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  • Fruits, vegetables and sweetened beverages dietary patterns among individuals with glucose metabolism disorder

    Segura Páucar, Eddy Roberto; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga Chávez, Renzo Mauricio; Martínez Velarde, Dalia Jazmín (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-04-14)
    Introduction: Little is known about dietary patterns among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Peru. This study aimed at determining whether there is association between glucosa metabolism disorder and consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweetened beverages. Material and Methods: Secondary analisis of a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Tumbes, a región in northern Peru. The outcomes variable were consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweetened beverages, defined by self-report, whilst the exposure was glucose metabolism disorder status (euglicemic, with T2DM bit not aware of diagnosis, and with T2DM and aware of diagnosis), defined by the oral glucose tolerance test. To assess the associations of interest, Poisson regression models with robust variance were created, and prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. Results: A total of 1607 individuals, mean age 48.2 (SD:10.6); and 809 (50.3%) females, was enrolled. The prevalence of T2DM was 11.0% (95%CI: 9.5%-12.6%), and out of them, 105 (59.7%) had previous diagnosis. Only 213 (13.3%) reported consuming sweetened beverages > once/week, whilst 409 (25.5%) and 736 (45.8%) reported consuming vegetables and fruits, respectively. Those with previous T2DM diagnosis had lower probability of consuming sweetened beverages (sometimes vs. never: PR=0.57; 95%CI: 0.41-0.78, and >once/week vs. never PR=0.39; 95%CI: 0.18-0.85). Both the consumption of fruits and vegetables were similar among those with and without previous T2DM diagnosis. Conclusions: Compared to euglycemic subjects, individual with previous T2DM diagnosis had lower consumption of sweetened beverages, but such association was not present among those with T2DM but without previous diagnosis. Fruits and vegetables consumption were not different between the different glucose metabolism disorder categories.
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  • Association between scapulo-vertebral distance and shoulder pain in athletes from a private university in Lima: preliminary study

    Sánchez Huamash, Claudia María; Ospinal Muedas, Evelyn Susan; Sánchez Sánchez, Kathya Elizabeth (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-04-15)
    Introduction: Shoulder pain cases represents about 7% to 50% in the population and its prevalence in athletes between 15 and 19 years old is about 43.5%. Additionally, another pathology in the upper limb is scapular dyskinesia, caused by the scapular´s movements and position alteration. Objective: To determine association between scapula-vertebral distance and shoulder pain in athletes from a private university in Lima. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study - preliminary. The study population were athletes from a private university in Lima. The shoulder pain variables were measured by four orthopedic tests Jobe, Patte, Gerber, and Hawkins Kennedy, where shoulder pain (YES) is considered when at least one of the tests is positive and no shoulder pain (NO) when all tests are negative. And the scapular-vertebral distance variables were evaluated in three positions, by the lateral scapular sliding test (LSST); measured in (cm). Results: 51 athletes from climbing, rugby, volleyball, and basketball sports were evaluated in this study. The age ranged was 19 to 21 years. The scapula-vertebral distance of the right side was mayor than the left. 17.65% had shoulder pain. The frequency of training and sex associated with shoulder pain (p<0.05). The scapula-vertebral distance from athletes who had shoulder pain was higher than those without it (p<0.05). Conclusion: Was found association between scapula-vertebral and shoulder pain in athletes from a private university in Lima. Its recommended doing more researches with a considerable sample to reach an adequate statistical power.
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  • Association between preference of pediatric dentistry behavior management technique and parenting styles of parents of children aged 5 to 13 years cared for in a university health center of a private university in Lima, Peru

