Now showing items 21-40 of 706

    • Olga and olgim stage distribution according to age and helicobacter pylori status in a public hospital in Lima, Peru

      Ronquillo, Andrea Carlin; León, Alex Ventura; Ríos, Jorge L.Espinoza; Paredes, Eduar A.Bravo; Hinojosa, Paúl Gómez; Solis, Shirley Alva; Valdivia, José L.Pinto; Silva-Caso, Wilmer (Sociedad Argentina de Gastroenterologia, 2021-01-01)
      Introduction. The operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) and the operative link on gastric intestinal meta-plasia assessment (OLGIM) staging systems have been sug-gested to provide risk of assessment for gastric cancer. Objec-tive. To evaluate the distribution of OLGA and OLGIM staging by age and Helicobacter pylori status. Material and methods. We studied 197 subjects undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence of the H. pylori and histological changes were evaluated using the updated Sydney system. Stages III and IV of OLGA/OLGIM were considered high risk stages. Results. The H. pylori rate was 56.85% (112/197). High-risk OLGA/OLGIM cases were rare: 7/112 (6.5%) cases of OLGA in the H. pylori positive group and 6/85 (7%) in the H. pylori negative group; 5 (4.4%) cases of OLGIM in the H. pylori positive and 6 (7%) in the H. pylori negative. The proportion of advanced stages of OLGA and OLGIM increased with age (p < 0.001). High-risk OLGA was not found before age 40 regardless of the presence of H. pylori, but increased to 16.2%, 10.3%, 17.3% and 40.8% in subjects in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decade of life respectively. The OLGIM high risk showed a similar trend: 0% before 40 years and up to 22.6% in people of 70 years. Conclusions. High-risk OLGA/OLGIM cases are infrequent before age 40 and increase significantly with age. No relation was found with the presence of the H. pylori. According to these protocols, only a fifth of the patients would strictly require endoscopic control.
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    • Cross-sectional study of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Lima, Peru

      Domínguez Rojas, Jesús; Estupiñan Vigil, Matilde; Garcés-Ghilardi, Raquel; Alvarado-Gamarra, Giancarlo; Del Águila, Olguita; Lope Tenorio, Adanida Flor; Ayón Dejo, Carmen Cecilia; Chonlon Murillo, Kenny; Boluarte Baca, Sebastián; Stapleton Herbozo, Angie; Seminario Aliaga, Ricardo; Reyes Florian, Giuliana; Dávila Riega, Diana; Fernández Suárez, Sarah; Coronado Muñoz, Álvaro (NLM (Medline), 2021-01-20)
      Introduction: Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children occurred in Peru as of March 2020, leading to pediatric patients' hospitalization in areas adapted for this purpose at the Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital. In the beginning, the demand for hospitalization was low, but it increased gradually. Consistent with international reports, the majority of patients presented mild or moderate symptoms. Nonetheless, there were also severe cases, even fatal ones. Objectives: To describe the characteristics and clinical outcome of pediatric patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a referral hospital in Lima, Peru, between March and August 2020. Methods: A descriptive and inferential cross-sectional study was carried out. The population includes all hospitalized patients in the Department of Pediatrics, with clinical and surgical diagnoses associated with COVID-19. Results: We included 100 patients, with an average age of 83.4 ± 54 months, with a predominance of male patients (55%). Hospitalized patients were grouped into five categories: respiratory failure (17%), multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (31%), neurological presentation (19%), acute abdomen (20%), and patients with oncological problems (13%). Most of the patients (74%) had comorbidities. Regarding the presenting symptoms, intestinal pain predominated in the appendicitis group (90%, p < 0.001), fever was present in most patients with respiratory failure (64.7%); multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (90.3%), neurological manifestations (15.8%), acute abdomen (50%) and oncological conditions (61.5%) were also present in these patients. Kawasaki symptoms were found in 38.7% of the patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. Mortality was 4%. Respiratory problems (29.4%) and multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (22.6%) required admission to intensive care, more frequently than the other presentations (p = 0.008). Conclusions: We conclude that the vulnerability in the pediatric population is the one that has preexisting conditions. We divided our patients according to presentation, diagnosis, and complications, which were predominantly respiratory. We also had oncological patients with COVID-19.
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    • Clinical characteristics and molecular detection of in hospitalized children with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough in Peru.

      Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Del Valle, Luis J; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Zavaleta-Gavidia, Victor; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2021-01)
      Pertussis is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. In Peru, actual public health programs indicate that vaccination against B. pertussis must be mandatory and generalized, besides all detected cases must be reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age with a presumptive diagnosis of whopping cough in Cajamarca, a region located in northern Peru.
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    • Multifaceted Mechanism of Amicoumacin A Inhibition of Bacterial Translation

      Maksimova, Elena M.; Vinogradova, Daria S.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Kasatsky, Pavel S.; Nikonov, Oleg S.; Milón, Pohl; Dontsova, Olga A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-02-12)
      Amicoumacin A (Ami) halts bacterial growth by inhibiting the ribosome during translation. The Ami binding site locates in the vicinity of the E-site codon of mRNA. However, Ami does not clash with mRNA, rather stabilizes it, which is relatively unusual and implies a unique way of translation inhibition. In this work, we performed a kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of Ami influence on the main steps of polypeptide synthesis. We show that Ami reduces the rate of the functional canonical 70S initiation complex (IC) formation by 30-fold. Additionally, our results indicate that Ami promotes the formation of erroneous 30S ICs; however, IF3 prevents them from progressing towards translation initiation. During early elongation steps, Ami does not compromise EF-Tu-dependent A-site binding or peptide bond formation. On the other hand, Ami reduces the rate of peptidyl-tRNA movement from the A to the P site and significantly decreases the amount of the ribosomes capable of polypeptide synthesis. Our data indicate that Ami progressively decreases the activity of translating ribosomes that may appear to be the main inhibitory mechanism of Ami. Indeed, the use of EF-G mutants that confer resistance to Ami (G542V, G581A, or ins544V) leads to a complete restoration of the ribosome functionality. It is possible that the changes in translocation induced by EF-G mutants compensate for the activity loss caused by Ami.
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    • Sweating blood: A case series of 2 siblings with hematohidrosis

      Hoover, Alex; Fustino, Nicholas; Sparks, Andrea Olivares; Rokes, Christopher (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2021-03-01)
      Hematohidrosis is a condition that presents with the excretion of blood from intact skin. Reported cases suggest emotional stress reactions as the most common inciting events. The pathogenesis of the condition is not well understood. We describe a 9-year old boy and his 6-month old half-sister with a history of bleeding episodes from the ears, eyes, and scalp, as well as other sites. Symptoms in both children have shown a positive response to propranolol, with decreased frequency and severity of bleeding. There are no prior reports of siblings with hematohidrosis, suggesting a possible genetic predisposition.
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    • Maternal depressive symptoms are not associated with child anaemia: A cross-sectional population study in Peru, 2015

      Alarcón-Guevara, Samuel; Peñafiel-Sam, Joshua; Chang-Cabanillas, Sergio; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé (Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2021-03-01)
      Introduction: Approximately, one in three Peruvian children aged 6 to 59 months old have anaemia. Maternal depression, which may be disabling and affect the proper care of children, is associated with chronic malnutrition in their offspring. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate if there is an association between depressive symptoms of mothers with the presence of anaemia in their children. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study of the Peruvian Demographic Health Survey 2015, which is nationally representative. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) using a score of 10 as cut-off. The presence of anaemia was measured using HemoCue® and was considered positive when the haemoglobin was less than 11 g/dl. Results: Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR) were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI), using generalized linear models of the Poisson family. We analysed 6683 mother–child binomials. The prevalence of anaemia in the children and depressive symptoms in women were 28.7% (95% CI: 27.3–30.2) and 6.9% (95% CI: 6.1–7.9), respectively. We found no statistically significant association between these variables in the bivariable analysis or in the different multivariable models (aPR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.85–1.30). The sample did not have moderate or severe malnutrition. Conclusions: There is no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anaemia in children of mothers with or without depressive symptoms. We recommend continuing research in this field to determine more associate factors to childhood anaemia in order to improve primary prevention interventions. Ideally, conducting longitudinal studies such as prospectives cohorts to determine risk factors should be done.
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    • Vaccination coverage and preventable diseases in Peru: Reflections on the first diphtheria case in two decades during the midst of COVID-19 pandemic

      Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Al-kassab-Córdova, Ali; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-03-01)
      Carta al editor.
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    • Failure to recognize Low non-treponemal titer syphilis infections in pregnancy May lead to widespread under-treatment

      Swayze, Emma Jane; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Segura, Eddy R.; Saad, Eduardo; Yue, Dahai; Comulada, Warren Scott; Cambou, Mary Catherine (Elsevier B.V., 2021-03-01)
      Objectives: Rates of maternal syphilis have increased five-fold in Brazil in the past decade. While penicillin remains the only appropriate treatment for maternal syphilis, we hypothesized that low non-treponemal titers (<1:16) may lead to reduced penicillin treatment in Brazil. Methods: Using Brazilian Ministry of Health data on women diagnosed with maternal syphilis between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018, we conducted a random-effects logistic regression model with a cluster correction at the state level to evaluate predictive factors of penicillin treatment. Results: We observed yearly increases in cases of pregnant women with syphilis from 2010 to 2018. There was significant variation by state: 52,451 cases were reported in São Paulo, followed by 26,838 in Rio de Janeiro. Among 215,937 cases of maternal syphilis, 91·3% received penicillin. In the random-effects model, a non-treponemal titer ≥1:16 was associated with 1·44 higher odds of receiving penicillin (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·391·48), and prenatal care was associated with a 2·12 increased odds of receiving penicillin (95% CI: 2·022·21). Although there is an association between the absence of prenatal care and inadequate treatment for syphilis, 83·2% of women in this cohort who did not receive penicillin were engaged in prenatal care. Conclusions: Providers may inappropriately exclude low non-treponemal titers and thereby fail to use penicillin treatment in maternal syphilis. While the cause of the maternal syphilis epidemic in Brazil is multifactorial, we believe our findings can be used to develop targeted interventions throughout Brazil as well as shape public health initiatives globally.
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    • Comparison of the Virological Response According to the Antiretroviral Regimens in Peruvian HIV Patients Who Presented the M184V Mutation in Two National Hospitals during the Years 2008 to 2019

      Paredes, Raisa; Véliz, Fritner; Lucchetti, Aldo (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2021-03-01)
      Introduction: In patients with HIV in antiretroviral treatment (ART) and virological failure to the first-line regimen, establishing a therapeutic regimen after having identified the M184V mutation, which confers ART resistance, represents a dilemma. Objective: To compare the virological response of the therapeutic regimens prescribed to patients with HIV who presented the M184V mutation in two national hospitals in Lima, Peru, during the years 2008 to 2019, and to determine the risk factors associated with poor virological response. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was developed based on the information of the HIV program participants with the M184V mutation. Results: A total of 175 participants were eligible for the study. The male sex predominated (75.4%), the current median age was 41 years [interquartile range (IQR) 35.84-47.47], and the time on ART was 89 months (IQR 57.7-124.53). The median initial viral load (VL) was 4.5 log10 copies/mL (IQR 3.97-5.09) and the time between genotyping and the change of therapy was 2 months (IQR 0-3.56). The most used antiretroviral regimen was protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (55.4%). With the protease inhibitor plus integrase inhibitor (PI + INI) ART, 69% less risk of poor virological response was obtained [p = .019 (confidence interval 95% 0.117-0.825)]. Conclusions: In patients with HIV and the M184V mutation, the PI + INI ART has shown a greater decrease in control VL and, thus, a good virological response. The risk factors associated with a poor virological response were the delay between genotyping and change of therapy, high levels of initial VL, and poor adherence among the participants.
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    • Clinical characteristics of acute kidney injury in the first 13 critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) at a peruvian hospital; a preliminary report

