• Additional results on integrals of beam eigenfunctions

      Morales, César A; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Perú (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018-03-14)
      New simplest expression beam mode integrals are presented, including further simplifications and corrections of previous results; this type of integrals appear in computational methods in structural dynamics and vibrations of diverse structures and machines, and in aircraft dynamics methods.
    • Admissible height and urban density of buildings for the Prospective Management of Seismic Risk in residential areas

      Herrera, Fabiola; Mamani, Flaby; Arana, Victor (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      This research proposes limit values of height and population density of buildings for a Prospective Management of Seismic Risk in residential areas. The analysis of an efficient evacuation of buildings to the street or refuge area was carried out, evaluating human behavior with models based on the agent, the influence of buildings and the urban parameters of the city with three-dimensional models (BIM) for a severe seismic scenario. The present article establishes that the maximum permissible height of buildings projected in a residential avenue is directly related to the width of the available refuge zone to guarantee the correct evacuation of said zone during a severe seismic event. In addition, an evaluation of a real existing scenario is made in a section of a residential avenue.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Analysis of conflict points between pedestrians at BRT stations to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases

      Escalante, Katherine Atapauccar; Hugo Ramirez Ruiz, Bryan; Silvera, Manuel; Campos, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a bus-based public transport system that increase the effectiveness of public transportation through dedicated lanes with busways and independent stations. However, the low capacity at the stations and the high demand of the system increases the respiratory diseases risk caused by the interaction between pedestrians. This article proposes to make the main access point an entrance only and the access point at the opposite end of the platform an exit only, allowing one-way walking paths. This research is focused on the reduction of conflict points between pedestrians generated by walking flows in opposite directions. A BRT station located in the city of Lima was used as a case study for the investigation. It was identified for the peak hour that the area with the highest pedestrian interaction occurs in the station platform and boarding areas. The efficiency of the proposal is validated by using the Viswalk software. The results obtained show that the conflict points decreased by 68.5% and the pedestrian density by 45%. From that perspective, the pedestrian flows were optimized, and the risk of respiratory diseases was reduced.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Analysis of high plasticity clayey soil improvement at subgrade level through Portland cement added to decrease volumetric change

      Castro, M. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
      This research includes the potential for resistance and the expansion that the soil presents, this evaluation was carried out through CBR tests. The soil cement technique was used to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics; this process consists in mixing the material with Portland cement type I. That combination forms soil cement 10%, 15% y 20%, which present an increase of the CBR (max: 138.7% and min: 91.9%) achieving a type of extraordinary subgrade to resist the structure of the pavement and a reduction of 7.18% in the expansion of the samples.
      Acceso abierto
    • Analysis of seismic bidirectionality on response of reinforced concrete structures with irregularities of l-shaped plan and soft story

      Sobrado, V. H.; Yaranga, R.; Orihuela, J. D. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2020-09-22)
      The seismic design of buildings is usually performed using one-way analysis for each of main axes independently. However, seismic events have fairly random behaviour and impose bidirectional solicitations on structures. In this work, the study of the response in structures subjects to earthquake loads with irregularity of l-shaped plan and soft story is carried out. For this, the linear time-story analysis (LTHA) of these has been carried out imposing seismic solicitations in two orthogonal directions. Thus, the structural response with incidence angle variations of 10 is obtained and compared with the response derived from the unidirectional analysis. Variations of up to 50% and 72% are obtained for model structures with l-shaped plan and soft story respectively.
      Acceso abierto
    • Analysis of the influence of the characteristics of the environment on the time of pedestrian transhipment in a multimodal transport using the social force model

      Asenjo, Christian; Tocas, Frank; Silvera, Manuel; Campos, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM-2010) indicates in Volume III (Chapter 17) how the characteristics of the environment can represent obstacles that influence the determination of the average pedestrian space. However, the HCM does not specifically analyse in detail how these obstacles affect specifically the path, speed and average walking time of pedestrian. This article performs a comparative analysis between two microsimulations models where it is evidence how by not considering the characteristics of the fixed and mobile environment, the transhipment time and the speed of people are modified. As a case study, the obstacles present in the environment during the transhipment carried out by users in an integrated multimodal transport system in the city of Lima are identified. The comparative analysis between both cases shows the influence of the characteristics of the environment of the transhipment and variation in the average speed of the pedestrians. The proposed study methodology is calibrated and validated by microsimulations in Vissim Software. The comparative analysis reflects an increase in the transhipment time of 19.4% and a decrease in the average speed of the pedestrians by 14.8 %, reflecting in the microsimulation model values near to the real behaviour of pedestrians.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Analyzing investments in flood protection structures: A real options approach