    López Rodríguez, Gabriela del Pilar; Reyes Bossio, Mario; Cerrón Vásquez, Andrea Milagros; Meza Pucuhuayla, Adamary Iriana (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-04-15)
    Aim: To assess the association between preference of pediatric management techniques and parenting styles of parents of children aged 5-13 years cared for in a university health center in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: The total of the respondents were 160 parents (77 % are female and 78 % belong to the age range of 30 years and over). Parenting styles are assessed using the self-paced questionnaire Parenting Style Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ). The preference of the behavior management techniques was evaluated by means of an informative sheet of own elaboration where six techniques are included according to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) of 2015. As father's age in intervals of years, sex of the father, educational level, number of children, sex of the children, age of the child in years and order of birth of the children. Chi Square and Fisher's Exact Test were analyzed for bivariate analysis and for the numerical variable used Kruskal Wallis. Results: There is no association between preference of behavior management technique and parenting styles. The prevalence of authoritative parenting style and a greater preference for communication techniques were determined, the latter regardless of the parenting style he manages at home. Conclusions: The preference of the behavior management technique is not associated with the parenting styles. However, the prevalence of communication techniques leads us to conclude that more studies should be carried out around it.
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  • Qualitative study with a phenomenological focus on the reasons for replacing main meals and choice alternatives, in first and second-cycle students of Architecture at a private university in Lima, Peru 2019

    Uribe Chincha, Tula Gloria; Torres Slimming, Paola Alejandra; Aguinaga Umeres, Angela Zulma; Pinto Hernández, Yanira Anahí (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-14)
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  • Immediate complications in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction: comparison between different surgical techniques in patients with breast cancer at the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases in Lima, Peru 2014-2018

    Araujo Castillo, Roger Vladimir; López Viena, Karen Gabriela; Málaga Avendaño, Nicolás (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-03-18)
    Introduction: The number of breast reconstructions after breast cancer is increasing over the years. This study evaluates complications in the first 30 days after breast reconstruction post mastectomy in different surgical techniques for patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Methods: Retrospective cohort including patients who underwent breast reconstruction post mastectomy at the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) 2014-2018. Outcomes were immediate complications (first 30 days after surgery). Cumulative incidences were obtained. Association with clinical and demographic factors was evaluated using adjusted relative risk (aRR) obtained via Poisson Regression with robust variances. Results: 2092 patients had mastectomy at INEN during the study period, but only 271 underwent breast reconstruction. From them, 148 had complete data and fulfilled the selection criteria. Median age was 45 years old, 62.16% had overweight/obesity, and 35.85% had clinical stage III. 28.38% had immediate autologous reconstruction, 33.11% immediate prosthetic reconstruction, and 38.51% delayed reconstruction of any type. 48.65% had some surgical complication in the first 30 days, being the most frequent dehiscence (20.27%) and superficial infection (18.92%). Overweight/Obesity (aRR 1.96; 1.24-3.10) and having immediate reconstruction (aRR 1.54; 1.04-2.27) were associated to complications. Prosthetic technique use was protective (aRR 0.59; 0.40-0.85), as well as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (aRR 0.65; 0.42-0.99). Conclusions: The prosthetic surgical technique had less early complication incidence than the autologous one. On the other hand, immediate surgery after mastectomy was more likely to present complications compared with delaying. Variables as obesity, neoadjuvant therapy and ECOG intervened in the incidence of complications.
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  • Efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate therapy in patients with male idiopathic infertility: A systematic review

    Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Enriquez Gutierrez, Gianfranco Fabricio; Sosaya Muñoz, Fernando Antonio (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-22)
    Introduction: Male idiopathic infertility is a rising problem globally and a significant challenge in clinical practice. Clomiphene citrate emerges as a promising therapy. Our objective is to synthesize available primary evidence about the efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate treatment for male idiopathic infertility. Materials and Methods: We carried out a Systematic Review. We performed the primary search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, WoS, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane and Trip Database until December 2020 for RCTs evaluating the effect of clomiphene citrate therapy compared to placebo and other therapies on adult males from any age group with idiopathic infertility diagnosis according to WHO 2010 criteria and ICD-10. The outcomes we studied were divided between efficacy: pregnancy and spermogram changes; and security: adverse effects. We evaluated the risk of bias using the Cochrane® Risk of Bias tool. Results: From 1010 registries, we selected 11 RCTs. Sample sizes varied between 23 and 141 participants. Five studies compared clomiphene citrate versus placebo and the remaining six compared clomiphene versus other therapies. The clomiphene doses used in the intervention group were 25mg and 50mg. For the main outcome, pregnancy, nine studies presented results, only one had a positive effect with unclear results (Ghanem et al. RR 3,00; 95% CI; 1,09 –8,25; p<0,05). Seven trials reported a significant increase in sperm concentration, three reported increased motility and one in morphology. However, these changes did not reflect on the increase in pregnancies. Six studies reported adverse effects out of 291 patients that received clomiphene citrate. 12 participants (4.12%) reported adverse effects, including headache and visual symptoms, no serious adverse effects were presented. Conclusion: Due to the variability and heterogeneity of the studies, a qualitative synthesis could not be realized. Nevertheless, evidence suggests pregnancy would not be achieved and so, their use in male idiopathic infertility could not be recommended. Furthermore, better quality randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size are required to measure its effect more validly and reliably.
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  • Type 2 diabetes and anxiety symptoms: a cross-sectional study in Peru

    Torres Slimming, Paola; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Arteaga Zarate, María de Guadalupe; Demarini Olivares, Gina Elizabeth (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-21)
    Objective: To determine the association between diabetes mellitus type 2 and anxiety symptoms using a population-based study from the semi urban population of Tumbes, Peru. Research design and methods: The present study was an observational, analytical cross-sectional one. Data from a population-based study conducted in Tumbes, Peru between 2016 and 2017 was analyzed. The variables studied were T2DM, defined using fasting glucose and anxiety symptoms, using the Goldberg scale. Results: Data from 1609 individuals was analyzed, with mean age 48.16 (SD:10.61) and 810 women (50.3%), where a total of 161 were classified as having T2DM (10.0%; CI 95%: 8.5%-11.4%) and 675 individuals had anxiety symptoms (41.95%; CI 95%:39.5%-44.3%). A statistically significant association was found between DM2 and anxiety symptoms (p <0.001). Furthermore, those patients aware of their diagnosis of diabetes over 5 years had a 56% (95% CI: 25% - 96%) higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms compared to participants without DM2. Conclusion: An association was found between DM2 and anxiety symptoms; there being a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms in participants previously aware of having DM2. Periodic monitoring of anxiety symptoms is recommended in these patients.
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  • Coverage and factors associated with incomplete vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in infants aged 12 to 23 months: secondary analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey

    Guibovich Perez, Guillermo Eduardo; Piiroja Devrout, Ricardo Adrien (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-20)
    A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the secondary analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) 2019, with the objective of estimating the incomplete coverage of PTD and determining the factors associated with it in infants aged 12 to 23 months in Peru. Pearson's chi-square test was used for the bivariate analysis and the magnitude of the association was estimated using the crude (PRc) and adjusted (RPa) prevalence ratios. Incomplete DPT coverage was 12.4% (CI 11.88-14.79) for the entire population studied. Infants in the third order of birth or more (PRa: 1.37; CI 1.01-1.84) and infants born by non-institutionalized delivery were more likely than children whose delivery was institutionalized (PRa; 1.70; CI 1.15-2.54). The probability of having incomplete coverage decreased by having 6 or more prenatal check-ups (PRa; 0.58; CI 0.46-0.73), as well as living in rural areas compared to living in urban areas (PRa; 0.64; CI 0.48-0.85). Incomplete DPT vaccination in infants aged 12 to 23 months in Peru has a high level (> 10%), placing this population group at risk of suffering from these immunopreventable diseases and triggering outbreaks and epidemics in the community. The factors associated with incomplete vaccination are related to lower socioeconomic conditions and limited access to health services, which is why it is necessary to focus the interventions of the National Immunization Health Strategy to reverse this situation.
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  • Predicting mortality in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review of prognostic models