      Benites-Flores, Irwing R.; Valdivia-Vega, Renzo P.; Alcalde-Ruiz, Susan F.; Espinoza-Rojas, Hugo J. (Society of Diabetic Nephropathy Prevention, 2021-04-01)
      Introduction: The high transmissibility and lethality of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have been catastrophic. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the frequent complications in patients with respiratory insufficiency caused by the virus. The pathogenic mechanism is based on the binding of its S-proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptors, which will trigger a cellular damage. A podocyte and tubular compromise are found in the kidneys which can lead to tubular necrosis and the consequent AKI. Objectives: The objective of this report is to identify the main risk factor to develop AKI in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with critical acute respiratory distress. Patients and Methods: We performed this report study, collecting data from 48 ICU patients. Data from 13 of them who developed AKI and needed renal replacement therapy (RRT)were analyzed. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were reported using STATA 10.0. Results: AKI was present in 27.08% of patients, mostly male (92.3%) with a mean age of 63.8 years old. Hypertension, diabetes and obesity were the main comorbidities in those patients. Additionally, the meantime between admission and AKI diagnosis was 2.69 days. All patients showed fibrinogen, D-dimer, ALT and values above normal range. Mortality was seen in 61.5% of patients. Conclusion: This report tries to show AKI as an important clinical manifestation in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, with high mortality. Further studies are needed to demonstrate if there are independent risk factors.
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    • Brief Report: HIV-1 Seroconversion Is Not Associated With Prolonged Rectal Mucosal Inflammation

      Blair, Cheríe S.; Lake, Jordan E.; Passaro, Ryan C.; Chavez-Gomez, Susan; Segura, Eddy R.; Elliott, Julie; Fulcher, Jennifer A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L. (NLM (Medline), 2021-04-15)
      OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact of HIV-1 seroconversion on inflammatory cytokines in the rectal mucosa. SETTING: Secondary analysis of data from men who have sex with men and transgender women who participated in a HIV prevention trial Lima, Peru. METHODS: From July to December 2017, 605 men who have sex with men and transgender women were screened for rectal gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT). Fifty GC/CT-positive cases were randomly selected and matched with 52 GC/CT-negative controls by age and number of receptive anal intercourse partners in the last month. All participants were HIV-negative at baseline and those with GC/CT at baseline and/or follow-up received appropriate antibiotic therapy. Participants underwent sponge collection of rectal secretions for the measurement of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and were screened for rectal GC/CT and HIV at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared inflammatory cytokine levels between participants diagnosed with HIV during follow-up and persons who remained HIV-negative. RESULTS: Eight participants were diagnosed with HIV at the 3-month (n = 6) or 6-month (n = 2) visit. The median number of receptive anal intercourse partners in the month before HIV diagnosis was the same for those who acquired HIV and those who did not. There were no significant differences in inflammatory cytokine levels in rectal mucosa between participants who did and did not experience HIV seroconversion at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a surge in viral replication during acute infection, findings from this study suggest that there is no prolonged effect of HIV-1 seroconversion on inflammatory cytokine levels in the rectal mucosa. Copyright
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    • Problematic smartphone use is associated with de Quervain's tenosynovitis symptomatology among young adults

      Benites-Zapata, Vicente Aleixandre; Jiménez-Torres, Vanesa Esmeralda; Ayala-Roldán, María Pía (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-06-01)
      Background: Previous research has reported an association between texting messages sent and De Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT) symptomatology. However, these studies do not report smartphone dependence and DQT symptomatology. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and DQT symptomatology among young adults. Design: Analytical cross-sectional study. Methods: We included adults between 18 and 25 years and evaluated DQT symptomatology's presence using the Finkelstein test. We used Experiences Related to Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire to measure the PSU. We carried out a generalized linear model from the Poisson family. We calculated the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: In total, we analyzed 491 subjects, the majority were women (52%), and the median age was 20 years. Of the total study population, 53% had positive results in the Finkelstein test, while 53% of the population had PSU. After adjusting our generalized linear model for confounders variables, we found that there is a higher prevalence of DQT symptomatology in those participants with occasional PSU and frequent PSU compared with participants without PSU, (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.47–2.05) and (aPR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.29–2.00); respectively. We also found a higher prevalence of DQT symptomatology related to the number of hours per day in smartphones, pain with smartphones in the last week and using WhatsApp. Conclusion: We found a higher prevalence of De Quervain's tenosynovitis symptomatology in the people with problematic smartphone use.
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    • Variations in cervico-vaginal microbiota among HPV-positive and HPV-negative asymptomatic women in Peru

      Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Becerra-Goicochea, Lorena; Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Pinillos-Vilca, Luis; Del Valle, Luis J.; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Peña-Tuesta, Isaac; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd., 2021-12-01)
      Objective: To characterize the cervicovaginal microbiota of HPV-positive and HPV-negative asymptomatic Peruvian women, by identifying the presence of 13 representative bacteria genus. Results: A total of 100 HPV-positive and 100 HPV-negative women were matched by age for comparison of microbiota. The following bacteria were more frequently identified in HPV-positive patients compared to HPV-negative: Eubacterium (68 vs 32%), Actinobacteria (46 vs 33%), Fusobacterium (11 vs 6%) and Bacteroides (20 vs 13%). A comparison between high-risk and low-risk genotypes was performed and differences were found in the detection of Actinobacteria (50 vs 33.33%), Bifidobacterium (50 vs 20.83%) and Enterococcus (50 vs 29.17%).
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    • A silent public health threat: emergence of Mayaro virus and co-infection with Dengue in Peru

      Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Sandoval, Isabel; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Mazulis, Fernando; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Peña-Tuesta, Isaac; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Del Valle, Luis J. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2021-12-01)
      Objective: To describe frequency and clinical characteristics of MAYV infection in Piura, as well as the association of this pathogen with DENV. Results: A total of 86/496 (17.3%) cases of MAYV were detected, of which 54 were MAYV mono-infection and 32 were co-infection with DENV, accounting for 10.9% and 6.4%, respectively. When evaluating monoinfection by MAYV the main groups were 18–39 and 40–59 years old, with 25.9% and 20.4% respectively. Co-infections were more common in the age group 18–39 and those > 60 years old, with 34.4% and 21.9%, respectively. The most frequent clinical presentation were headaches (94.4%, 51/54) followed by arthralgias (77.8%, 42/54). During the 8-month study period the most cases were identified in the months of May (29.1%) and June (50.0%).
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    • Re: "Mortality Attributed to COVID-19 in High-Altitude Populations" by Woolcott and Bergman

      Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Merino-Luna, Alfredo; Zubieta-Deurioste, Natalia; Armijo-Subieta, N. Freddy; Soliz, Jorge; Arias-Reyes, Christian; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Carmona-Suazo, Jose Antonio; López-Bascope, Alberto; Calle-Aracena, Jose Manuel; Epstein, Murray; Maravi, Enrique (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2021-03-01)
      Carta al editor
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    • Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) among adolescent mothers in Peru

      Levey, Elizabeth J.; Rondon, Marta B.; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.; Gelaye, Bizu (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021-03-01)
      The objective of this research is to assess the psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in order to contribute to the literature identifying validated resilience measures in low-resource settings where individuals face significant adversity. This cross-sectional study included 789 adolescent mothers who delivered at a maternity hospital in Lima, Peru. The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC was used to measure resilience. Internal consistency and construct validity were assessed by evaluating individual item characteristics as well as the association of CD-RISC score with symptoms of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test the factorial structure of the CD-RISC. The CD-RISC was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85). CD-RISC scores were positively associated with school attendance, financial hardship, and history of childhood abuse; scores were negatively associated with household dysfunction, depression, anxiety and poor sleep quality. The results of the EFA showed that the CD-RISC contained a two-factor solution, which accounted for 46% of the variance. Overall, these findings suggest that the Spanish-language version of the CD-RISC-10 is an adequate measure of resilience in this population. Further research is needed to incorporate culturally-specific constructs into resilience measures.
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    • Migration to study in medical schools of Peru

