Now showing items 1-20 of 599

    • Metabolomic markers of antepartum depression and suicidal ideation

      Mitro, S.D. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-02-01)
      Background: Recent analyses have described metabolomic markers for depression and suicidal ideation in non-pregnant adults. We examined the metabolomic profile of antepartum depression and suicidal ideation during mid-pregnancy, a time of high susceptibility to mood disorders. Methods: We collected fasting blood from 100 pregnant Peruvian women and profiled 307 plasma metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 to define antepartum depression (score ≥ 10) and suicidal ideation (having thoughts that you would be better off dead, or of hurting yourself). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs). Results: Three triacylglycerol metabolites (C48:5 triacylglycerol [OR = =1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14–3.14], C50:6 triacylglycerol [OR = =1.88; 95%CI: 1.13–3.14], C46:4 triacylglycerol [OR = =1.89; 95%CI: 1.11–3.21]) were associated with higher odds of antepartum depression and 4 metabolites (betaine [OR = =0.56; 95%CI:0.33–0.95], citrulline [OR = =0.58; 95%CI: 0.34–0.98], C5 carnitine [OR = =0.59; 95%CI: 0.36–0.99], C5:1 carnitine [OR = =0.59; 95%CI: 0.35–1.00]) with lower odds of antepartum depression. Twenty-six metabolites, including 5-hydroxytryptophan (OR = =0.52; 95%CI: 0.30–0.92), phenylalanine (OR = =0.41; 95%CI: 0.19–0.91), and betaine (OR = =0.53; 95%CI: 0.28–0.99) were associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation. Limitations: Our cross-sectional study could not determine whether metabolites prospectively predict outcomes. No metabolites remained significant after multiple testing correction; these novel findings should be replicated in a larger sample. Conclusions: Antepartum suicidal ideation metabolomic markers are similar to markers of depression among non-pregnant adults, and distinct from markers of antepartum depression. Findings suggest that mood disorder in pregnancy shares metabolomic similarities to mood disorder at other times and may further understanding of these conditions’ pathophysiology.
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    • Missing asthma patients in epidemiologic survey?

      Rommel Diaz, F. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-02-01)
      Cartas al editor.
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    • High-Risk, but Hidden: Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru, 2012-2014

      Passaro, R.C. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-02-03)
      Background: Binge drinking (BD) is common in Peru, but may not be routinely detected by standard assessments of hazardous drinking. Objectives: We describe prevalence and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru who met criteria for BD as compared with those who met criteria for hazardous drinking. Methods: In a cross-sectional sample of MSM and TW from Lima (2012-2014), we calculated prevalence of BD (consuming ≥6 alcoholic drinks per occasion by AUDIT-3 criteria), conducted bivariate analyses of associations of BD with demographic and behavioral characteristics, and compared prevalence and behaviors of BD to those of hazardous drinkers (identified by AUDIT-10 criteria). Results: Of 1,520 MSM (n = 1,384) and TW (n = 137) with median age 27 years, 74.4% of MSM and 86.9% of TW met criteria for BD. Among MSM, BD was associated with a greater likelihood of using alcohol (41.6% vs. 13.8%; p <.01) or drugs (7.8% vs. 2.8%; p <.01) prior to a recent sexual contact. Among TW, BD was associated with greater frequency of alcohol use (44.9% vs. 11.1%; p <.01) or unprotected anal intercourse (58.8% vs. 33.3%; p =.04) during ≥1 of their three most recent sexual contacts. There was a higher prevalence of BD (75.5%) than hazardous drinking (53.2%) in our sample, with binge drinkers exhibiting similar sexual risk behaviors to hazardous drinkers. Conclusions: Binge drinking is common among MSM and TW in Lima, associated with risky sexual behavior, and may not be adequately captured by AUDIT-10 criteria.
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    • Oropouche infection a neglected arbovirus in patients with acute febrile illness from the Peruvian coast

      Martins-Luna, J. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2020-02-10)
      Objective: To evaluate the frequency of infection caused by the Oropouche virus (OROV) in 496 patients with acute febrile disease (AFI), whose samples were obtained for the analysis of endemic arboviruses in a previous investigation carried out in 2016. Results: OROV was detected in 26.4% (131/496) of serum samples from patients with AFI. Co-infections with Dengue virus (7.3%), Zika virus (1.8%) and Chikungunya (0.2%) were observed. The most common clinical symptoms reported among the patients with OROV infections were headache 85.5% (112/131), myalgia 80.9% (106/131), arthralgia 72.5% (95/131) and loss of appetite 67.9% (89/131). Headache and myalgia were predominant in all age groups. Both OROV infections and co-infections were more frequent in May, June and July corresponding to the dry season of the region.
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    • Standardisation of nailfold capillaroscopy for the assessment of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis

      Smith, V. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-03-01)
      Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool which allows the evaluation of the morphology of the microcirculation. Since its recent incorporation in the 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for systemic sclerosis together with its assessed role to monitor disease progression, capillaroscopy became a ‘mainstream’ investigation for rheumatologists. Given its increasing use by a variety of physicians internationally both in daily practice to differentiate primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as in research context to predict disease progression and monitor treatment effects, standardisation in capillaroscopic image acquisition and analysis seems paramount. To step forward to this need, experts in the field of capillaroscopy/microcirculation provide in this very consensus paper their view on image acquisition and analysis, different capillaroscopic techniques, normal and abnormal capillaroscopic characteristics and their meaning, scoring systems and reliability of image acquisition and interpretation.
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    • Use of adaptive servo ventilation therapy as treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Hernandez, A.V. (Springer, 2020-03-01)
      Purpose: Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) has been reported to show improvement in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and heart failure (HF); however, its role as a second-line or adjunctive treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of new existing data including cardiac mechanistic factor, geometry, and cardiac biomarkers. Methods: We systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that assessed the efficacy or effectiveness of ASV compared to conventional treatments for SDB and HF in five research databases from their inception to November 2018. Random-effects meta-analyses using the inverse variance method and stratified by study design were performed. Results: We included 15 RCTs (n = 859) and 5 cohorts (n = 162) that met our inclusion criteria. ASV significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in cohorts (MD 6.96%, 95% CI 2.58, 11.34, p = 0.002), but not in RCTs. Also, the ASV group had significantly lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in both cohorts (MD − 26.02, 95% CI − 36.94, − 15.10, p < 0.00001) and RCTs (MD − 21.83, 95% CI − 28.17, − 15.49, p < 0.00001). ASV did not significantly decrease the E/e′ ratio in RCTs or in cohorts. Finally, ASV significantly decreased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the cohorts (SMD − 121.99, CI 95% − 186.47, − 57.51, p = 0.0002) but not in RCTs. ASV did not have a significant effect on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and cardiac diameters. Conclusions: ASV therapy is associated with improvements of AHI in comparison to alternative treatments in patients with SDB and HF. ASV did not improve LVEF or E/e′ ratios in randomized trials; other intermediate outcomes did not improve significantly.
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    • An emerging public health threat: Mayaro virus increases its distribution in Peru

      Aguilar-Luis, M.A. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-03-01)
      Background: The infection caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV), which presents as an acute febrile illness, is considered a neglected tropical disease. The virus is an endemic and emerging pathogen in South America and the Caribbean, responsible for occasional and poorly characterized outbreaks. Currently there is limited information about its expansion and risk areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 10 urban primary care health centers in the Cajamarca region of Peru from January to June 2017. A total of 359 patients with suspected febrile illness were assessed. RNA was extracted from serum samples, following which MAYV real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of the nsP1 gene was performed. Results: MAYV was detected in 11.1% (40/359) of samples after RT-PCR amplification and confirmatory DNA sequencing. Most infections were detected in the adult population aged 18–39 years (40%) and 40–59 years (32.5%). Headache was the most frequent symptom in patients with MAYV infection (77.5%), followed by fever (72.5%), myalgia (55.0%), and arthralgia (50.0%). During the study, most of the MAYV cases were seen in May (47.5%) and April (35.0%), corresponding to the dry season (months without rain). Conclusions: This study is novel in describing the presence of MAYV in Cajamarca, an Andean region of Peru. Symptoms are non-specific and can be confused with those of other arbovirus or bacterial infections. Molecular biology methods such as RT-PCR allow the timely and accurate detection of MAYV and could thus be considered as a tool for surveillance in endemic areas.
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    • Type 2 Sturge-Weber Syndrome

      Guerreros-Espino, C. (Ediciones Doyma, S.L., 2020-03-01)
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    • Association of social support and antepartum depression among pregnant women