    Escalante Kanashiro, Raffo Lucio Joaquín; Bert Dulanto, Aimée (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-14)
    OBJECTIVE. To synthesize the evidence regarding prognostic models to predict mortality in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY. The current study followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (The PRISMA Group, 2020) Statement. A literature search on prognostic models aimed to predict mortality in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis was conducted by three revisers. We included prospective and retrospective studies where prognostic models predicting mortality were either developed or validated in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Three reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies using the PROBAST tool. (¨Prediction model study Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool¨), which assesses both the risk of bias (RoB) and the applicability of each model. A descriptive analysis of each of the prediction models developed, their performance and the population characteristics of each article was conducted. RESULTS. Only 6 articles met the selection criteria. There was a total of 6 prognostic rules, one in each article. Most studies (5 out of 6) were retrospective cohorts, only 1 study was a prospective case-control study. When adding the population of all the studies, there were a total of 3,553 participants, with samples ranging from 103 participants to 1070 participants. All the studies had a high risk of bias according to the PROBAST tool in the overall assessment. The overall assessment showed that 3 studies had a low concern of applicability, 2 high concern and 1 unclear concern. Only 5 studies developed new prediction rules. In general, the presented models had a good discriminatory ability, with areas under the curve fluctuating between 0.65 up to 0.91. The predictive model with the highest discriminatory power was the one reported by Horita, et - al. with an AUC of 0.910 in the development cohort and 0.893 in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION. Considering that pulmonary tuberculosis is a highly prevalent disease in low-income countries, it would be very useful to have quality tools that allow healthcare personnel to be able to catalog patients with a higher risk of death so that they can receive priority medical attention.
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  • Access to health services and its association with chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years of age from low socioeconomic levels in Peru. A population-based analysis

    Maguiña Quispe, Jorge Luis; Gonzales Rojas, Carlos Alejandro; Romero Cerna, Mario Sergio (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-14)
    Introduction: Chronic malnutrition (Stunting) is one of the main problems in developing countries. On the other hand, the health of the mother and her timely access to a health service is a relevant aspect, but the relationship that the fact of being born in a non-institutional environment has on chronic malnutrition in children under 5 is not yet known. Objectives: Our analysis aims at evaluating the association between institutional delivery and chronic malnutrition in the first 5 years of life using the ENDES-2017 database in low and very low socioeconomic levels. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional observational study with data from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES). All the analyses were carried out considering the complex sample design (svy), considering that the database comes from a survey at the time of analysis. Chi square was used for bivariate analysis for categorical variables. Crude prevalence ratios (RPc) and adjusted (RPa) were obtained through the construction of generalized linear models, using the Poisson family and the log link function. A confidence level of 95% was considered, significant p <0.05. Results: A total of 11,734 records were analyzed. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years of age was 20.50% and the prevalence of non-institutional delivery was 15.53%. 92.47% of the children who received their complete vaccinations up to one year of life had institutional delivery in urban areas, while only 85.71% in rural areas. The multivariate analysis shows that not having an institutional delivery increases the probability of developing chronic malnutrition by 1.42 times. The higher the mother’s educational level, the less likely the minor is to develop chronic malnutrition. The greater the number of children under 5 years of age, the greater the risk of developing chronic malnutrition (PR: 1.39 and 1.67). Conclusion: It cannot be concluded that there is an association between non-institutional childbirth and chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years of age from low and extremely low socioeconomic levels in Peru.
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  • Is there an association between the level of stress and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders in doctors?

