• Ganancia de peso gestacional y su asociación con el pequeño para la edad gestacional: cohorte retrospectiva en un hospital 2000-2010

      Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Alburquerque Duglio, Miguel Adrian; Pizango Mallqui, Orion; Tejeda Mariaca, José Eduardo (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2015-02-04)
      Objective: to identify the main risk factors for term infants small for gestational age (SGA). Materials and methods: we conducted a retrospective cohort study using the database of Hospital María Auxiliadora, Lima, Peru, with information of all pregnant women during the period 2000-2010. We analyzed maternal age, parity, educational level, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, number of prenatal visits (PNV), the presence of diseases such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, urinary tract infection and gestational diabetes as risk factors for SGA. The weight for gestational age was calculated on Peruvian percentiles. Crude relative risks (RR) and adjusted relative risk (aRR) with their respective confidence intervals at 95% for each variable was calculated using log binomial generalized linear models. Results: A total of 64 670 pregnant were included. The incidence of SGA was 7.2%. Preeclampsia (aRR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.15), eclampsia (aRR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.38 to 4.35), low maternal weight (aRR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.54), nulliparity (aRR 1.32; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.42) and age ≥35 years (aRR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.29) were associated with an increased risk for newborn SGA. Also, a number of 0-2 PNV (aRR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.55), and 3-5 PNV (aRR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.32) were also found associated with an increased risk of newborn SGA, compared with 6-8 PNV. A number of ≥9 PNV (aRR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.80) was a protector factor. Conclusions: it is necessary to identify pregnant women with risk factors such as those found in this study, in order to reduce SGA. Particular emphasis on modifiable factors, such as the frequency of antenatal care visits, must be taken.
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