      Friedman, L.E. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-03-01)
      Background: : Few investigators have evaluated the association between early pregnancy social support and depression; however, increased social support may improve mental health during pregnancy. Our objective is to examine whether in early pregnancy there is an association between social support and maternal depression among women in Peru. Methods: : 2,062 pregnant women participated in structured interviews. Early pregnancy social support was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ-6). We evaluated the number of individuals that participants could turn to in different situations (Social Support Number Score; SSQN) and their satisfaction with support received (Social Support Satisfaction Score; SSQS). Median SSQN and SSQS characterized participants according to high and low levels of support. SSQN family vs. non-family support were also evaluated separately. Antepartum depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: : 39.6% of women reported high SSQN and 45.5% reported high SSQS. Approximately 25% had antepartum depression. Women with high SSQN had 22% lower odds of antepartum depression (OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.63–0.97). Similarly, women with high SSQS scores had 45% lower odds of antepartum depression (OR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.45–0.68). Women with high SSQN non-family scores had 30% lower odds antepartum depression compared to those with low SSQN non-family scores (OR = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.57–0.86). The association between SSQN family scores and antepartum depression did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: : Increased social support may improve maternal mental health during pregnancy and this association should be assessed in longitudinal studies.
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    • Leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus

      Cornejo-Venegas, G. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-03-01)
      A 27-year-old Peruvian woman living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in clinical stage B3 and not on antiretroviral therapy presented with a ten-day history of fever, chills, night sweats and a two-day history of skin lesions. On physical examination, several erythematous-purplish lesions were found on the face and legs. Meningococcal infection was suspected and ceftriaxone was started. Blood culture grew nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica. A biopsy of the skin lesions showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV); therefore, corticosteroids were added. After two weeks of antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment, the lesions had resolved, but they recurred two days after treatment with prednisone was stopped. Corticosteroids and combination antiretroviral therapy were started simultaneously and the lesions resolved without recurrence. HIV infection has been associated with higher rates of skin lesions in salmonellosis. LCV has been described both in the setting of HIV infection and salmonellosis. However, our review of the literature found no previous cases of LCV in concurrent HIV and salmonellosis.
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    • Association of stress-related sleep disturbance with psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women

      Sanchez, S.E. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-06-01)
      Background: Physiological changes during pregnancy are often accompanied by reduced sleep quality, sleep disruptions, and insomnia. Studies conducted among men and non-pregnant women have documented psychiatric disorders as common comorbidities of insomnia and other sleep disorders. However, no previous study has examined the association between stress-related sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders among pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 2051 pregnant women in Peru. The Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) was used to assess sleep disruptions due to stressful situations. Symptoms of antepartum depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version, respectively. High risk for psychosis was assessed using the Prodromal Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Stress-related sleep disturbance was reported by 33.2% of women. Of all women, 24.9% had antepartum depression, 32.2% had generalized anxiety disorder, 30.9% had PTSD, and 27.6% were assessed as having a high risk of psychosis. After adjusting for confounders, women with stress-related sleep disturbances were more likely to experience antepartum depression (OR = 2.74; 95%CI: 2.22–3.38), generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 2.48; 95%CI: 2.04–3.02), PTSD (OR = 2.36; 95%CI: 1.93–2.88), and high risk for psychosis (OR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.69–2.54) as compared to women without stress-related sleep disturbances. Conclusions: Stress-related sleep disturbances during pregnancy are associated with increased odds of psychiatric disorders. Inquiring about stress related sleep disturbances during antenatal care may be beneficial for identifying and caring for women at high risk of psychiatric disorders.
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    • Prevalence of asthma symptoms in Latin America: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

      Mallol, J; Solé, D; Asher, I; Clayton, T; Stein, R; Soto-Quiroz, M; jmallol@lauca.usach.cl (John Wiley & Sons, 2000-12-01)
      The prevalence of respiratory symptoms indicative of asthma in children from Latin America has been largely ignored. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), 17 centers in 9 different Latin American countries participated in the study, and data from 52,549 written questionnaires (WQ) in children aged 13-14 years and from 36,264 WQ in 6-7 year olds are described here. In children aged 13-14 years, the prevalence of asthma ever ranged from 5.5-28%, and the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months from 6.6-27%. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of asthma ever ranged from 4.1-26.9%, and the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months ranged from 8.6-32.1%. The lower prevalence in centers with higher levels of atmospheric pollution suggests that chronic inhalation of polluted air in children does not contribute to asthma. Furthermore, the high figures for asthma in a region with a high level of gastrointestinal parasite infestation, and a high burden of acute respiratory infections occurring early in life, suggest that these factors, considered as protective in other regions, do not have the same effect in this region. The present study indicates that the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in Latin America is as high and variable as described in industrialized or developed regions of the world.
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    • Asthma control in Latin America: the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey.