    Bravo Cucci, Sergio; Barahona Bustamante, Déborah Jael; Montoya Machuca, Stephanny Macold (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2020-04-20)
    Objective: To determine the association between perceived stress and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders in physicians at La Caleta de Chimbote Hospital and Eleazar Guzmán Barrón Regional Hospital in Ancash, Peru. Methods. An exploratory cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 116 physicians. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to determine the areas of musculoskeletal pain and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) to assess the level of stress. The sociodemographic and occupational characteristics of the population were evaluated from the measurement of proportions and measures of central tendency and dispersion. For the bivariate analysis, Fisher's exact test and Chi2 were used. Finally, the multivariate analysis, based on a Logistics Regression model, was calculated with the crude and adjusted Odd Ratio (OR) [95% Confidence Intervals (CI)]. Results: The responses of 71 evaluations from a group of people between ages 34 to 59 (median 48) with a higher predominance of males (72%) were analyzed. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of non-specific musculoskeletal disorders and the perception of stress (p = 0.066); However, cervical, lumbar, hip / leg and ankle / foot pain specifically did show a significant association (p = 0.009; p = 0.033; p = 0.033 and p = 0.034, respectively). Finally, the cervical area maintained its association when performing the crude analysis and adjusted to physical activity (ORc = 7.29; 95% CI = 1.51-35.21 / ORa = 7.29 95% CI = 1.25-42.37). Anatomical areas such as lumbar, hip / leg and ankle / foot showed a non-significant association when performing the multivariate analysis.
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  • Antibiotic prophylaxis for ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Carreazo Pariasca, Nilton Yhuri; Chira Alarcon, Patricia Fiorela; Romaña Castillo, Natalia (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-04-30)
    Introduction: This study evaluates the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention and development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in pediatric patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to promote best practices and use the appropriate resources. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients, between 1 and 18 years, who were admitted and had moderate or severe TBI diagnosis at the Pediatric Emergency Hospital, Lima-Peru. Results: One hundred and forty-five patients with diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI), who received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, were evaluated. We obtained an incidence density of 44.60/1000 ventilator days. No relationship was found between antibiotic prophylaxis and the development of VAP. Likewise, it was found that performing oral hygiene with chlorhexidine reduces the risk of developing VAP by 45% (p = 0.03, CI 0.33-0.95).In addition, the presence of purulent secretions (IC 2.23-11.45), solid (, IC 1.67-11.34) or dense ( IC 2.91-16.75) has a 3, 5 and 6 times higher risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic prophylaxis did not show to have a positive effect on the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia; However, other measures such as oral hygiene with chlorhexidine were associated with reducing the risk of developing VAP. The proportion of patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis was 81 (55.6%) and the incidence density of VAP found in the study is within the standards found in the available literature. Furthermore, the type of discharge was identified as a predictor of increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Even more studies focused on this population are required.
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  • Association between the number of hours that an adolescent from 10 to 17 years old performs domestic activity and the presence of pain

    Torres-Slimming, Paola Alejandra; Quispe Trinidad, Almendra Kristell; Villacrez Anchante, Jhosselyn Milagros (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-03-22)
    Background: The pain in general, located in different areas of the body, presents with higher prevalence in adolescents. At the national level it is estimated that three out of four children between 6 and 17 years of age dedicate approximately 11 hours a week to activities within their home, which implies repetitive mechanics, muscle overloads and as a consequence the presence of pain. Objectives: Determine the association between the number of hours an adolescent does household activities and the presence of pain. Design: Cross sectional analytical observational that analyzes a secondary population data base of the INEI in urban and rural areas of the 24 departments of Peru and in the Constitutional Province of Callao. The data collection period was from October to December 2015. Patients/Materials: The secondary base of the INEI was included for children and adolescents from 10 to 17 years old. The dependent variable was defined as the presence of pain in the back, head or bones. The independent variable was defined as the number of hours dedicated to domestic activities and was categorized. The descriptive analysis shows absolute and relative frequencies for the categorical variables and in the bivariate, the Chi2 test was used. Finally, in the multivariate analysis, the Poisson model was used considering the 95% confidence intervals. Results: The results obtained according to our objectives show that adolescents who perform domestic activities for a time greater than 3 to 13 hours have a 10% lower risk of presenting pain compared to those of 1 to 3 hours (CI = 0.84 - 0.97) and a p value = 0.007. In a multivariate analysis adjusted to area, region, sex, age (years) -categorized, reason for which they carry out domestic work, adolescents who carry out dangerous tasks and work outside the home; adolescents who perform domestic activities in a time greater than 3 to 13 hours have a 5% lower risk of presenting pain compared to those of 1 to 3 hours (CI = 0.87 - 1.04) and a value of p = 0.320 Conclusion: Our study was able to determine that there is an association between the number of hours an adolescent performs domestic activities and the presence of pain.
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  • Microbiological quality and prevalence of pathogens that cause foodborne diseases (ATS) in pasteurized and unpasteurized artisanal fresh cheese: Systematic Review

