Recent Submissions

  • Analyzing investments in flood protection structures: A real options approach

    Gomez-Cunya, L. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-02-01)
    The soaring number of natural hazards in recent years due largely to climate change has resulted in an even higher level of investment in flood protection structures. However, such investments tend to be made in the aftermath of disasters. Very little is known about the proactive planning of flood protection investments that account for uncertainties associated with flooding events. Understanding the uncertainties such as “when” to invest on these structures to achieve the most optimal cost-saving amount is outmost important. This study fills this large knowledge gap by developing an investment decision-making assessment framework that determines an optimal timing of flood protection investment options. It combines real options with a net present value analysis to examine managerial flexibility in various investment timing options. Historical data that contain information about river water discharges were leveraged as a random variable in the modeling framework because it may help investors better understand the probability of extreme events, and particularly, flooding uncertainties. A lattice model was then used to investigate potential alternatives of investment timing and to evaluate the benefits of delaying investments in each case. The efficacy of the proposed framework was demonstrated by an illustrative example of flood protection investment. The framework will be used to help better inform decision makers.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Evaluation of the Evacuation of Essential Buildings: Interaction of Structural and Human Behaviour through Nonlinear Time-History Analysis and Agent-Based Modelling

    Delgado, M. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
    In this article, a performance assessment of the evacuation system is established for educational buildings. Structural and geotechnical information of the building is collected and introduced into a database. A similar procedure was realized for the information related to the occupants. Using this information, a) the structural fragility and localized collapse were determined and b) the interaction of the person with the partial collapse was established. For the first aspect, nonlinear time history was used, and for the second, the agent-based modeling was applied to recreate the reaction of people that face the micro collapse. Therefore, the important results of this evaluation are: 1) To localize collapsed beans and columns that make inoperable evacuation routes, 2) to localize bottleneck areas that people concentration during evacuation, and 3) quantification of affected people, in terms of persons caught up in the building that cannot evacuate.
    Acceso abierto
  • Mechanical Splices for Seismic Retrofitting of Concrete Structures

    Huaco, G. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
    As an alternative to lap splicing, mechanical splices can be used for retrofit purposes. They are generally most economical than traditional lap splices when available spacing or length makes laps difficult to utilize. Mechanical splices are frequently used in new construction. However, their use is limited and not practical for use in retrofitted structures. However, if the bars to be joined do not need to be threaded in order to be connected with a special mechanical splice, such mechanical splices can be useful. It is presented a proposal of using two types of mechanical splices for retrofit purposes. Cycle Tension and cycle tension-compression tests are presented and discussed. It was found that mechanical splices are suitable and have acceptable response under seismic loads.
    Acceso abierto
  • Bending Analysis of Nonlocal Functionally Graded Beams

    Garbin, F. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
    In this paper, we study the nonlocal linear bending behavior of functionally graded beams subjected to distributed loads. A finite element formulation for an improved first-order shear deformation theory for beams with five independent variables is proposed. The formulation takes into consideration 3D constitutive equations. Eringen's nonlocal differential model is used to rewrite the nonlocal stress resultants in terms of displacements. The finite element formulation is derived by means of the principle of virtual work. High-order nodal-spectral interpolation functions were utilized to approximate the field variables, which minimizes the locking problem. Numerical results and comparisons of the present formulation with those found in the literature for typical benchmark problems involving nonlocal beams are found to be satisfactory and show the validity of the developed finite element model.
    Acceso abierto
  • Performance Seismic Design of the Retrofit of a University Library using Non-Conventional Methods

    Chavez, B. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
    This research proposes a structural retrofit of a reinforced concrete building older than 50 years. The structural system is dual using frames and walls, having an area of 1980 m2 and 4 levels with a total height of 15.50 m. There are three unconventional methods to retrofit this infrastructure. The first is to install steel jackets with bolt anchors. The second methodology is through the use of jackets and anchors of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). The third alternative is through reinforcement of walls with 2 diagonal struts made with CFRP sheets as struts, also installing CFRP anchors at each end of both struts to ensure that these sheets work up to their high levels of tension. These anchors together with the diagonal plates contribute to give ductility to the wall and in turn resist the effects of sliding at the base, a fault that is very common in rigid structures such as walls. Each unconventional reinforcement methodology used in this research is validated using laboratory tests results of reinforced columns and walls retrofitted with every of the three innovative methods. Nonlinear static analysis - Pushover of each alternative was performed and compared with the demand for the 1974 earthquake in Lima, scaling 3 seismic records to a PGA of 0.45g, which is the acceleration of design in Lima. It is shown that these proposals are effective in providing levels of shear base and displacement capacity in the inelastic design. For the 0.40mx0.80m columns, the results show that both reinforcements increase ductility by more than 10%; on the other hand, the proposal of reinforcement in the walls of 40cm thick, produced even better results increasing ductility by 100% and shear base by 100%.
    Acceso abierto
  • Nonlinear elastic analysis of concrete beams based on the Smeared Crack Approach