      Gomez-Cunya, L. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-02-01)
      The soaring number of natural hazards in recent years due largely to climate change has resulted in an even higher level of investment in flood protection structures. However, such investments tend to be made in the aftermath of disasters. Very little is known about the proactive planning of flood protection investments that account for uncertainties associated with flooding events. Understanding the uncertainties such as “when” to invest on these structures to achieve the most optimal cost-saving amount is outmost important. This study fills this large knowledge gap by developing an investment decision-making assessment framework that determines an optimal timing of flood protection investment options. It combines real options with a net present value analysis to examine managerial flexibility in various investment timing options. Historical data that contain information about river water discharges were leveraged as a random variable in the modeling framework because it may help investors better understand the probability of extreme events, and particularly, flooding uncertainties. A lattice model was then used to investigate potential alternatives of investment timing and to evaluate the benefits of delaying investments in each case. The efficacy of the proposed framework was demonstrated by an illustrative example of flood protection investment. The framework will be used to help better inform decision makers.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Application of glass and fan shells to a clay soil to increase its mechanical properties

      Jara, Heiner Lopez; Barrionuevo, Brandon Bravo; Díaz, Carlos Fernández (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021-02-05)
      Improving the mechanical properties of a clayey soil is one of the best options to avoid future structural failures in buildings and is cheaper than replacing all the material. Therefore, this article proposes the use of recycled glass and fan shells as reinforcement materials. This article presents an experimental study to evaluate the mechanical properties of a pure and mixed soil. The clay soil was mixed with 7% of glass (PV) and with 3%, 6%, 10%, 12% and 15% of Fan Shells (PCA) duly crushed and passed through sieve #100. Tests of sieve granulometry, sedimentation granulometry, Atterberg limits, modified proctor and drained consolidated direct cut were performed. This allowed comparing all the data obtained and defining the optimal percentage of the mixture in which the clay improves its mechanical properties. According to the tests carried out, the proportion that has 7% glass and 6% Fan Shells has better results because there is an improvement in its dry density from 1,784 g / cm3 to 1,847 g / cm3, its moisture content increases from 9.4% to 12.1%. In addition, its friction angle improves from 28.9 °to 32 °and cohesion from 0.05 kg / cm2 to 0.1 kg / cm2. These results verify that the properties of the clay soil are improved.
      Acceso abierto
    • Application of the scrum framework to optimize time in construction projects

      Chumpitaz, Brayan; Rubio, Junior; Rodriguez, Sandra; Hinostroza, Alexandra (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Currently, the construction industry is characterized by a high competition between its companies. Due to this, companies must guarantee that the performance of their projects is possible by using an appropriate management system which allows an adequate planning of activities, since selecting an inadequate system can cause serious inconveniences such as having rework and increase cost and time in projects. Therefore, the construction industry is constantly searching for management models that can minimize the previously mentioned inconveniences in order to differentiate themselves and take advantage of their competitors. Precisely, the Scrum framework, conceived in the software engineering industry, is an alternative to traditional projects management, offering an exponential improvement in communication for project teams and improving the planning of activities, through an iterative framework that allows flexibility for changing requirements, reduces uncertainty and creates reliability for what was planned. Thus, this research adapts and applies the Scrum framework within a construction project, optimizing considerably the execution time.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association between Perceived Risk and Training in the Construction Industry

      Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (American Society of Civil Ingenieers, 2015-05)
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Bending Analysis of Nonlocal Functionally Graded Beams

      Garbin, F. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
      In this paper, we study the nonlocal linear bending behavior of functionally graded beams subjected to distributed loads. A finite element formulation for an improved first-order shear deformation theory for beams with five independent variables is proposed. The formulation takes into consideration 3D constitutive equations. Eringen's nonlocal differential model is used to rewrite the nonlocal stress resultants in terms of displacements. The finite element formulation is derived by means of the principle of virtual work. High-order nodal-spectral interpolation functions were utilized to approximate the field variables, which minimizes the locking problem. Numerical results and comparisons of the present formulation with those found in the literature for typical benchmark problems involving nonlocal beams are found to be satisfactory and show the validity of the developed finite element model.
      Acceso abierto
    • Best HCM deterministic model calibrated for capacity analysis of basic segments of freeways in Lima