    Medina‐Pizzali, Maria Luisa; Zegarra Samamé, Saby Inés; Bullón Black, Solange Stephanie; Silva-Peschiera, Rafaela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-03-24)
    Revisión sistemática sobre la calidad microbiológica y prevalencia de patógenos causantes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) en queso fresco artesanal pasteurizado y sin pasteurizar. Objetivo: El objetivo principal de esta revisión sistemática fue determinar si hay diferencias en la calidad microbiológica y prevalencia de patógenos causantes de ETA en quesos frescos artesanales pasteurizados y sin pasteurizar. Criterios de elegibilidad: Artículos de investigación primaria, publicado dentro de 2000-2020, en los idiomas inglés, español o portugués y cuyos términos claves fueron queso fresco artesanal, calidad microbiológica, prevalencia de ETA. Fuente de datos: La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science y OpenGrey. Evaluación de riesgo de sesgos de los estudios: Se adaptó el instrumento SYRCLE´S para evaluar los distintos sesgos que pudieron afectar a los estudios seleccionados para el análisis. Resultados: Se incluyeron 15 estudios para el análisis. Los microorganismos patógenos más comunes encontrados en los quesos frescos artesanales fueron L.monocytogenes, E.coli y Salmonella spp. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de microorganismos patógenos en el queso fresco artesanal sin pasteurizar a comparación de aquellos pasteurizados. Discusión: Los resultados señalan que la pasteurización es un proceso tecnológico clave para asegurar la inocuidad del queso. Los estudios presentaron sesgos de selección de datos, de información y de medición. Ninguno presentó un protocolo publicado, lo cual le resta credibilidad y validez a los artículos evaluados. Por otro lado, no se evaluaron pre-prints ni literatura gris a nivel mundial (solo europea). Otros: Registro en PROSPERO: CRD42020220568.
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  • Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and practices on prevention and control measures in dengue infection between families with or without dengue cases after “El Niño Costero” phenomenon at the District of Palpa - Ica during January's 2019

    Sánchez Chiroque, Juan Francisco; Cruz Cutty, Lourdes Marylin; Baella Vigil, Gilda Viera Milagros (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2020-11-11)
    Introduction: Dengue is an endemic disease in Peru and is considered a public health problem. During and after the “El Niño Costero” phenomenon in 2017, the Department of Ica presented 4384 cases of dengue, the highest number of cases in this region. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted and included all the families in the district of Palpa, Ica. The main exposure was the report of a previous dengue infection of any family member and we want to find an association with the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue. Results: We found that the participants who had been exposed to dengue had a 63% higher probability (PR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.58) of having a high level of knowledge about dengue in comparison with the participants of families who did not have a history of dengue. For the levels of attitudes (PR: 0.90; IC 95%: 0.60 – 1.35) and practices (PR: 0.88; IC 95%: 0.51 – 1.51) no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: Our study found that previous exposure to dengue is associated with a high level of knowledge but, it is not associated with a high level of attitude or practices in families in the district of Palpa-Ica.
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  • Effectiveness of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese adults for cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