    Betancourt, N. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-07)
    In the present study, an analysis of plain and reinforced concrete beams under monotonic loading was made based on the Fixed Smeared Crack approach. The objectives of this research were to analyze the nonlinear behavior of the selected cases of analysis and to propose an alternative and simple model for the analysis of beams under service loadings, by means of Committee 435 of the American Concrete Institute. A brittle model for concrete and a linear-elastic behavior for steel reinforcement bars were considered. Results are presented through force-displacement curves and the sequence of cracking propagation. Also, a comparison of calculated instantaneous deflections of simply supported beams was made between the proposed model and other researches. It was verified that the proposed algorithm can predict adequately the cracking process and the deflections of beams subjected to service loadings, taking into account experimental results from other authors.
    Acceso abierto
  • Proposal of Flowable Fill Designs for improvement of excavation and filling works of trenches in sanitation systems

    Cruz, J. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    Population grow in recent years requires an extension of the current pipeline sanitary system. For this purpose, granular excavation and landfill works are associated with pedestrian traffic congestion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an innovative and sustainable alternative to reduce the problems generated during the execution of the conventional process. This research proposes the use of flowable fill due to the multiple advantages offered by this material. On the one hand, it is economical for medium to large trench fill volumes, considering savings in labor (it is done with a small number of workers), in equipment (does not require the rental or purchase of compaction equipment) and in time (the pouring is done by directly pumping the mixture, from the mixing machines to the excavation). On the other hand, being self-compacting and self-leveling decreases the width of the trenches, reducing excavation and filling volumes; which, in turn, incur money savings. Also, this material guarantees work safety, since people are not required inside the excavation and fill in poorly accessible areas without any problem. Dosages were established for ten flowable fill mixtures with cement contents of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 kg of cement and a range of admixture from 1.75 to 2.00%; The results indicated that decreasing the fine aggregate - coarse aggregate ratio, the compressive strength of the mixtures increases and the slumps of the mixtures decreases, and the compressive strength increases directly proportional to the cement content.
    Acceso abierto
  • Stabilization of clayey soil for subgrade using rice husk ash (RHA) and sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Hidalgo, F. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    This document studies the stabilization of the soil used as a subgrade, by adding locally available materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) and sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA). These aggregates were added to the soil in substitution by weight between 5%, 7.5% and 10%. By adding these, the expansiveness is reduced while the maximum dry density increases, in addition the tendency of CBR is increasing and then tends to decrease proportionally to the addition of the aforementioned aggregates. This indicates a peak in CBR and expandability. The best result obtained from CBR was 33.75% with the 5% replacement mixtures.
    Acceso abierto
  • Cracking Control in Mezzanine Floor Slabs using Rice Husk Ash and Polypropylene Fibers

    Cano, B. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The continuous population increase in recent years requires a greater number of households to be built quickly, with good materials and produced under quality standards that guarantee their manufacturing process. The prefabricated concrete, produced and supplied by concrete plants, is poured into the different structural elements, the mezzanine slabs being the most careful surfaces in the appearance of fissures; because being horizontal and having larger dimensions, the dimensional changes in the concrete appear more frequently due to the rapid loss of water from the surface of the concrete before setting; which generates superior stresses to the resistant capacity of the concrete at early ages, which affect the durability and reduce the resistance of the structures, causing greater economic expenses in maintenance and repairs. In the present investigation, 5%, 10% and 15% of rice husk ash was used as a replacement for cement and 900g/m3 of polypropylene fiber; The results indicate that as the percentage of rice husk ash increases, there is a reduction in the slump and the crack fissures, and that the resistance to compression and flexion decreases, with respect to the concrete pattern.
    Acceso abierto
  • Evaluation of the curvature ductility ratio of a circular cross-section of concrete reinforced with GFRP bars

    Pichardo, C. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The present study deals with the use of fiberglass reinforced polymer bars (GFRP) as a replacement for the common steel of a reinforced concrete circular pile, in order to avoid the corrosion of durability of reinforcing bars and thus improve them. The comparative analysis was carried out between a pile reinforced with GFRP and another with steel, where the ductility was evaluated by obtaining moment-curvature diagram. As a result, said idealized moment-curvature diagrams and ductility indices are presented, concluding the ductility of the section reinforced with GFRP in 20% more than that of steel.
    Acceso abierto
  • Theoretical design proposal for simulated hot asphalt mixture at a temperature below zero degrees Celsius