      Neffen, Hugo; Fritscher, Carlos; Schacht, Francisco Cuevas; Levy, Gur; Chiarella, Pascual; Soriano, Joan B; Mechali, Daniel; Daniel.G.Mechali@gsk.com (Pan American Health Organization, 2005-03-01)
      Objectives. The aims of this survey were (1) to assess the quality of asthma treatment and control in Latin America, (2) to determine how closely asthma management guidelines are being followed, and (3) to assess perception, knowledge and attitudes related to asthma in Latin America. Methods. We surveyed a household sample of 2 184 adults or parents of children with asthma in 2003 in 11 countries in Latin America. Respondents were asked about healthcare utilization, symptom severity, activity limitations and medication use. Results. Daytime asthma symptoms were reported by 56% of the respondents, and 51 % reported being awakened by their asthma at night. More than half of those surveyed had been hospitalized, attended a hospital emergency service or made unscheduled emergency visits to other healthcare facilities for asthma during the previous year. Patient perception of asthma control did not match symptom severity, even in patients with severe persistent asthma, 44.7% of whom regarded their disease as being well or completely controlled. Only 2.4% (2.3% adults and 2.6% children) met all criteria for asthma control. Although 37% reported treatment with prescription medications, only 6% were using inhaled corticosteroids. Most adults (79%) and children (68%) in this survey reported that asthma symptoms limited their activities. Absence from school and work was reported by 58% of the children and 31% of adults, respectively. Conclusions. Asthma control in Latin America falls short of goals in international guidelines, and in many aspects asthma care and control in Latin America suffer from the same shortcomings as in other areas of the world.
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    • The International Study of Wheezing in Infants: questionnaire validation.

      Mallol, Javier; García-Marcos, Luis; Aguirre, Viviana; Martinez-Torres, Antonela; Perez-Fernández, Virginia; Gallardo, Alejandro; Calvo, Mario; Rosario Filho, Nelson; Rocha, Wilson; Fischer, Gilberto; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Chiarella, Pascual; Pinto, Rosario; Barria, Claudio; jmallol@usach.cl (Karger AG, Basel, 2007-01-01)
      Background: There are no internationally validated questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of infant wheezing. This study was undertaken to validate a questionnaire for the International Study on the Prevalence of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). Material and Methods: Construct and criterion validity were tested for the question 'Has your baby had wheezing or whistling in the chest during his/her first 12 months of life?'. Construct validity (i.e. the ability of parents and doctors to refer to the same symptoms with the same words) was tested in a sample of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezy infants 12-15 months of age in each of 10 centres from 6 different Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries. Criterion validity (i.e. the ability of parents to correctly detect the symptom in the general population) was evaluated in 2 samples (Santiago, Chile and Cartagena, Spain) of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezing infants (according to parents) of the same age, randomly selected from the general population, who were later blindly diagnosed by a paediatric pulmonologist. Results: Construct validity was very high (κ test: 0.98-1) in all centres. According to Youden's index, criterion validity was good both in Cartagena (75.5%) and in Santiago (67.0%). Adding questions about asthma medication did not improve diagnosis accuracy. Conclusions: The EISL questionnaire significantly distinguished wheezy infants from healthy ones. This questionnaire has a strong validity and can be employed in large international multicentre studies on wheezing during infancy.
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    • Global variations in prevalence of eczema symptoms in children from ISAAC Phase Three.

      Odhiambo, Joseph A; Williams, Hywel C; Clayton, Tadd O; Robertson, Colin F; Asher, M Innes; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group.; t.clayton@auckland.ac.nz (Mosby Inc., 2009-12-01)
      Background: In 1999, The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One reported the prevalence of eczema symptoms in 715,033 children from 154 centers in 56 countries by using standardized epidemiologic tools. Objective: To update the world map of eczema prevalence after 5 to 10 years (ISAAC Phase Three) and include additional data from over 100 new centers. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys using the ISAAC questionnaire on eczema symptoms were completed by adolescents 13 to 14 years old and by parents of children 6 to 7 years old. Current eczema was defined as an itchy flexural rash in the past 12 months and was considered severe eczema if associated with 1 or more nights per week of sleep disturbance. Results: For the age group 6 to 7 years, data on 385,853 participants from 143 centers in 60 countries showed that the prevalence of current eczema ranged from 0.9% in India to 22.5% in Ecuador, with new data showing high values in Asia and Latin America. For the age group 13 to 14 years, data on 663,256 participants from 230 centers in 96 countries showed prevalence values ranging from 0.2% in China to 24.6% in Columbia with the highest values in Africa and Latin America. Current eczema was lower for boys than girls (odds ratio, 0.94 and 0.72 at ages 6 to 7 years and 13 to 14 years, respectively). Conclusion:ISAAC Phase Three provides comprehensive global data on the prevalence of eczema symptoms that is essential for public health planning. New data reveal that eczema is a disease of developing as well as developed countries.
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    • The impact of the method of consent on response rates in the ISAAC time trends study.

