• Admissible height and urban density of buildings for the Prospective Management of Seismic Risk in residential areas

      Herrera, Fabiola; Mamani, Flaby; Arana, Victor (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      This research proposes limit values of height and population density of buildings for a Prospective Management of Seismic Risk in residential areas. The analysis of an efficient evacuation of buildings to the street or refuge area was carried out, evaluating human behavior with models based on the agent, the influence of buildings and the urban parameters of the city with three-dimensional models (BIM) for a severe seismic scenario. The present article establishes that the maximum permissible height of buildings projected in a residential avenue is directly related to the width of the available refuge zone to guarantee the correct evacuation of said zone during a severe seismic event. In addition, an evaluation of a real existing scenario is made in a section of a residential avenue.
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    • Analysis of conflict points between pedestrians at BRT stations to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases

      Escalante, Katherine Atapauccar; Hugo Ramirez Ruiz, Bryan; Silvera, Manuel; Campos, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a bus-based public transport system that increase the effectiveness of public transportation through dedicated lanes with busways and independent stations. However, the low capacity at the stations and the high demand of the system increases the respiratory diseases risk caused by the interaction between pedestrians. This article proposes to make the main access point an entrance only and the access point at the opposite end of the platform an exit only, allowing one-way walking paths. This research is focused on the reduction of conflict points between pedestrians generated by walking flows in opposite directions. A BRT station located in the city of Lima was used as a case study for the investigation. It was identified for the peak hour that the area with the highest pedestrian interaction occurs in the station platform and boarding areas. The efficiency of the proposal is validated by using the Viswalk software. The results obtained show that the conflict points decreased by 68.5% and the pedestrian density by 45%. From that perspective, the pedestrian flows were optimized, and the risk of respiratory diseases was reduced.
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    • Analysis of the influence of the characteristics of the environment on the time of pedestrian transhipment in a multimodal transport using the social force model

      Asenjo, Christian; Tocas, Frank; Silvera, Manuel; Campos, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM-2010) indicates in Volume III (Chapter 17) how the characteristics of the environment can represent obstacles that influence the determination of the average pedestrian space. However, the HCM does not specifically analyse in detail how these obstacles affect specifically the path, speed and average walking time of pedestrian. This article performs a comparative analysis between two microsimulations models where it is evidence how by not considering the characteristics of the fixed and mobile environment, the transhipment time and the speed of people are modified. As a case study, the obstacles present in the environment during the transhipment carried out by users in an integrated multimodal transport system in the city of Lima are identified. The comparative analysis between both cases shows the influence of the characteristics of the environment of the transhipment and variation in the average speed of the pedestrians. The proposed study methodology is calibrated and validated by microsimulations in Vissim Software. The comparative analysis reflects an increase in the transhipment time of 19.4% and a decrease in the average speed of the pedestrians by 14.8 %, reflecting in the microsimulation model values near to the real behaviour of pedestrians.
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    • Application of the scrum framework to optimize time in construction projects

      Chumpitaz, Brayan; Rubio, Junior; Rodriguez, Sandra; Hinostroza, Alexandra (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Currently, the construction industry is characterized by a high competition between its companies. Due to this, companies must guarantee that the performance of their projects is possible by using an appropriate management system which allows an adequate planning of activities, since selecting an inadequate system can cause serious inconveniences such as having rework and increase cost and time in projects. Therefore, the construction industry is constantly searching for management models that can minimize the previously mentioned inconveniences in order to differentiate themselves and take advantage of their competitors. Precisely, the Scrum framework, conceived in the software engineering industry, is an alternative to traditional projects management, offering an exponential improvement in communication for project teams and improving the planning of activities, through an iterative framework that allows flexibility for changing requirements, reduces uncertainty and creates reliability for what was planned. Thus, this research adapts and applies the Scrum framework within a construction project, optimizing considerably the execution time.
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    • Best HCM deterministic model calibrated for capacity analysis of basic segments of freeways in Lima