    Chávez, H. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    In the world there are adverse climates, climates that hinder the good construction and paving of roads, generating insecurity among the locals and visitors. This over time affects the economy of a country, as a road boosts tourism, transport and commerce. Therefore, a mixture was designed to mitigate a problem in the placement of hot asphalt mixture at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius. That is, a conventional mix design was proposed, but with different types of filler (lime, Portland cement type I and silica) tested with the Marshall and Lottman method which are governed according to the EG-2013 standards [1] and parameters established in the Asphalt Institute [2]. To find the optimum, it was tested with 5.0%, 5.5% 6.0% and 6.5% asphalt cement. Then with the results obtained a comparative analysis was performed. Finally, specimens without any additives were made, the specimens once prepared at 140°C were subjected to freezing, resulting in the three types of filler, that the hot asphalt mixture with incorporation of Portland cement type I to a 5, 90% of asphalt cement is the optimum since, subject to extreme temperatures below 0°C they comply with the parameters required in the standards.
    Acceso abierto
  • Evaluation of the geotechnical behaviour of a volcanic soil wall with additions of lime and cement against landslides

    Davila, C. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The construction of earth walls can be a significant response to prevent the next landslides from reaching the road and avoid accidents. Therefore, a material of the same slope was used and reinforced with mixtures of lime and cement, with this same reinforced material a mechanically stabilized hypothetical earth wall (MSE) was developed. An analysis of the original slope was developed to check if there was a possible failure through its safety factor. Then, a hypothetical wall was developed with a floor reinforced with mixtures, in order to assess its overall safety factor and its maximum landslides. According to the results, in principle it was determined that the dosage M-3 / C-4-4 improves in a range of 30% to 37% the friction angle. In addition, it was found that a reinforced wall, that is to say with Lime and cement additions, presents a better behaviour. In its effect, its displacements are about 8 mm and have a global factor of 1.23.
    Acceso abierto
  • Mechanical Properties of an Eco-friendly Concrete with partial replacement of POC and Rubber

    Espinoza, A. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    Concrete plants consume 10 billion tons of natural aggregates annually from quarries and gravel plants for produce concrete, this demand requires exploiting natural resources from mountains and rivers producing an ecological imbalance. One solution is to use Palm Oil Clinker (POC), which is eliminated in large quantities in the dumps and rivers without taking advantage of its puzolanic, binding and resistance properties as an aggregate in the concrete; another alternative is to apply rubber from abandoned and discarded tires as waste in landfills or burned, without taking advantage of its performance of improvement in concrete, increasing its resistance to impact and fatigue. Unable to find joint POC and rubber information, this research studies its influence replacing 2.5% rubber (grained and crushed) with 10%, 12.5% and 15% POC in the fine aggregate on traditional concrete; results indicate that with 12.5% of POC as the ideal percentage, the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength rise between 2.16 - 9.54%, so the concrete obtained has a cost of less than 4.09% and has 3.65% less CO2 emission.
    Acceso abierto
  • Improvement of physical, mechanical and strength behavior of cohesive soils with natural pozzolana and brick dust

    Chang, E. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    This research project seeks to improve soil properties through experimentation with geotechnical purposes. For this, will be used natural volcanic pozzolana in 5%, 10%, 15% and brick dust in 10% giving it a second reuse. The soil improvement will be analyzed with the proposed additions and its influence on the results. It is concluded that the addition improves the behavior of the soil by decreasing its plasticity index, increases the compaction index and improves the geotechnical parameters.
    Acceso abierto
  • Experimental analysis of the addition of rice husk ash to the clayey subgrade of a road stabilized with lime

    Vizcarra, S. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    There are many studies about how the addition of lime and rice husk ash (RHA) gives the soil a better mechanical behavior, particularly on clayey soils, where usually fine particles reach more than 75%. However, the soils with a small presence of fine particles (59-60%) do not have much research. This analysis evaluates the influence that RHA has on this kind of soil stabilized with 3% of lime. After the initial mix of soil-lime, CBR increased 11.2 times its initial value; within the addition of the ash, the CBR averaged between 45-50% up until 28% of RHA was added, where the results decreased considerably. Soil workability improved and the specimens with more ash resulted in a more granular material, with a group index value 0 following the AASHTO standards. The greatest CBR record was obtained with the specimen of 16% RHA, 3% lime and soil, reaching a 51.3% CBR, 1.58g/cm3 of MDD and 16.5% of OMC. Yet, it only showed a 1.55% more resistance than the lime-soil specimen. The CBR with more presence of RHA tends to decrease its value, therefore for silica-rich clayey soils, the addition of lime by itself should be enough for an adequate performance.
    Acceso abierto
  • Experimental study of the mechanical effect of a clayey soil by adding rubber powder for geotechnical applications

