,8 ± 1308,3) que la preparación control (2049,9 ± 983,4) y que la de chía remojada (1988,3 ± 1151,3), resultando un pico similar al de la preparación control pero con caída menos pronunciada, generando una mayor ABC. La chía remojada presenta una curva más uniforme, generando mayor estabilidad de glucosa en sangre y mayor sensación de saciedad, aunque bajo inducción de náuseas significativa (p=0,006). Conclusión: El consumo de chía remojada durante 15 minutos en agua no presenta pico posprandial en sujetos sanos. La ingesta de chía instantánea resulta contraproducente, en relación al control de la glicemia, por aumentar el ABC.
  • Consumo de complementos proteicos y sus factores asociados entre usuarios de gimnasios en Lima Metropolitana, 2016

    Segura Páucar, Eddy; Agüero Soto, Victor; Valdez, Laura; Unocc, Carla (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-11)
    Introduction: Nowadays, the consumption of protein supplements has spread in people who perform physical activity in gyms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with protein consumption between the users of the evaluated gyms from Lima. Methods: Participants were men and women over the age of 17, who regularly attended the gym for at least a month. The time of data collection was about 4 months. As for the statistical analysis, Chi square and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: A total of 457 users attending 44 gyms in Metropolitan Lima were part of this study. The men conformed the majority of the sample (50,2%) and the median (IQR) of age was 29 (23-36,5) years. 63,7% of the subjects took at least one nutritional supplement usually, of which 30,9% were proteins. Factors associated with protein intake were sex, if the gym belongs to a franchise or not, total time attending the gym, frequency, among others. Conclusions: The results of our study show a prevalence of high supplement use in Lima, Peru. It is important to promote the work of the nutritionist in this field, since it has seen in most cases that these supplements are consumed without supervision or adequate information. It is recommended to perform studies to evaluate in greater detail the determinants and consumption patterns of these supplements and to increase their regulation.
  • Satisfacción con el servicio de alimentación del área de traumatología en pacientes de un hospital público del seguro social de Lima, Perú, y sus factores asociados, 2015-2016

    Segura, Eddy R.; Meza Soto, Jeniffer Nicolle; Ortíz López, Fabiola Melina (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-07)
    Introduction: Satisfaction with the food service during the hospital stay is one of the main points that influence the perception about the quality of care received in a hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the level of satisfaction with this service by hospitalized patients and to explore their associated factors. Materials: Cross-sectional study using a modified version of the Acute Care Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (ACHFPSQ) in 200 hospitalized patients of the Traumatology Service of a social security hospital in Lima, Peru between July 2015 and May 2016. We employed descriptive statistics and the chi-square and Wilcoxon tests to explore associated factors. Results: 57% were males, median age was 56 (IQR: 42-68) years, and median hospital stay was 8 (IQR: 5-14) days. The satisfaction with the presentation of the food was classified as "high" (very good or good) by 58% while 56% had "high" satisfaction towards food and service in general. This "high satisfaction" was higher in men (64.9%), when the appetite remained the same (70.2%), when the presentation of the food was better (86.6%) and when the length of stay was lower (p < 0.05 in all cases). Regarding ACHFPSQ, the best response ("always") was reported in 10 of the 22 items analyzed. Conclusions: The level of service satisfaction was high in just over half of the sample and the potentially modifiable factors associated to it were food presentation and length of stay. Future actions aimed at improving the hospital experience could intervene in these factors.
  • Relación entre el perfil nutricional y el número de técnicas promocionales de los envases de alimentos industrializados dirigidos para niños en mercados y supermercados de Lima, Perú 2016

    Bernabé Ortiz, Antonio; Trujillo Espino, Stefany Aylin; Castilla Minaya, Leyla Florencia (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-05-25)
    Objective: To determine whether there is a relation between the nutritional profile and the number of promotional techniques of existing industrialized food packaging for children in markets and supermarkets, Lima – Peru, 2016 Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study, non probabilistic sampling. Industrialized food (non-alcoholic beverages, baking products, cereals, sweets and meals) were collected, from three supermarkets and two markets from Lima, between May and June of 2016.The nutritional profile were classified based on the traffic light system of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The promotional techniques were classified based on Consumers International (CI). Lineal and Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the relations. Results: A total of 346 products were included: 113 (32.7%) were sweets, 92 (26.6%) baking products, 54 (15.6%) non-alcoholic beverages, 52 (15.0%) cereals, and 35 (10.1%) snacks. From 335 classified, 96.7% were unhealthy. These products utilized, on average, 2.9 promotional techniques in their package. The use of bold graphics (p<0.001) and images (p=0.01) were related with the nutritional profile. The higher the number of promotional techniques, the higher the probability of being an unhealthy product (RP=1.02; IC95%: 1.01-1.04). Furthermore, we found a positive linear relationship between the promotional techniques and the calorie levels (β:30,6; 95% CI 14,9-46,3; p<0,001), sodium (β:36,3 ; 95% CI 16,2-56,3; p<0,001) y carbohydrates (β:8,5; 95% CI 6,3-10,6; p<0,001). Conclusion: There was a relationship between promotional techniques included in the packages of industrialized products aimed at children and their nutritional profile.
  • Capacidad antioxidante in vitro de extractos fenólicos libres y ligados en harinas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

    Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Chanamé Rodríguez, Cinthya Maritza; Cruz Reyes, Miriam Gisela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-11)
    Antioxidants can act to protect cells from the oxidative damage, so they may play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Andean cereals are foods originating from Perú that stand out for their nutritional value and antioxidant capacity. Whole grains can be subjected to grinding processes thus obtaining flours. Antioxidant capacity can be affected to the type of processing and the way it is sold to the public. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare antioxidant capacity by free radical sequestration methods, iron chelation and the composite index of antioxidant potency between kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa in its three presentations: artisanal, bulk and industrial. Methodology: The analysis was performed in food biochemistry laboratories at the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences (2016). The antioxidant capacity of the kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa flour samples was analyzed in their bulk, industrial and artisanal presentations through the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, after a composite index of antioxidant potency was determined. All samples were analyzed by molecular spectroscopy and riplicate. Results: The antioxidant capacity was higher in kañiwa than in the samples of kiwicha and quinoa (DPPH:19.20-120.41; ABTS: 30.70-320.59 y FRAP: 88.23-269.28 μmol TE/g) in its three types of extractions. This was confirmed by the composite index of antioxidant capacity. The major results were found in the acid and alkaline extract. The bulk and industrial presentations showed greater antioxidant capacity but this does not happen in all cases. Conclusions: The kañiwa flour had a higher antioxidant capacity. The alkaline and acid extractions presented greater antioxidant capacity. A greater antioxidant capacity was obtained by the bulk and industrial presentations.
  • Comparación del perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de chía (Salvia hispánica L.) orgánica y convencional (variedades blanca y negra) cultivadas en el Perú, como una alternativa para aceites vegetales comestibles

    Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Alvites Misajel, Kiara Carolina (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-07)
    Objective: To compare the fatty acid profile of organic and conventional chia (Salvia hispanica L.) cultivars (white and black varieties) cultivated in Peru as an alternative for edible vegetable oils. Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out, which included a sample of chia seeds, from which the oil was extracted in Soxhlet oil ether machine. The acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. The sums of monounsaturated and saturated polyunsaturated fatty acids were determined. Likewise, the rates of atherogenicity, thrombogenicity and hypo / hypercholesterolemic were estimated. Median and interquartile range were obtained and the Friedman test was used. To evaluate the normality, the Shapiro-wilk test was used. For the quantification of the fatty acids of the chia, organic and conventional seed samples, the services of Certifications of Peru S.A. (CERPER) ®. Results: The main fatty acids present in organic and conventional chia oil, according to the order of abundance, were alpha-linolenic acid> linoleic acid> oleic acid> palmitic acid> stannic acid. As for the alpha-linolenic fatty acid (omega 3), the oil obtained from organic black and white chia seeds presented values slightly higher 63.65 (63.59-63.70) and 64.56 (63.70 -64.42) compared to conventional culture oil 63.05 (62.40-63.70) and 63.52 (63.34-63.70). The content of fatty acids, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated in chia oil, organic, showed values of 82.33% and 6.05%, being higher than those found in oil obtained from chia, from conventional culture 81, 78% and 6.17%. The content of saturated fatty acids presented a lower value of 10.70% in organic chia oil and 11.06% in chia oil obtained from conventional culture seed. The omega-3 / omega-6 ratio of chia oil, organically grown, had a higher value of 3.52, while in the conventional oil, a value of 3.42. Finally, the atherogenic and thrombogenic index showed low values, indicating high amounts of fatty acids with antiatherogenic properties in chia oil. Conclusion: The content of fatty acids in organic and conventional chia oil is within the range reported for other countries. No statistical difference was found in the comparison of both cultures.
  • Identificación de la microbiota intestinal de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 metabólicamente controlados y no controlados

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana Mercedes; Cóndor Marín, Katherine Marlene; Hamasaki Matos, Angie Joyce; Ugarte Gil, César (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-14)
    Introduction: The increasing incidence of patients with the diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) has shifted the focus of new research on preventative therapeutic approaches. Recent evidence suggests an important association between the prognosis of patients with DM2 and their gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota linked to modifications that may positively or negatively change the host’s metabolism. Methodology: The study included 26 patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in the Endocrinology service of a tertiary referral hospital, between August 2016 and February 2017. Stool samples were collected from each patient as well as their food consumption frequency record and relevant clinical data. The fecal bacterial microbiota was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify 13 different genera of bacterias from type 2 diabetic patients metabolically controlled versus uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients. Results: At least one genus of colonic bacteria was identified in controlled and non-controlled diabetic patients in 5 (71.4%) and 11 (57.9%) respectively. The most frequent bacterial genera found in the controlled patients were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Prevotella; while in the non-controlled patients were Prevotella, Firmicutes and Clostridium Conclusions: The gut microbiota of a host is unique to each patient and varies constantly. It was observed the presence of 11 bacteria in total. No statistical difference was found in the comparison of both groups.

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