• Capacidad antioxidante in vitro de extractos fenólicos libres y ligados en harinas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Chanamé Rodríguez, Cinthya Maritza; Cruz Reyes, Miriam Gisela (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-11)
      Antioxidants can act to protect cells from the oxidative damage, so they may play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Andean cereals are foods originating from Perú that stand out for their nutritional value and antioxidant capacity. Whole grains can be subjected to grinding processes thus obtaining flours. Antioxidant capacity can be affected to the type of processing and the way it is sold to the public. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare antioxidant capacity by free radical sequestration methods, iron chelation and the composite index of antioxidant potency between kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa in its three presentations: artisanal, bulk and industrial. Methodology: The analysis was performed in food biochemistry laboratories at the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences (2016). The antioxidant capacity of the kañiwa, kiwicha and quinoa flour samples was analyzed in their bulk, industrial and artisanal presentations through the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, after a composite index of antioxidant potency was determined. All samples were analyzed by molecular spectroscopy and riplicate. Results: The antioxidant capacity was higher in kañiwa than in the samples of kiwicha and quinoa (DPPH:19.20-120.41; ABTS: 30.70-320.59 y FRAP: 88.23-269.28 μmol TE/g) in its three types of extractions. This was confirmed by the composite index of antioxidant capacity. The major results were found in the acid and alkaline extract. The bulk and industrial presentations showed greater antioxidant capacity but this does not happen in all cases. Conclusions: The kañiwa flour had a higher antioxidant capacity. The alkaline and acid extractions presented greater antioxidant capacity. A greater antioxidant capacity was obtained by the bulk and industrial presentations.
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    • Polifenoles totales y flavonoides en diferentes extractos de harinas industriales, a granel y artesanales de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amarantus caudatus) y kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule)

      Ramos Escudero, Fernando; Liria Domínguez, María Reyna; Viñas Ospino, Adriana Margarita (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-07-01)
      Introduction: Andean cereals from Peru are rich in a wide range of bioactive compounds e.g. flavonoids phenolic acids with known effects on human health. These cereals are sold as grains and as flours. The transformation of these cereals can affect their healthy properties. Objective: Compare the total phenolic and contents of different forms of extractable phenolics (free, acidic and basic flavonoid hydrolysis) from artisanal, bulk and industrial flours of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amarantus caudatus) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Methodology: This analysis was performed in Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Chorrillos. Were analyzed three kinds of cereals: kañiwa, kiwicha and quinua and three presentations of them: artisanal, in bulk and industrial and three extractions: non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed in acid and basic mediums. The samples were analyzed using visible molecular absorption spectroscopy. For the determination of polyphenols, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used and for the determination of flavonoids the colorimetric reaction of aluminium chloride was applied. Results: The results indicated that the amount of total polyphenols (548.07mg GAE/100G) and total flavonoids (409.01mg CE/100G) was higher in kañiwa flour samples, and the acid and basic hydrolysis increased the total polyphenols and flavonoids. The majority of the results indicated high values of polyphenols in artisanal and in bulk samples. In flavonoids, the results were variable. Discussion: The high content of bioactives in kañiwa flour samples was due to the resistance in strong weather and the pigmentation. The results found in the artisanal, bulk and industrial presentations showed a difference of content of polyphenols but this was not a pattern in all the samples. It is because other factors can affect: the variety of the product, harvest conditions, storage, industrial and sale process. Conclusion: the kañiwa flour had the highest score of biocomponents and the liberation of them increased in the acid and basic hydrolysis. The artisanal, in bulk and industrial flours showed a higher content of polyphenols, but it did not occur with the content of flavonoids. The content of phenolic compounds was affected by the process of transformation but the flours analyzed maintained important content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Therefore, the consumption of these products has benefits in health.
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