      Cubas Gonzales, Tania Lizeth; Rondon Alcedo, Rousbel Ricardo; Tarquino Torres, Fernando Mauricio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In traffic engineering, the assessment of capacity in basic segment of freeway is a critical factor for planning, design and operational analysis of the freeway facilities. Thereby, the Highway Capacity Manual - HCM is the main guide used in many countries of the world including Perú that contain the methodology to estimate freeway capacity in traffic studies. Nevertheless, the information of vehicular traffic used for the construction of the models proposed by the HCM, reflect the characteristics of North American features. Therefore, its application in other traffic conditions, must be backed by studies of the local conditions and calibrations of the models proposed, hereby, adjusting to each city. The objetive of this research, is calibrate and compare of the HCM 2010 and HCM 2016 models, starting off the traffic engineering study in Panamericana Sur freeway located in Lima, Perú. The report will recommended the application of a calibrated model that best represents the local Peruvian conditions. The results of this study suggest that the model of calibrated capacity HCM2016, is the best representation, with a reliability of 97%, the local behavior of the basic freeway segments in function of the speed and the flow intensity. After applying the calibrated model into basic freeway segments concessioned by Rutas de Lima SAC, it was reflected that the use of the HCM2000, employed by this Company, show flow intensities within a level of service - LOS D, while, the calibrated HCM2016 shows us that those values are found, in reality, within a level of service - LOS E.
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    • Comparative Analysis of the Total Scour in the Pillars and Abutments of a Bridge, between a 1D and 2D Model

      Perez, Dario Rodriguez; Yataco Manrique, Geraldine; Hurtado, Sissi Santos (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In this article, a comparative analysis is performed between one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional (IBER) models, in the evaluation of total scour in the pillars and abutments of a bridge. The case study is the Huallaga bridge, located in the San Martín region, Peru.Based on the geomorphological, hydrological and hydraulic data of the study area and after carrying out an analysis of the different equations for local, general scour; Numerical modeling was performed on the HEC-RAS and IBER software in order to calculate the depths of the scour.The following results were obtained: That in the local scour calculations, the scour depths were less with the 2D software, compared to the values obtained in the 1D software; while in general scour calculations, we obtain greater depths when modeling with 2D software, compared to the values obtained in 1D software
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    • A comparative study of the seismic base shear force and story drift ratios using Time History and Modal Spectrum Analysis according to Peru Code E.030 and ASCE 7.16 on high-rise buildings

      Quezada Ramos, Eder Nel; Serrano Arone, Yaneth; Huaco, Guillermo (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Since the last decade there is an important increase of high-rise buildings in Peru, especially in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess if the Peruvian Seismic Code is applicable for this type of buildings which have long natural periods as their main characteristic. The main objective of this article is to compare the results of the base shear and story drift ratios of Peruvian seismic design code E.030 with those of the ASCE 7-16 standard to the case of high-rise buildings, this due to the fact that there is limited information for tall buildings in Peru or comparison between national or international code for this type of structures. These high rise buildings have square and rectangular plan floors. Half of them have moment frames and reinforce concrete slab around the rigid core and the others have post-tensioned slab as their vertical load resisting system and central core walls with peripheral columns as the lateral force resisting system. Hence, the response spectrum analysis (RSA) is carried out for every case of the four tall buildings with different configurations using both seismic codes. Then results are compared with the linear response history analysis (LRHA) considering five Peruvian ground motions records, which were scaled to 0.45g PGA. It was verified that generally both the base shear and the interstory drifts calculated using ASCE7-16 are less than that obtained with the seismic code E.030.
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    • Competency management model to resolve conflicts with external stakeholders in construction projects

      Inga, Carol; Ochoa, Francois; Farje, Julio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      The real estate sector in Peru has been experiencing sustained growth during the last 10 years, however, due to the constant problems that occur during the development of a project, construction as an investment is increasingly far from being the best option in the market, generally reducing its opportunity cost compared to other more specific investments. To find out what these problems are, a survey was conducted of 25 real estate project managers in Lima, establishing that one of the most recurring problems in the construction sector is conflicts with external stakeholders, mainly with the neighbors surrounding the work, and how these tend to worsen due to inadequate management by project team members who are assigned to resolve the conflict situation.In this sense, this study focuses on knowing the competences that workers have within an organization and what they need to efficiently manage problems with neighbors, and then propose a management model by competences focused on improving the performance of workers of a construction company developing a set of strategies and activities that increase their competitiveness in the face of confrontation between both parts. The results obtained from a real estate construction project indicated that the proposed model manages to reduce or prevent conflicts with neighboring homes, improving the achievement indicators of the aforementioned project under analysis.
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    • Correlation of dynamic probing light (DPL) and standard penetration test (SPT) for sandy soil of alluvial origin