      Ellwood, P; Asher, M I; Stewart, A W; Chiarella, Pacual; ISAAC Phase III Study Group; p.ellwood@auckland.ac.nz (nternational Union against Tubercul. and Lung Dis., 2010-08-01)
      BACKGROUND: Centres in Phases I and III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) programme used the method of consent (passive or active) required by local ethics committees. METHODS: Retrospectively, relationships between achieved response rates and method of consent for 13-14 and 6-7-year-olds (adolescents and children, respectively), were examined between phases and between English and non-English language centres. RESULTS: Information was obtained for 113 of 115 centres for adolescents and 72/72 centres for children. Both age groups: most centres using passive consent achieved high response rates (>80% adolescents and >70% children). English language centres using active consent showed a larger decrease in response rate. Adolescents: seven centres changed from passive consent in Phase I to active consent in Phase III (median decrease of 13%), with five centres showing lower response rates (as low as 34%). Children: no centre changed consent method between phases. Centres using active consent had lower median response rates (lowest response rate 45%). CONCLUSION: The requirement for active consent for population school-based questionnaire studies can impact negatively on response rates, particularly English language centres, thus adversely affecting the validity of the data. Ethics committees need to consider this issue carefully.
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    • Which population level environmental factors are associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Review of the ecological analyses of ISAAC Phase One.

      Asher, M Innes; Stewart, Alistair W; Mallol, Javier; Montefort, Stephen; Lai, Christopher K W; Aït-Khaled, Nadia; Odhiambo, Joseph; Chiarella, Pascual; The ISAAC Phase One Study Group; mi.asher@auckland.ac.nz (2010-01-21)
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    • Asthma and Rhinitis in South America: How Different They are From Other Parts of the World.

      Chong Neto, Herberto José; Rosário, Nelson Augusto; Solé, Dirceu; Chiarella, Pascual; Latin American ISAAC Study Group; nelson.rosario@ufpr.br (Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease, 2012-03-01)
      Asthma and rhinitis epidemiology has wide variations around the world. The aim of this review was verify the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in South America and report differences from other regions of the world. We reviewed studies with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) methodology in South America, Phases I and III. In South America the ISAAC Phase I ranked four countries among top ten in prevalence of asthma and three countries among top ten in prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. ISAAC Phase III showed little changes in asthma and rhinitis prevalence in South American countries. The prevalence increases of asthma and rhinitis in South American centers indicate that the burden of both is continuing to rise, but the differences in prevalence are lessening.
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    • Body mass index and vigorous physical activity in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

      Braithwaite, Irene E; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Wall, Clare R; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; irene.braithwaite@mrinz.ac.nz (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017-08-01)
      Aim: To examine the relationship between reported vigorous physical activity (VPA) and body mass index (BMI) in children (6–7 years) and adolescents (13–14 years). Methods: In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three, 75 895 children's parents and 199 502 adolescents answered questions relating to VPA, height and weight. The association between VPA and BMI was analysed using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Results: Compared to children who undertook no VPA, those in the infrequent group (once or twice per week) and those in the frequent group (three or more times per week) had mean (95% CI) BMI values 0.07 kg/m 2 (0.03–0.11) and 0.09 kg/m 2 (0.03–0.15) greater, respectively (p = 0.001). Compared to adolescents reporting no VPA, those in the infrequent group had a BMI 0.19 kg/m 2 (0.15–0.23) greater while those in the frequent group had a BMI 0.01 kg/m 2 (−0.03–0.05) greater (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Reported VPA is not associated with lower BMI among children and adolescents. Investigation of VPA and BMI may be best undertaken in conjunction with other variables in the energy expenditure equation. A focus on VPA alone may be an inefficient way to manage BMI.
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    • Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

      Wall, Clare R; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; c.wall@auckland.ac.nz (MDPI AG, 2018-03-07)
      Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m² lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of -0.079 kg/m². In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.
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