Recent Submissions

  • Transtibial Electromechanical Prosthesis Based on a Parallel Robot: A Innovate Review

    Huamanchahua, Deyby; Osores-Aguilar, Diego; Leon-Sales, Victor Andre; Valenzuela-Lino, Yadhira S.; Huallanca-Escalera, Harold (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    In recent years, the development of prosthetic limbs has increased due to the various studies that have been carried out around Biomechanics. These technological advances have allowed many amputee patients to return to their daily activities and, in some cases, to recover their social life. However, there are still limitations for some types of prostheses such as passive prostheses, mainly those intended for people with transtibial amputations since they do not perform the physiological function of the joints. Therefore, in-depth research on transtibial prostheses has been carried out. The search period spans from the year 2018 to the year 2021. Information was considered in a simplified and well-structured manner on the design of a transtibial electromechanical prosthesis. Therefore, we will analyze its main features related to its design and application in the patient.
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  • Knee and Ankle Exoskeletons for Motor Rehabilitation: A Technology Review

    Huamanchahua, Deyby; Otarola-Ruiz, Cesar Luciano; Quispe-Pina, Ana; De La Torre-Velarde, Elvis J. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    Exoskeletons have been around since 1890 when a passive device was developed to assist movement. Although the exoskeleton initially focused on the whole body, it has become increasingly focused on a more specific area, which makes rehabilitation work more feasible and, consequently, less costly. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to present a systematic review of trends in the technical area of knee and ankle exoskeletons for rehabilitation purposes. The objective is to provide the interested researcher with a structured matrix that integrates essential components and mechanisms in the development of knee and ankle exoskeletons. As a methodology, specialized databases in biomechanics were used that aided in the collection of research conducted between 2019 and 2022. The filtering process resulted in the selection of 37 investigations. Finally, it was concluded that innovations in exoskeletons contribute to patient rehabilitation and that there is still room for further improvement in the implementation of projects on a commercial scale and the development of new exoskeletons based on previous research.
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  • A Strategy of Potential Fields and Neural Networks in the Control of an Autonomous Vehicle Within Dangerous Environments

    Chávez, Luisa; Cortez, Angel; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    This article focuses on the development of an autonomous navigation system by generating real-time 3D maps of different urban environments with different properties within simulation software. This system used the Pioneer 3-DX vehicle, a LiDAR sensor, GPS, and a gyroscope. For the elaboration of the trajectory, the mathematical tool of artificial potential fields was used, which will generate an attractive field to a dynamic goal identified by the robot and repulsive to the obstacles present in the environment, recognized with great precision thanks to the use of a neural network. The topology neural network 8–16–32 was developed using forward propagation, reverse propagation, and gradient descent algorithms. By combining the tools of potential fields and neural networks, a path was traced through which the robotic system will be able to move freely under an off-center point kinematic control algorithm. Finally, a 3D map of the environment was obtained to provide information on the morphology and most outstanding characteristics of the deployment environment to users who use the system.
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  • An Optimal Blade Design for Mini Wind Generators Mountable on the Spoiler of a Vehicle

    del Riego, Daniel Gonzalez; Gómez, Gabriel; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    In this work, a mini wind turbine was developed that takes advantage of the kinetic energy of the winds around a moving car. The blades were designed according to inclination angles in order to capture as much energy as possible without greatly affecting the performance of the vehicle. Various proposals are presented according to the inclination of the angle of the blades with respect to the axis of the turbine. Likewise, the behavior of airflow over the blades will be studied using CFD techniques. In addition, it will be possible to obtain various parameters such as the drag coefficient that will serve for the optimal design of the turbines. Finally, experimentation will be carried out to evaluate the electrical energy that said turbine can produce when coupled to a mini generator. The results show that the most optimal design is proposal 2 because it is the one that produces more voltage with less drag force.
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  • Design of a Pisco Sour Vending Machine Based on an Embedded System (Raspberry Pi)