      Perez, Waldo Flores; Cerdena, Jorge Chavez; Ramirez, Gary Duran; Montoya, Maggie Martinelli (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In geotechnical studies, the dynamic probing light (DPL) turns out to be an alternative method to the Standard Penetration test (SPT) for the determination of soil parameters. The requirement of various regulations for correlating both tests in the same field and not establishing a methodology to carry it out, limits the practical scope of dynamic probing light. Thus, this research presents a correlation methodology between the dynamic probing light (DPL) and the Standard Penetration test (SPT) specifically for sandy soils (SP and SP-SM) located in an area of Chilca, located in Cañete. - Lima Peru. For the analysis, more than 400 data pairs were used, obtaining two linear correlations between the count blow of Standard Penetration-NSPT test and the dynamic probing light method-N10, which presented an adjustment correlation between 84% and 87 %.
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    • Decreased scour on an external river bend using two-dimensional numerical model, in la Perla-Florida and Cantagallo sectors of Rímac river

      Ravines, Mauricio Bazan; Vargas, Jorge Coronado; De Bazan, Sissi Santos Hurtado (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      This paper, evaluates a proposal for an external bend fluvial erosion control, using submerged vanes as velocity and shear stress control, verifying its effectiveness by modeling in Iber to calculate the scour produced by discharges with different return periods. The results indicate that the velocity, shear stress and scour decrease along the curve, due to submerged vanes.
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    • Experimental evaluation of matrix suction and shear resistance of partially saturated sandy clay

      Melo, Paola Mejia; Linares Ramos, Alexander; Ramirez, Gary Duran; Guillen, Jose Luis Cardenas (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      At present, the construction of highways in Andean areas the connect the various most important towns and cities in South America has become has become a key element for its development, since these routes and viaducts allow free access to cover basic needs of education, work, food and health of the population. Much of the land in these areas is clay soils whose behavior is quite unpredictable because they present abrupt volume changes according to the variation of saturation in the soil. People who travel on roads on slopes of this type of soil are at high risk due to the slippage that the slopes suffer each year. The most recent was on April 3, 2020 because of the heavy rainfall that was registered in the area; there was a landslide that affected communication channels in the department of Cajamarca in Peru [1]. In this type of slopes landslides occur when the clayey soil is specifically saturated, because under these conditions the soil is not stable and loses cohesion between its particles, therefore it is important to make slope stability studies taking into account the partially saturated soil. This article presents results of tests allow to recognize the physical characteristics of the clay soil in the province of Chepén in Cajamarca. In addition, the filter paper method is used to elaborate the soil-water characteristic curve and a series of direct shear tests are carried cut at different degrees of saturation. With these results, the partially saturate soil fault surface is constructed that allows visualizing the value of the shear stress of the soil according to the saturation to which it is subjected. This value will be important for calculating the safety factor that the slope floor must have of the resistance shear of the soil according to the saturation, this value will be important for the calculation of the safety factor that the floor of the slope must have so that it does not fall. Therefore, considering this condition of the partially saturated soil in the slope stability analysis provides values of the safety factor that are closer to reality, without the need to carry out the analysis in the most critical condition, such as what it done in classical soil mechanics.
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    • Hazard map based on the simulation of sludge flow in a two-dimensional model, Case Quebrada Malanche-Punta Hermosa -Lima-Perú