    Gutierrez Sierra, Manuel; Hernández Díaz, Adrián Vladimir; Tejada Caminiti, Romina Arely; Silva Licera, Humberto Rafael; Almeyda Yglesias, María Antoinette (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-05-04)
    Objectives: to determine the effectiveness of bariatric surgery to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in morbidly obese patients, compared with a non-surgical treatment and no intervention control group. Methods: a systematic review was carried out with cohort-type studies that evaluated, with a minimum follow-up of one year, morbidly obese adults who had undergone bariatric surgery compared to a control group of non-surgical treatment and without intervention in relation to the cardiovascular events such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in morbidly obese patients. Results: 14 studies were selected that met our inclusion criteria. 44,912 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and 208,347 non-surgical controls were included. The high heterogeneity of the included studies did not allow the meta-analysis to be carried out. However, most of the individual results show decreased risk of the outcomes studied. A subgroup analysis was performed, where Bariatric Roux-en-Y surgery reduces the risk of coronary artery disease by approximately 60%. In morbidly obese diabetic patients, our calculations showed a risk reduction of 80% for cardiovascular mortality and 70% for total mortality. Finally, our calculations show a 58% decrease in cardiovascular mortality in studies with a follow-up of 2 or more years. Conclusions: Our study suggests that bariatric surgery is beneficial for morbidly obese adult patients at risk of presenting cardiovascular events.
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  • Association between frequency of pain in the oral cavity and time elapsed since the last dental

    Proaño Falconi, Diego José; Pietrapiana León y León, Francesco (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-01-26)
    Objective: To determine the association between frequency of pain in the oral cavity and time elapsed since the last dental visit based on data collected from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in a United States’ population. Materials and Methods: The study was observational, retrospective, transversal and analytical. Data was obtained from NHANES 2017-2018 questionnaire and database. Population, once adapted to the study’s selection criteria was of 3696. Uni-variable analysis was conducted through absolute and relative frequencies, bi-variable, compared the principal variables through Chi Squared and multi-variable associated this two with the rest through Poisson’s regression. Association by prevalence ratios was reported and 95% confidence intervals were included. Results: When participants chose “often” or “very often” in pain frequency, a positive association was shown while only using the dependent and independent variables (PR=1.27 C.I. = 0.97 a 1.66). When compared, analysis showed that people who waited more than a year, sought dental attention because of pain. Once all categories were added to the regression, prevalence ratios are higher (PR=1.43 C.I 1.11 a 1.84). Conclusions: Results show association between frequency of pain in the oral cavity, time elapsed since the last dental visit and the other categories, hence, strategies to reduce this period of time must be proposed.
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  • Association between self-reported bruxism and the academic performance in students of a Private University of Lima – Peru

    Caballero Garcia, Carmen Stefany; Huañec Huañec Paucar, Cynthia Lila; Ayma Leon, Valery Isabel (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-04-08)
    Objective: Evaluate the association between self-reported bruxism and academic performance in students at a university in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: A total of 203 students were evaluated in this study, between the ages of 19 to 35. Self-reported bruxism was measured using the 'Bruxism Assessment Questionnaire'. Likewise, academic performance was evaluated using the Approval Index Scale. In addition, other variables were included such as employment status, socioeconomic level, stress, anxiety, among others. The association of variables were factored in using the chi-square test and the logistic regression presented the unadjusted and adjusted analisis. Results: The frequency of self-reported awake bruxism and sleep bruxism was 53.20% and 36.45%, respectively. Evidence revealed there was a statistically significant association between awake bruxism with stress and anxiety, and sleep bruxism with anxiety. Students with high academic performance (OR=2.36; IC del 95%:1.06-5.23) and low academic performance (OR=5.72; IC del 95%:1.28-25.57) were found to be more likely to have awake bruxism than those with medium academic performance. Conclusions: This study revealed a statistically significant association between self-reported awake bruxism and academic performance. However, in the future it is suggested to carry out a study with focus only on students with bruxism and with a larger sample of participants with low academic performance to confirm the association found between these variables.
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  • Relationship between adherence to an asthma management regimen and hospitalization in asthmatic children from a private clinic in Lima, Peru