      Chambergo-Michilot, Diego; Muñoz-Medina, Carlos E.; Lizarzaburu-Castagnino, Diego; León-Jiménez, Franco; Odar-Sampé, Miguel; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Mayta-Tristán, Percy (Instituto Nacional de Salud, 2020-01-01)
      The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of migration to study medicine in Peru. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Red-LIRHUS study (2011-2012). We included 3 680 Peruvian students. Approximately, 23.2% migrated for medical school. Less than 1% were international migrants. We found a higher proportion of migrant students in Universities outside of Lima than in Universities in Lima (27.1% vs. 15.8%). There was also a higher proportion of migrants in private universities (28.3% vs. 16.0%) Migrant students were more likely to live alone (27.4% vs. 6.4%) and to report having failed a module/course (51.0% vs. 38.6%) compared to non-migrant students. It is necessary to evaluate potential interventions for the preservation of the well-being of people who migrate for their medical training.
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    • Laboratory tests for identification of sars-cov-2 during pandemic times in Peru: Some clarification regarding «diagnostic performance»

      Maguiña, Jorge L.; Soto-Becerra, Percy; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V. (Instituto Nacional de Salud, 2020-07-01)
      Carta al editor
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    • Influenza tetravalent vaccines in national immunization programs for Latin-American countries

      Macías Hernández, Alejandro E.; Santos, Fortino Solórzano; Aguilar Velasco, Hugo M.; Ávila Agüero, María L.; Rubio, Fernando Bazzino; Junqueira Bellei, Nancy C.; Bonvehí, Pablo E.; Del Castillo, José Brea; Leguizamón, Héctor Castro; Allan Santos Domingues, Carla M.; García García, María D.L.; Trujillo, Darío Londoño; Lópe, Pío López; De León Rosales, Samuel Ponce; Cervantes Powell, Patricia G.; Suárez Ognio, Luis A.N.; Ruiz-Palacios y Santos, Guillermo M. (Comunicaciones Cientificas Mexicanas S.A. de C.V., 2020-07-01)
      Since 2012-2013 influenza season, World Health Organization (who) recommends the formulation of tetravalent vaccines. Globally, many countries already use tetravalent vaccines in their national immunization programs, while in Latin America only a small number. Two Influenza b lineages co-circulate, their epidemiological behavior is unpredictable. On average they represent 22.6% of influenza cases and more than 50% in predominant seasons. The lack of concordance between recommended and circulating strains was 25 and 32% in the 2010-2017 and 2000-2013 seasons, respectively. There are no clinical differences between influenza A and B. It occurs more frequently from five to 19 years of age. Influenza b has a higher proportion of attributable deaths than influenza a (1.1 vs. 0.4%), or 2.65 (95% ci 1.18-5.94). A greater number of hospitalizations when the strains mismatch (46.3 vs. 28.5%; p <.0001). Different evaluations have demonstrated its cost effectiveness. The compilation of this information supports the use of quadrivalent vaccines in Latin American countries.
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    • National trends of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality registered by the ministry of health in Peru, from 2005 to 2016

      Piscoya, Alejandro; Atamari-Anahui, Noé; Ccorahua-Rios, Maycol Suker; del Riego, Angela Parra (Sociedad Argentina de Gastroenterologia, 2020-12-01)
      Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma results in most cases from underlying chronic liver disease. The most common causes are the Hepatitis B virus and the Hepatitis C virus in-fections, the alcoholism and the aflatoxin. Mortality statistics of liver cell carcinoma in Peru is limited. Objectives. Update statistics on hepatocellular carcinoma mortality in Peru between the years 2005 and 2016. Methods. Observation-al, descriptive studyand secondary analysis of the Ministry of Health database. Records with the basic cause of death ICD 10: C22, the liver cell carcinoma were reviewed. Mortality was calculated according to the age, the sex and the department in which death was recorded; Also, standardized mortality by age was calculated. Results. 2,170 people were registered as deceased due to hepatocellular carcinoma. The 50.1% were male and the 67.5% older than 60 years. The standardized mortality rate in Peru decreased from 1.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 population from 2005 to 2016. The raw cup of mortality per 100,000 population shows that when comparing the first period (2005-2010) with the second (2011-2016), the tendency in Peru has decreased. The only region that presented a decrease in mortality was the Mountains (% change =-40.1). Conclusions. Standardized mortality by age had a slight decrease from 2005 to 2016; however, this difference does not show considerable variations. Mortality from this neoplasm seems to remain high and stable since the period from 1995 to 2000.
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