      Garcia, Luis Jimenez; Iruri Guzman, Osnar; Hurtado, Sissi Santos (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      This research presents the numerical simulation to reproduce the transport and deposition processes of the sludge flow on March 15, 2017, strongly impacting the town of Pampapacta in Punta Hermosa-Peru.The debris flow initiation process in the basin was represented by hydrographs obtained from the estimated volumes of stormwater runoff and solid materials. The sludge flow was modeled in Flo2D to calculate hazard maps with the discharge event and others with different return periods.The numerical simulation results show acceptable results in relation to what happened. The model used to assess the hazard due to debris flow can predict and delineate, with acceptable precision, potentially hazardous areas for a landslide. The application of the proposed methodology to assess the hazard of disasters due to debris flows in basins and streams is useful to understand the extent of the impact of the mud flow during extreme weather events, as well as to develop emergency plans and formulate disaster policies.
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    • Improved First Order Formulation for Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

      Vallejos, Augusto; Ayala, Shammely; Arciniega, Roman (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      In this research, an improved first order formulation is presented to study the critical buckling load in functionally graded beams. The formulation has five independent variables in comparison with the Timoshenko theory that has three. The Trefftz criterion is utilized with incremental and fundamental states to define the stability analysis. Virtual work statements are derived for the finite element model where the field variables are interpolated by Lagrange polynomials. The numerical results are compared and verified with other formulations found in literature. Parametric studies are also carried out for buckling behavior due to different slenderness ratios, power-law indices and boundary conditions. Applications of the model to functionally graded materials show the validity of the present approach.
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    • Improvement of the shear strength parameters of an expansive soil using recycled glass powder and polypropylene fibers

      MacHuca, Joao Rodriguez; Pusari Quispe, Oscar; Ramirez, Gary Duran; Fernandez Diaz, Carlos (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      n this article, the geotechnical behavior of the reinforced soil is studied through additions of polypropylene fiber and recycled glass powder, this in order to obtain a homogeneously reinforced soil matrix to reduce possible structural failures, differential settlements and increase capacity bearing. The sample used was classified as a clay soil with low plasticity (CL) and with moderately expansive characteristics, based on the values of the Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index. The effect of the 1% polypropylene fiber and different amounts of recycled glass powder (0%, 4%, 5%, 6.5%), with respect to dry weight is analyzed in this soil. The purpose of varying the quantity of these materials is to find a trend of the strength parameters and obtain the optimal percentages that provides improvements in geotechnical behavior. Modified Proctor and Direct Shear tests were carried out, this latter to obtain the shear strength parameters of the mixtures and compare them with the clay soil. Finally, the optimal result for soil improvement was the mixture made by 1% polypropylene fiber and 4% glass powder, which achieved an increase of the angle of friction and cohesion.
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    • Improving people's accessibility through a fully actuated signal control at intersections with high density of pedestrians

      Jauregui, Christian; Torres, Maria; Silvera, Manuel; Campos, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      The fully actuated signal control detects the pedestrian density using sensors and, according to that, it prioritizes pedestrians crossing. One major problem, worldwide, is using fixed time traffic light as a traffic regulator at intersections with high pedestrian and vehicular volume. Lima is no exception, continuing to use this kind of traffic lights completely harms pedestrian accessibility, it increases their waiting and crossing times, it also affects road safety and service levels at the structures. The proposal on this article is to design a fully actuated signal control using logical controls that are able to perceive the pedestrian density on the refuge islands, making everything more accessible. In order to do this, a study to identify the pedestrian and vehicle volume was conducted on the Lima Panamerican highway. There was a total of 7506 pedestrians during rush hour, proving there is a large amount of people at the intersection at that time. Thereby, by using the VisVap module of the Vissim, the study managed to simulate and validate the priority control required. All in all, the results showed a remarkable improvement, the pedestrian crossing time was reduced by 6.84% and the service level of the intersection went from E to D.
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    • Mechanical behavior direct shear a volcanic sand reinforced with polypropylene fiber and cement

      Maurizio, Cabrera Barrionuevo; Aguilar Jean Pierre, Dominguez; Lidia, Pacheco Miranda (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      This article describes consolidated Direct Cut tests not drained in the laboratory, carried out on samples of volcanic sand from Arequipa, Peru. The samples were tested for maximum dry density and optimal moisture content; Furthermore, they were reinforced with polypropylene fibers and cement. The samples were reinforced with 0.5% cement with respect to the dry weight of the sample soil and tested at 3 days. The added polypropylene fiber has dimensions of 48 mm wide with 1.2855 mm long and 0.3325 mm thick, and they were used in different percentages regarding the dry weight of the soil sample (0.25% -0.75% -1.00% -1.25%). The results of the tests indicated that the addition of polypropylene fibers together with the cement increases the resistance to cut proportionally to the amount of fiber up to 1% of fiber, this being the best result obtained, decreasing the resistance as the percentage of polypropylene fiber.
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    • Optimization of construction projects budget minimizing risks using the Monte Carlo method