    Maguiña Quispe, Jorge Luis; Chiarella Ortigosa, Pascual Renato; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Diaz Flores, Rommel; Rojas Luna, David Ismael (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2019-03-21)
    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects about 300 million people, where a significant proportion is the paediatric population. There are currently no studies in Peru where regimens seeking adherence to asthma control are related to a decrease in hospitalization. OBJECTIVES: Determine the relationship between adherence to an asthma management regimen and the incidence of hospitalization in asthmatic children aged 5 to 12 years in a private clinic in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted at all headquarters of the private clinic. 388 patients between 5 and 12 years of age were included, of them 76 abandoned the asthma management regimen voluntarily during the study period. Therefore, 312 patients with asthma diagnosis who entered the asthma management regimen were obtained as a sample between 2012 and 2013. The exposure variable was adherence to the asthma management regimen, defined as attached to the patient who at least attends a medical visit every 2 months or 6 visits per year. The result variable (hospitalization) refers to the patient belonging to the regimen and entered at least 1 day in the hospitalized area in the period 2013-2018. Other variables we analyzed were sex, parent education, housing area, treatment, BMI (z-score) and asthma classification (GINA 2016). RESULTS: A total of 312 records of asthma patients were analyzed, where, 273 (87.50%) patients were properly attached to the asthma management regimen; and only 42 (13.46%) 39 (12.50%) were hospitalized patients were not attached to the asthma management regimen; 16 (41.03%) were hospitalized. In the bivariate and multivariate analysis, an association was found between hospitalization and adherence to the asthma management regimen (RR, 0.22, CI95%, 0.12 -0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Good adherence to medical visits from the asthma management regimen would be a protective factor to prevent hospitalization in paediatric patients aged 5 to 12 years.
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  • Efficacy of alcohol gel versus alcoholic wipes on hands to reduce bacterial contamination of mobile devices of sixth-year medical students at a Peruvian University in 2019

    Alvarado Cutipa-Flores, Germán; Poletti Ferrara, Giovanni; Poletti Jabbour, Giordana Francesca; Elejalde Farfán, Natalia Andrea (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2021-03-15)
    CONTEXT: Nowadays, cellphones are susceptible to bacterial contamination and, therefore, they are potential reservoirs for disease transmission. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the use of alcoholic agents, in different presentations, for the decontamination of the hands and/or cell phones, therefore, to prevent the contamination of mobile devices. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the anti-bacterial hand gel versus antibacterial wipes in the decontamination of the hands, to reduce the bacterial contamination of the cellphones of med students. PARTICIPANTS: 60 cellphones of med students in their 6th year at a Peruvian university, 2019 INTERVENTION: An experimental study and cultures of gram-negatives and positive bacteria were carried out before and after a 48-hour intervention. The participants were told to use two different agents with alcohol as they were divided in four groups (n=15 each group). The sample was taken with swabs and enriched transport tubes. The analysis was made by intention to treat. RESULTS: Basal contamination of 53.33%. Bacteria isolated in basal culture: Staphylococcus coagulase negative (36%), Staphylococcus aureus (5%), Pseudomonas stutzeri (3.33%), Bacillus spp (3.33%), Candida sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bordetella hinzii, Acinetobacter baumanii and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (1.67%). Lower final contamination proportion was found in the phones of the groups that were told to use an alcoholic agent (27-53%), compared to the control group (67%), however p value was not significant. No difference was reported when we compared specific bacteria, except for Enterobacter cloacae (p=0,05) CONCLUSIONS: In the present exploratory study, there was no difference found between the intervention groups, except for Enterobacter cloacae. More studies are required.
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