      Cubas Gonzales, Tania Lizeth; Rondon Alcedo, Rousbel Ricardo; Tarquino Torres, Fernando Mauricio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In traffic engineering, the assessment of capacity in basic segment of freeway is a critical factor for planning, design and operational analysis of the freeway facilities. Thereby, the Highway Capacity Manual - HCM is the main guide used in many countries of the world including Perú that contain the methodology to estimate freeway capacity in traffic studies. Nevertheless, the information of vehicular traffic used for the construction of the models proposed by the HCM, reflect the characteristics of North American features. Therefore, its application in other traffic conditions, must be backed by studies of the local conditions and calibrations of the models proposed, hereby, adjusting to each city. The objetive of this research, is calibrate and compare of the HCM 2010 and HCM 2016 models, starting off the traffic engineering study in Panamericana Sur freeway located in Lima, Perú. The report will recommended the application of a calibrated model that best represents the local Peruvian conditions. The results of this study suggest that the model of calibrated capacity HCM2016, is the best representation, with a reliability of 97%, the local behavior of the basic freeway segments in function of the speed and the flow intensity. After applying the calibrated model into basic freeway segments concessioned by Rutas de Lima SAC, it was reflected that the use of the HCM2000, employed by this Company, show flow intensities within a level of service - LOS D, while, the calibrated HCM2016 shows us that those values are found, in reality, within a level of service - LOS E.
      Acceso abierto
    • Comparative Analysis of the Total Scour in the Pillars and Abutments of a Bridge, between a 1D and 2D Model

      Perez, Dario Rodriguez; Yataco Manrique, Geraldine; Hurtado, Sissi Santos (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In this article, a comparative analysis is performed between one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional (IBER) models, in the evaluation of total scour in the pillars and abutments of a bridge. The case study is the Huallaga bridge, located in the San Martín region, Peru.Based on the geomorphological, hydrological and hydraulic data of the study area and after carrying out an analysis of the different equations for local, general scour; Numerical modeling was performed on the HEC-RAS and IBER software in order to calculate the depths of the scour.The following results were obtained: That in the local scour calculations, the scour depths were less with the 2D software, compared to the values obtained in the 1D software; while in general scour calculations, we obtain greater depths when modeling with 2D software, compared to the values obtained in 1D software
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • A comparative study of the seismic base shear force and story drift ratios using Time History and Modal Spectrum Analysis according to Peru Code E.030 and ASCE 7.16 on high-rise buildings

      Quezada Ramos, Eder Nel; Serrano Arone, Yaneth; Huaco, Guillermo (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Since the last decade there is an important increase of high-rise buildings in Peru, especially in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess if the Peruvian Seismic Code is applicable for this type of buildings which have long natural periods as their main characteristic. The main objective of this article is to compare the results of the base shear and story drift ratios of Peruvian seismic design code E.030 with those of the ASCE 7-16 standard to the case of high-rise buildings, this due to the fact that there is limited information for tall buildings in Peru or comparison between national or international code for this type of structures. These high rise buildings have square and rectangular plan floors. Half of them have moment frames and reinforce concrete slab around the rigid core and the others have post-tensioned slab as their vertical load resisting system and central core walls with peripheral columns as the lateral force resisting system. Hence, the response spectrum analysis (RSA) is carried out for every case of the four tall buildings with different configurations using both seismic codes. Then results are compared with the linear response history analysis (LRHA) considering five Peruvian ground motions records, which were scaled to 0.45g PGA. It was verified that generally both the base shear and the interstory drifts calculated using ASCE7-16 are less than that obtained with the seismic code E.030.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Competency management model to resolve conflicts with external stakeholders in construction projects

      Inga, Carol; Ochoa, Francois; Farje, Julio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      The real estate sector in Peru has been experiencing sustained growth during the last 10 years, however, due to the constant problems that occur during the development of a project, construction as an investment is increasingly far from being the best option in the market, generally reducing its opportunity cost compared to other more specific investments. To find out what these problems are, a survey was conducted of 25 real estate project managers in Lima, establishing that one of the most recurring problems in the construction sector is conflicts with external stakeholders, mainly with the neighbors surrounding the work, and how these tend to worsen due to inadequate management by project team members who are assigned to resolve the conflict situation.In this sense, this study focuses on knowing the competences that workers have within an organization and what they need to efficiently manage problems with neighbors, and then propose a management model by competences focused on improving the performance of workers of a construction company developing a set of strategies and activities that increase their competitiveness in the face of confrontation between both parts. The results obtained from a real estate construction project indicated that the proposed model manages to reduce or prevent conflicts with neighboring homes, improving the achievement indicators of the aforementioned project under analysis.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Computational semi-analytical method for the 3D elasticity bending solution of laminated composite and sandwich doubly-curved shells