      Garcia, Sergio; Pisfil, Jose Michael; Rodriguez, Sandra; Luna, Roger (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Currently, it is common for the risks in construction projects to generate significant budgetary deviations due to their null or insufficient identification and quantification. In relation to this point, and with the focus on improving the competitiveness of construction companies when developing and complying with their budgets, it is essential to have an accurate methodology for estimating the contingency associated with risks from an early stage. This allows the contingency amount not to be exceeded, resulting in better reliability and adjustment of the budget assigned for the project, and therefore guaranteeing the expected profitability. This objective can be achieved using applications such as the Monte Carlo method, since through the probabilistic simulations that can be developed through it, it is possible to precisely establish the value of the contingency associated with project risks in study. It is recommended to carry out these evaluations and analyzes before the project starts. In this sense, this research focuses on establishing a sequential methodology that serves as an application tool for any type of construction project, ensuring the optimization of the budget by minimizing the risks associated with the project.
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    • Optimization of passengers boarding in the BRT system based on the security protocols established by the Covid-19 pandemic

      Vasquez Bustamante, Jose Luis; Marcelo Ochoa Chavez, Raphael; Silvera, Manuel; Castro, Fernando (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      According to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI), the city of Lima has more than 9,485,405 inhabitants. This causes problems of pedestrian crowding in public places. The Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system called Metropolitano transports 650,000 passengers a day, of which 81,800 of them use the boarding platform of the Naranjal station located in one of the most populated districts of Lima. In this station are concentrated 12.6% users of the entire transportation system. This research proposes a pedestrian microsimulation model with the objective of optimizing the pedestrian area of one of the most demanded platforms in Lima, considering the security protocols established by the Covid-19 Pandemic. To obtain results, the parameters of pedestrian density, bus frequency and queuing time were considered. The effectiveness of the proposed design is validated using a model made with the software Vissim. The results showed that the maximum number of pedestrians that can occupy the Naranjal station following the Covid-19 security protocols are 4166 persons, considering a 180 second bus frequency on lines with the highest demand and a maximum queuing time of 764.51 seconds.
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    • Optimization of the control process in residential buildings using technological tools

      Prat, Joaquin; Romero, Alvaro; Rodriguez, Sandra; Farje, Julio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Many construction companies worldwide continue to implement different methodologies to optimize time and improve management in the execution of works; however, a lack of control in projects continues to be observed. For this reason, one of the most common problems currently is the incompletion of scheduled work. Due to this, it is necessary to keep better control of the projects at the execution stage so that the contractor can optimally, quickly, and easily manage the progress of all the specialties involved. In this sense, this research develops the use of the Plan Grid Application for data collection in the field and the Power Bi software for the automatic processing and information visualization through a management dashboard where indicators are shown to reflect the progress and actual performance of the activities as well as the main non-compliance causes, which leads to optimize the control process and the time spent by its administrators to carry out this management.
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    • Optimization of the design process in construction projects by the implementation of the A360 collaboration tool

      Arevalo, Jennifer; Palacios, Mauricio; Rodriguez, Sandra; Farje, Julio (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-09-30)
      Each year there are more construction companies seeking for implementation of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology in their projects since it provides different benefits related to project time, cost and quality. Besides, different countries currently demands its application. However, companies do not always achieve these benefits at its totality because BIM implementation must overcomes a series of difficulties related to interoperability and personnel, difficulties which are generated by a lack of collaboration and communication between the project stakeholders. The present investigation finds a new solution to this problem, reducing the waste generated at the design stage of the BIM projects by implementing the A360 collaboration tool, a platform which provides a virtual centralized space that allows storing BIM files, visualizing them and making comments in real time from any device. The results show a reduction of waste that finally reduce the time for the design stage in a BIM project
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