    Alvarez, N. (2020-02-28)
    At present, worrying quantities of tires are discarded due to the growth in demand for vehicles in the world, which has a direct impact on the deterioration of the environment since they normally go to landfills. Based on the background found, the use of this material for geotechnical applications can help reduce the pollution they generate and improve the physical and mechanical properties of soils. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate a greater shear strength and capacity of support to the penetration of the clayey soil by means of the addition of 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% of rubber powder recycled. For this, the Atterberg limits analysis, the modified proctor compaction test, shear box and CBR were performed. For the shear box test, the results reflect that the cohesion of the mixture increased and the angle of internal friction decreased with respect to the natural soil, resulting in the sum in an increase of shear strength. On the other hand, the percentage of CBR increased, this means that the rubber helped the soil to be more rigid and have a greater resistance to penetration. These mixtures could be used in different projects within geotechnical engineering, as it presents an improvement in shear strength and an acceptable support index value (CBR).
    Acceso abierto
  • Control of fissures generated by the retraction in rigid pavements, applying synthetic fibers of recycled polypropylene.

    Torres, V. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The retraction affects the setting process and the useful life of the concrete with the appearance of fissures; in last year's studies and methods have been generated to mitigate and control it with the use of different products and applications. The development of road infrastructure with the use of concrete as a rolling folder, requires methods to guarantee the durability and reduce the effects of the efforts incorporated by the use, climatic conditions, support base and restrictions of movement of the structure. To evaluate the effects of recycled synthetic polypropylene fibers in plastic retraction tests (ASTM C 1579), 3 mix designs were prepared with different ratios 58 gr., 116 gr., and 176 gr. of recycled and virgin synthetic fibers; the most significant and positive result to reduce fissures without affecting the resistance of concrete by bending and compression, was 0.50 mm without addition fibers, 0.10 mm and 0.15 mm with 176 gr. of virgin and recycled synthetic fibers. Finally, it can be concluded that adding a ratio of 4 kg per m3 allows good workability, in addition, the costs of the fibers are not representative compared to the high costs for future repairs.
    Acceso abierto
  • Mechanical properties and self-cleaning mortar capacity C/A 1: 5 of Portland cement modified with titanium dioxide (TiO2)

    Flores, H. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The deterioration of the surfaces of the constructions made with mortar C/A 1: 5 of Portland cement, are produced by being exposed to the emission of toxic gases emanating from the growing automobile fleet, this problem causes alternatives to be sought in order to counteract its effect on buildings and the environment. A new method to deal this problem is the incorporation of the titanium dioxide photocatalyst (TiO2) into the Portland cement mortar, which can develop self-cleaning and air purification properties to be in contact with sunlight. This work seeks to introduce this organic component to the Portland cement mortar, used for the facade charging and structural elements, for this purpose, different percentages (5%, 7.5% and 10%) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) are added and the properties of the modified mortars making use of [1] compression tests, [2] fluidity tests, [3] absorption tests and [4] photocatalytic activity tests with which the self-cleaning capacity was verified. This study concludes that the best percentage of titanium dioxide addition is 5%, with which the Portland cement mortar is granted self-cleaning property without substantially damaging its mechanical properties.
    Acceso abierto
  • Analysis of high plasticity clayey soil improvement at subgrade level through Portland cement added to decrease volumetric change

    Castro, M. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    This research includes the potential for resistance and the expansion that the soil presents, this evaluation was carried out through CBR tests. The soil cement technique was used to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics; this process consists in mixing the material with Portland cement type I. That combination forms soil cement 10%, 15% y 20%, which present an increase of the CBR (max: 138.7% and min: 91.9%) achieving a type of extraordinary subgrade to resist the structure of the pavement and a reduction of 7.18% in the expansion of the samples.
    Acceso abierto
  • Use of recycled broken bricks as Partial Replacement Coarse Aggregate for the Manufacturing of Sustainable Concrete

    Pinchi, S. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-02-28)
    The bricks are one of the primary materials required for construction of homes that no used completely when executes all the walls due, the excess purchase, the cutting to be settle, the breaking for their transfer and its fixed dimensions; this situation requires monitoring on work site the order, cleanliness and accidents. A common practice is these bricks and/or waste are included in the clearing construction before being deposited or eliminated in dumps or sanitary landfills, with their early clogging and shortening them to ther design lifespan. An important alternative to reduce this waste, is to recycle them and reuse them as a concrete component material, due to their high absorption percentage that allows them to keep the water inside of them and then use it in the cement hydration process as internal curing of the concrete. In the present investigation, the effect of crushed clay brick as a replacement for coarse aggregate in concrete processing is studied. The results indicate that with 21 % replacement brick, the plastic contraction decreases, and the compressive strength and flexural strength increase.
    Acceso abierto

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