    Achuy, Jesús; Arestegui, Renzo; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    Pisco Sour is a traditional Peruvian cocktail made with pisco, egg white, sweetening syrup, and lemon juice. The preparation of this cocktail is made traditionally by a bartender following a recipe according to standardized preparation steps and quantities. The present research developed a vending machine to standardize the quantities of the ingredients, reduce the preparation time and guarantee the homogeneity of the product. The control is done with a Raspberry Pi 3, the dosing of the ingredients, through the development of different mechatronic systems, the pisco, sweetening syrup, and egg white enter through the use of peristaltic pumps to dispense exact amounts; it has a lemon squeezing and cutting system and, finally, the refrigeration system to keep all the ingredients fresh. The integration of the system avoids the loss of ingredients and reduces costs. As a result, the machine, compared to a bartender, maintains a uniform consumption of ingredients and a constant preparation time in a batch of more than 50 glasses of Pisco Sour.
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  • A Design of a Spindle and Mathematical Calculations of the Speed Required for HDPE Plastic Extrusion and Recycled PETG Plastic to Obtain 40 kg/h of Filaments 3 mm Thick

    Robledo, Ana Fernanda; Gambini, Patsy; Vinces, Leonardo; Klusmann, Mirko (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    The present article proposes to show the mathematical design of a spindle and the speed that it requires, using mathematical formulas, to carry out the extrusion process of recycled PETG or HDPE plastic. Speed control in this process is of great importance because the quality of the filament to be obtained will depend on it. The study will be simulated on spindles and casing that are 3640 and 3890 mm long respectively and made of AISI 4140 steel. The spindle casing has 3 types of band resistors, which vary their temperature according to the material to be used: PETG plastic or HDPE plastic. Each band type resistor is found in each section that the spindle has; the screw has 3 stages called the feeding zone, the compression zone, and the dosing zone. The production capacity is 40 kg /h of PETG or HDPE plastic filament 3 mm thick. In conclusion, the present method consists of the mathematical design of a spindle for the extrusion of both materials, calculation of speeds, and the simulation of the behavior of the fluid.
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  • Large-Scale FDM 3D Printing in 6 Degrees of Freedom on One ARM KUKA KR 60

    Chicoma, Max Uriarte; Escobar, Diego Serrano; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    3D printing is widely used due to its versatility and low manufacturing cost, but this manufacturing method has limitations such as the use of only 3 degrees of freedom that consists of extrusion by layers contained in the XY plane with displacement high on the Z-axis. On the other hand, there is the printing volume which is reduced, and finally the loss of material that occurs when having supports. Next, a versatile procedure is presented, which is mounted on a KUKA KR60 robotic arm, with which complex surfaces can be printed and of a larger size with the help of the robot arm's work area, parts with concave surfaces, and convex where printing supports are removed. This proposal intended to have a printer mounted on a KUKA KR60 robotic arm with which you can have 6 degrees of freedom, and use approximately the cubic meter of freedom that the arm has. This achieves prints with greater complexity and volume of approximately 1 m3, in addition to being able to eliminate the waste of material that occurs in conventional 3D printing. Also, in parallel, it is possible to generate the codes for a generic printing plate that is compatible with G-CODE and for the robotic arm module.
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  • Simulation of a System for Reducing Gases Emitted in a Steel Casting Process by Two-Stage Centrifugal Separation

    Mulatillo, Alberto; Sernaque, Carla; Ronceros, Julio; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    This study proposes the simulation of a system for reducing polluting gases produced by a steel foundry by two-stage centrifugation. This simulation seeks to verify the physical principle of centrifugation in two cyclones (Stairmand and Swift types) in serial connection: one with its inlet at the outlet of the other, based on initial gas inlet conditions, as well as the design equations of this equipment. Likewise, it's intended to demonstrate the efficiency of this system by entering the mass composition of the gas, in particulate matter (PM) terms, measuring its new composition at the output, after simulating the gas and particle dynamics. For this, Ansys CFD and Ansys Fluent software are used (with previous data analysis and processing), and Python programming techniques to automate calculations and obtain the optimal design values for the cyclones. This system seeks to be an alternative to a universe of expensive and enormous equipment related to environmental pollution control.
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  • Design of a Hydrodynamic Profile for an Unmanned Underwater Device Using Numerical Simulation

    Tocón, Axl; Vásquez, Cristian; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    The present work proposes the design of a hydrodynamic profile for unmanned submarine devices through numerical simulation, thus facilitating experimental studies and reducing manufacturing costs. Design and manufacturing aspects of different authors were studied to establish a highly maneuverable vehicle, capable of moving in the horizontal and vertical plane. For this reason, the final design proposes hydrodynamic profiles in the bow and stern using the “Myring” equations. It also has cross-shaped hydrodynamic fins located in the bow, which will help reduce the drag coefficient. Therefore, this work aims to study and analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of the submarine using the ANSYS Fluent software. Likewise, the drag coefficient will be analyzed for different operating speeds, in order to know what is the maximum drag force that should be overcome to move at that speed. Finally, it was observed that the results obtained from the simulations are values quite similar to those obtained through hydrodynamic formulas or experimental tests.
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  • A Thermal Analysis of the Internal Flow in 2 Helical Coils for the Delignification Process of Sugar Cane Bagasse Using Superheated Steam

    Loayza, Juan Carlos; Ronceros, Julio; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    The present work proposes an analysis of the internal temperature flow in two types of helical coils, whose number of turns is 6 and 10, for the sugar cane bagasse delignification process, using superheated steam as a heat source. The analysis seeks to find the ideal number of turns for the process, the inlet pressure, and the temperature range in which the coil should operate to provide the working temperature for the reaction. This proposal will be carried out using Ansys fluent version 19.2 educational simulation software, where the coils were designed and the temperature and pressure parameters of the superheated steam flow to travel through the internal part of the helical coil were introduced. As a result, with a number of coils of 10 and an inlet pressure of 0.4 MPa, an efficiency of 96.545% was achieved to maintain the temperature along the coil path. This allows its application for bagasse delignification.
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  • A Computational Comparative Analysis Between Nvidia Jetson Nano and Raspberry Pi CM4 for the Classification of White Asparagus with SVM

    Ruiz, Edgar; Ortiz, Manuel; Vinces, Leonardo (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    The following study proposes to analyze and compare the computational response provided by the Single Board Computers (SBC) Raspberry Pi CM4 and Nvidia Jetson Nano because those are important elements in machine learning applications and implementation of automated systems. Both were chosen due to their similar specifications to achieve a fair comparison. For the development of this research, an algorithm was implemented with a Support Vector Machine to be able to compare the performance in real-time of both computers based on performance metrics such as execution time, algorithm accuracy, CPU performance, and temperature. To validate results, there is a database of 2186 white asparagus images, which were classified based on attributes such as length, curvature, diameter, and purple hue. These attributes are established by the Peruvian Asparagus and Vegetable Institute (IPEH) in the Peruvian Technical Standard to ensure the quality of fresh asparagus for export. The algorithm has been designed to classify asparagus according to this technical standard.
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  • An improved theoretical formulation for Sauter mean diameter of pressure-swirl atomizers using geometrical parameters of atomization

    Ronceros Rivas, Julio R.; Pimenta, Amilcar Porto; Lessa, Jusceline Sumara; Ronceros Rivas, Gustavo A. (Elsevier Ltd, 2022-06-01)
    This study discusses the development of a mathematical model that is capable of predicting the drop size mean diameter of the spray generated by a pressure swirl atomizer, considering the effects of the liquid's viscosity and the geometrical parameters of this type of injector, as well as the angle of incidence of the inlet channels (ψ and β) and atomization parameters (k, ϰ), obtained from hyperbolic relations. Additionally, this model investigates the phenomena of rupture and stability that are observed in the conical liquid film, in which the importance of a new geometrical parameter of atomization, “ϰ”, which immediately influences the drop size diameter of the spray, should be highlighted. The results that are obtained using this model are compared with analytical results of Couto, Wang and Lefebvre, Jasuja, Radcliffe and Lefebvre, experimental results and numerics (Hollow cone atomization model), using the Ansys Fluent software for the validation and consistency of the model proposed in Rivas (2015). This model yields good approximations as compared to that yielded using other alternative mathematical models, demonstrating that the new atomization geometric parameter “ϰ” is an “adjustment” factor that exhibits considerable significance while designing pressure swirl atomizers according to the required SMD. Furthermore, this model is easy to use, with reliable results, and has the advantage of saving computational time.
    Acceso abierto
  • Review lean manufacturing model of production management under the preventive maintenance approach to improve efficiency in plastics industry SMES: a case study

    Quiroz-Flores, J. C.; Vega-Alvites, M. L. (South African Institute of Industrial Engineering, 2022-01-01)
    Failure to deliver orders because of low production capacity is one of the main problems faced by companies in the plastics sector. This has repercussions, creating customer dissatisfaction and directly affecting profits by increasing production costs. Among the main causes of these problems is production downtime, which is caused by high set-up times and machine failures during the production process. To solve these problems, a lean manufacturing model is proposed that includes 5S, SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die), TPM (Total Productive Maintenance), and Jidoka tools. This model was validated in a company dedicated to the production of plastics by injection moulding, which resulted in an increase in OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) of 13 per cent and a reduction in set-up times of 48 per cent.
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  • A decision tree–based classifier to provide nutritional plans recommendations

    Aguilar-Loja, Omar; Dioses-Ojeda, Luis; Armas-Aguirre, Jimmy; Gonzalez, Paola A. (IEEE Computer Society, 2022-01-01)
    The use of machine learning algorithms in the field of nutritional health is a topic that has been developed in recent years for the early diagnosis of diseases or the recommendation of better nutritional habits. People with poor diets are more prone to chronic diseases and, in the long term, this can lead to dead. This study proposes a model for the recommendation of nutritional plans using the decision tree technique considering the patient data, in complement with the BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) to evaluate and recommend the best nutritional plan for the patient. The algorithm used in the model was trained with a dataset of meal plan data assigned by specialists which were obtained from the Peruvian food composition table, and the data from the diets that were assigned and collected from the nutrition area of the Hospital Marino Molina Sccipa in Lima, Peru. Preliminary results of the experiment with the proposed algorithm show an accuracy of 78.95% allowing to provide accurate recommendations from a considerable amount of historical data. In a matter of seconds, these results were obtained using Scikit learn library. Finally, the accuracy of the algorithm has been proven, generating the necessary knowledge so that it can be used to create appropriate nutritional plans for patients and to improve the process of creating plans for the nutritionist.
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  • Sustainable Concrete with Coconut Fibers to Improve its Mechanical Characteristics in Buildings

    Anderson, Mas Mendez Jhonn; Smith, Solano Roman Ruthenford; Carmen, Carrera Cabrera Elsa (Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2022-01-01)
    In the search for a dosage that allows us to design a sustainable concrete with greater resistant capacity. Different solutions are proposed that allow us to find the right addition to achieve a better performance in the physical and mechanical characteristics of concrete in fresh and hardened state. For the development of the research, the influence of the addition of coconut fiber in concrete is evaluated. For this reason, various mix designs were developed: The pattern and with the addition of coconut fiber in partial replacement of fine aggregate with designs of 0.50 %, 1.00%, 1.50% and 2.00%, making a total of 90 concrete specimens which are represented in cylindrical and rectangular specimens. For each mixture, tests were carried out for its fresh state and hardened state. From the analysis it is concluded that the most optimal relationship is achieved with 1.00% coconut fiber addition, achieving compressive and flexural strengths at 28 days of 231.60 kg / cm2 and 83.10 kg / cm2, representing percentages of increase in 11.00% and 9.00% respectively.
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  • Mechanical Behavior of Low Plasticity Clay Soil Stabilized with Rice Husk Ash

    Jayo, B.; Duran, G. (Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2022-01-01)
    There is much research on how the addition of rice husk ash (RHA) and lime improves the mechanical behavior of the soil, particularly in clayey soils. RHA is a waste material and polluting for the environment; Therefore, its use can be considered as an economic and ecological alternative. The main objective of this analysis is to determine the influence of rice husk ash (RHA) to stabilize this type of soil. This research is based on the development of an alternative method for the improvement of low plasticity clay soils using an agricultural residue such as rice husk ash and lime for use in civil works. Soil mixtures with rice husk ash were made in different percentages to evaluate its geotechnical behavior as a stabilizer. Laboratory tests like OMC, MDD tend to increase when RHA is added. Shear strength increased as ash was added, where it reached a higher value with the addition of 40% RHA, increasing from 197.70 kPa to 323.00 kPa. Finally, the results obtained show an improvement due to the presence of RHA, however, the investigation is still in process to determine if the addition of higher RHA continues to improve or decrease its shear stress.
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  • Settlement Comparison Research in Response to Gravel Columns with Concrete under a Distributed Vertical Dynamic Load

    Cardenas, V.; Agreda, N.; Vásquez, J. (Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2022-01-01)
    Currently there are different techniques of soil improvement. One of them is the gravel columns that is one of the most popular and profitable techniques for soil improvement. This method of breeding increases the physical and mechanical properties of the soils. However, it has limitations, because part of the aggregates in non-specific areas can generate settlement that affects the structure. In this study, it reduces the settlement of the gravel column by making a change in a certain percentage in its structure by a concrete that is not reinforced. Different heights of the concrete are visualized, in addition to having different variants such as columns that are next to the base, as well as the columns that are on the sandy ground. The research was carried out with the simple compression machine with the concept of unit cell. The yield of the hybrid columns (gravel and concrete) had a better yield which was 20% compared to the traditional gravel columns.
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  • Influence of the P-delta Effect and Stiffness Irregularity on the Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    Zavala, D. J.; Torres, C. J.; Moreno, J. D. (Institute of Physics, 2022-01-01)
    In this research, the influence of the stiffness irregularity and the p-delta effect on the structural behavior of a reinforced concrete building is analyzed. The main objective is to determine the impact of the stiffness irregularity and the p-delta effect on the structural behavior in regular and irregular buildings. First, the linear dynamic analysis procedure is performed in order to determine the structural response in terms of drifts, shear force and moments per floor. Subsequently, we proceed with the nonlinear static analysis procedure to obtain the capacity curve of the structure. The post elastic stiffness and the overall ductility of the structure are determined from the capacity curve. Finally, a comparative analysis of the responses from the linear and nonlinear analysis is carried out to determine the percentage variation of the results. When analyzing the structures that consider the stiffness irregularity and the p-delta effect, variations of up to 16.50%, 11.00% and 14.00% have been obtained in drifts, shear force and moments per floor respectively, which are considerable values. When the p-delta effect is considered in structures with the presence of stiffness irregularity, there is a variation in stiffness of up to 59.85%. With this result it is explained that the p-delta effect produces a greater degradation of the overall stiffness of the structure.
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  • All Conditions for Synchronous Harmonic Natural Oscillations in LC Circuits

    Morales, Cesar A. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    The full set of conditions for synchronous harmonic oscillations in multiple LC circuits are established. These are for discrete lossless linear systems in source-free response. An Electric Networks literature review indicates that even the very basic condition for synchronous harmonic free oscillations is rarely presented, which is: initial conditions as an eingenvector for the initial charges and no currents (for t = 0). It is demonstrated herein that there are more conditions: three in total; in addition, simulation results are presented to illustrate all these possibilities, in which synchronous harmonic oscillation can actually be experienced. It is also noted here, that reactance or LC networks are correct models in Physics (pulsed power systems, metamaterials and metal-dielectric composites) and for Engineering devices (electrotherapy, ignition and radio). IEEE
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  • Modelling of a Stilling Basins with Sloping Apron in IBER to Improve Efficiency in High-slope Rivers

    Zabaleta, Y.; Espejo, O. K.; Fernández, J. M.; Santos, S. (Institute of Physics, 2022-01-01)
    This research shows the influence of stilling basin slopes on energy loss in rivers with a high gradient. This study takes as a case San Pedro water intake (Ayacucho, Peru). The main objective is to improve efficiency of stilling basins in rivers with high slope. Five dissipation pools of different slopes were modelled: 0%, 1.52%, 3.04%, 4.56% and 6.08% to propose the optimum pool among these, for the San Pedro intake. Results were validated by means of a Sensitivity Analysis, trough comparison with the results of previous investigation and results of modelling San Pedro river with HEC-RAS and IBER. It was obtained that the steeper the slope of the stilling basin, the higher the specific energy loss, the higher the output rate, the longer the stilling basin. It can be concluded that the 3.04% slope stilling basin is the most appropriate for the 6.08% slope river since the slope variation is not abrupt as in the case of the horizontal one, that is, 30% more energy loss with respect to the horizontal pool and velocity and Froude results similar to the modelling of the San Pedro river.
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