      Monge, J. C.; Mantari, J. L.; Arciniega, R. A. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-10-15)
      In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical solution for the bending study of laminated composite doubly-curved shells is presented. The partial differential equations are solved analytically by the Navier summation for the midsurface variables; this method is only valid for shells with constant curvature where boundary conditions are considered simply supported. The partial differential equations present different coefficients, which depend on the thickness coordinates. A semi-analytical solution and the so-called Differential Quadrature Method are used to calculate an approximated derivative of a certain function by a weighted summation of the function evaluated in a certain grin domain. Each layer is discretized by a grid point distribution such as: Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto, Legendre, Ding and Uniform. As part of the formulation, the inter-laminar continuity conditions of displacements and transverse shear stresses between the interfaces of two layers are imposed. The proper traction conditions at the top and bottom of the shell due to applied transverse loadings are also considered. The present results are compared with other 3D solutions available in the literature, classical 2D models, Layer-wise models, etc. Comparison of the results show that the present formulation correctly predicts through-the-thickness distributions for stresses and displacements while maintaining a low computational cost.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Concrete cracking control in underwater marine structures using basalt fiber

      Quispe, C.; Lino, D.; Rodríguez, J.; Hinostroza, A. (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021-02-05)
      The construction of coastal ports requires the use of materials that meet the demands of the marine environment, to prevent underwater concrete structures from cracking and spalling easily; basalt fiber is used to delay the expansion of concrete and prevent the formation of cracks. This research studies the behavior of concrete for prefabricated piles with Portland Cement Type I and basalt fibers added in 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.6%; the results indicate that the fiber is suitable for concrete, the slump decreases, the compressive strength increases for specimens cured in tap water and sea water, the relationship between resistances does not vary, and the depth of carbonation decreases.
      Acceso abierto
    • Control of fissures generated by the retraction in rigid pavements, applying synthetic fibers of recycled polypropylene.

      Torres, V. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
      The retraction affects the setting process and the useful life of the concrete with the appearance of fissures; in last year's studies and methods have been generated to mitigate and control it with the use of different products and applications. The development of road infrastructure with the use of concrete as a rolling folder, requires methods to guarantee the durability and reduce the effects of the efforts incorporated by the use, climatic conditions, support base and restrictions of movement of the structure. To evaluate the effects of recycled synthetic polypropylene fibers in plastic retraction tests (ASTM C 1579), 3 mix designs were prepared with different ratios 58 gr., 116 gr., and 176 gr. of recycled and virgin synthetic fibers; the most significant and positive result to reduce fissures without affecting the resistance of concrete by bending and compression, was 0.50 mm without addition fibers, 0.10 mm and 0.15 mm with 176 gr. of virgin and recycled synthetic fibers. Finally, it can be concluded that adding a ratio of 4 kg per m3 allows good workability, in addition, the costs of the fibers are not representative compared to the high costs for future repairs.
      Acceso abierto
    • Correction coefficients of distortion and vibration period for buildings due to soil-structure interaction

      Ticona, A. M.; Rosales, M. A.; Orihuela, J. D. (OP Publishing Ltd, 2020-09-22)
      The present research analyzed the influence of the soil structure interaction (SSI) in buildings, varying geotechnical parameters and height, considering 3 international codes. The responses obtained from the structures taking into account the SSI, were compared with the responses of fixed-base buildings, being the main control variables: the period and the drift. It was determined that the estimated range in which the period of the structure increases is from 30 to 98%, demonstrating the influence of considering soil flexibility. Due to the variability of the responses obtained, an adjustment factor is proposed to predict said amplification of the control variables, depending on the height of the building and the ground.
      Acceso abierto
    • Correlation of dynamic probing light (DPL) and standard penetration test (SPT) for sandy soil of alluvial origin

      Perez, Waldo Flores; Cerdena, Jorge Chavez; Ramirez, Gary Duran; Montoya, Maggie Martinelli (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In geotechnical studies, the dynamic probing light (DPL) turns out to be an alternative method to the Standard Penetration test (SPT) for the determination of soil parameters. The requirement of various regulations for correlating both tests in the same field and not establishing a methodology to carry it out, limits the practical scope of dynamic probing light. Thus, this research presents a correlation methodology between the dynamic probing light (DPL) and the Standard Penetration test (SPT) specifically for sandy soils (SP and SP-SM) located in an area of Chilca, located in Cañete. - Lima Peru. For the analysis, more than 400 data pairs were used, obtaining two linear correlations between the count blow of Standard Penetration-NSPT test and the dynamic probing light method-N10, which presented an adjustment correlation between 84% and 87 %.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente