• Association between free thyroid hormones values and the lipid profile in middle-aged women with chronic symptoms

      Guarnizo-Poma, Mirella; Paico-Palacios, Socorro; Pantoja-Torres, Betzi; Lazaro-Alcantara, Herbert; Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Benítes-Zapata, Vicente A.; mguarnizo@imm.com.pe (Elsevier Ltd, 2018-07)
      Aims: To determine the association between the thyroid hormones(FT3, FT4 and TSH) and the lipid profile markers(HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides) values in middle-aged women with no metabolic disorders and recurrent chronic symptomatology. Materials and Methods: We carried out an analytical cross-sectional study in euthyroid women with recurrent chronic symptoms of at least six months with no apparent diagnosis who attended the endocrinological gynaecology outpatient service of a private clinic in Lima-Peru during 2012–2014. Participants who met the eligibility criteria were evaluated according to their thyroid hormones(FT3, FT4 and TSH) and lipid profile markers(HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides) values. We elaborated univariate/multivariate linear regression models to evaluate the association between the thyroid markers and the lipid profile levels. The reported association measure was the beta coefficient(β) with its respective p-value. Results: We analyzed 211 participants, the average age was 44.9 ± 14.0(SD) years, the FT3 and FT4 mean levels were 3.2 ± 0.4 pg/mL and 1.2 ± 0.2 ng/dL respectively, while the TSH median was 2.8(IQR:1.9–4.0) μU/mL. The mean or median levels of LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides were of 137.5 ± 37.9 mg/dL, 54.0 ± 15.0 mg/dL and 118.5(IQR:79.5–169.5) mg/dL respectively. In the multivariate linear regression model between the FT3 and LDL-c levels, we found that for each increase in a FT3 unit, the LDL-c values decreased on average 30.85 mg/dL(p < 0.01). We found no statistically significant associations in the other multivariate models of linear regression, among the other thyroid hormones and lipid markers. Conclusion: We found an inverse association between the FT3 and LDL-c values in women with chronic gynaecological symptoms
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)

      Wall, Clare; Stewart, Alistair; Hancox, Robert; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin; c.wall@auckland.ac.nz (MDPI AG, 2018-03)
      Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children’s parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m2 lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of -0.079 kg/m2. In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

      Wall, Clare R; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; c.wall@auckland.ac.nz (MDPI AG, 2018-03-07)
      Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m² lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of -0.079 kg/m². In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association between Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Overweight/Obesity among Children Aged 0-5 Years According to the 2016 Demographic and Family Health Survey

      Echevarría-Castro, Nataly; Matayoshi-Pérez, Andrea; Alvarado, Germán F. (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2020-07-01)
      Background: Overweight and obesity among children under the age of 5 have become a public health problem. The worldwide prevalence is 4.9% and 6.0%, whereas in Peru it is 7.4% and 1.9%, respectively. The causes of these problems are multifactorial and must be studied to prevent the multiple consequences on children's health. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the 2016 Demographic and Family Health Survey (DHS). The sample size was 7935 children and their mothers. The dependent variable was childhood overweight/obesity, measured according to the Z-score of the BMI >2 standard deviation (SD), while the main independent variable consisted of the maternal depressive symptoms (DS) (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score >10 points). The software STATA/MP 14.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity among children aged 0-5 years was 4.5% and the prevalence of moderate and severe maternal DS was 7.1%. No maternal depressive symptoms were found to be associated with the outcome [adjusted PR = 1.36 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-3.09 p = 0.47]. An association was found between socioeconomic status (SES) Q3 (adjusted PR = 3.86 95% CI = 1.9-7.6 p < 0.0001), Q4 (adjusted PR = 5.53 95% CI = 2.76-11.1 p < 0.0001), Q5 (adjusted PR = 6.9 95% CI = 3.24-14.7 p = < 0.0001), maternal BMI (adjusted PR = 1.06 95% CI = 1.03-1.08 p < 0.0001), and cesarean delivery (adjusted PR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.01-1.99 p = 0.042). Conclusions: No association was found between maternal depressive symptoms and overweight/obesity among children aged 0-5 years. The upper SES quintiles, maternal BMI, and cesarean delivery were associated with the outcome.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association between perceived social support and induced abortion: A study in maternal health centers in Lima, Peru

      Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E.; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio (PLoS ONE, 2018-04-12)
      Objectives This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. Methods/Principal findings A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18–25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%–49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%–21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81–3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14–3.30) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association between serum transaminase levels and insulin resistance in euthyroid and non-diabetic adults: Serum transaminase levels and insulin resistance in healthy adults

      Yamamoto, Jin Marcos; Padro-Nuñez, Sebastian; Guarnizo-Poma, Mirella; Lazaro-Alcantara, Herbert; Paico-Palacios, Socorro; Pantoja-Torres, Betzi; del Carmen Ranilla-Seguin, Vitalia; Benites-Zapata, Vicente A. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-01-01)
      Aim: To evaluate the association between elevated serum transaminase levels and insulin resistance (IR) in a population of healthy individuals. Methods: We define IR with a cut-off point of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) ≥ 3.8. For aspartate aminotransferase (AST), we consider elevated values >30 U/L in women and values >36 U/L in men. For alanine aminotransferase (ALT), we consider elevated values >30 U/L in women and values >40 U/L in men. We performed a crude and adjusted generalized linear model from Poisson family with robust variance, in order to evaluate the association between elevated serum transaminase levels and IR. The associations were presented as prevalence ratio (PR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: We included 261 participants in the study. The median age was 39 years (31–45) and 23.7% of the participants were men. The prevalence of elevated serum transaminase for AST and ALT were, 13.8% and 26.1%, respectively. The prevalence of IR was 34.1%. In the crude analysis we found statistical significance between elevated AST and ALT with IR (PR = 3.18; 95% CI: 2.33–4.34 and PR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88–3.30; respectively). However, in the multivariate analysis, the association only remained statistically significance with ALT, but lost its significance with AST, PR = 1.90; CI 95%: 1.31–2.77 and a PR = 1.23; CI 95%: 0.93–1.61; respectively. Conclusion: Elevated serum levels of ALT were associated with insulin resistance. ALT could be used in clinical practice as an additional tool to assess IR in apparently healthy people.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association between social media use (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook) and depressive symptoms: Are Twitter users at higher risk?

      Jeri-Yabar, Antoine; Sanchez-Carbonel, Alejandra; Tito, Karen; Ramirez-delCastillo, Jimena; Torres-Alcantara, Alessandra; Denegri, Daniela; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2019-02)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between social media dependence and depressive symptoms and also, to characterize the level of dependence. It was a transversal, analytical research. Subjects and Methods: The stratified sample was 212 students from a private university that used Facebook, Instagram and/or Twitter. To measure depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory was used, and to measure the dependence to social media, the Social Media Addiction Test was used, adapted from the Internet Addiction Test of Echeburúa. The collected data were subjected for analysis by descriptive statistics where STATA12 was used. Results: The results show that there is an association between social media dependence and depressive symptoms (PR [Prevalence Ratio] = 2.87, CI [Confidence Interval] 2.03–4.07). It was also shown that preferring the use of Twitter (PR = 1.84, CI 1.21–2.82) over Instagram (PR = 1.61, CI 1.13–2.28) is associated with depressive symptoms when compared to the use of Facebook. Conclusion: Excessive social media use is associated with depressive symptoms in university students, being more prominent in those who prefer the use of Twitter over Facebook and Instagram.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association between the use of protease inhibitors in highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Echecopar-Sabogal, Jose; D’Angelo-Piaggio, Lorenzo; Chanamé-Baca, Diego M; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; ldangelop@gmail.com (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2018-04)
      This systematic review and meta-analysis tries to determine whether there is an association between the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) and the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, and EMBASE. Included articles were observational studies published on or prior to November 2015 that met specific inclusion criteria. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, describing 13,742 HIV patients. Use of PIs was associated with the development of MS (RR: 2.11; 95% CI 1.28–3.48; p-value 0.003). No association between the use of PIs and development of DM was found: the HR for the incidence of DM among patients using PIs was 1.23 (95% CI 0.66–2.30; p-value: 0.51) and the RR was 1.25 (95% CI 0.99–1.58; p-value 0.06). Use of PIs in HIV-infected patients is associated with an increased risk of MS. No evidence of an increased risk of DM was found. However, because MS is a precursor to DM, it is possible that studies with a longer follow-up duration are needed in order to detect an association between PI use and onset of DM.
    • Association of antepartum suicidal ideation during the third trimester with infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery

      Gelaye, Bizu; Domingue, Amber; Rebelo, Fernanda; Friedman, Lauren E; Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Larrabure-Torrealva, Gloria; Williams, Michelle A; bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu (Routledge, 2019-02)
      Antepartum suicidal behaviors are a leading cause of maternal injury and death. Previous research has not investigated associations between antepartum suicidal ideation and perinatal complications. Our study objective was to evaluate the relationship of antepartum suicidal ideation with low infant birthweight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth. A cohort study was conducted among 1,108 women receiving prenatal care in Peru. Suicidal ideation was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 during pregnancy. Birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. Linear regressions and multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate were used to investigate associations between suicidal ideation and pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 8.7%, preterm delivery was 5.7%, low birthweight was 4.4%, and small for gestational age was 3.4%. In an adjusted model, infant birthweight was 94.2 grams lower for mothers with antepartum suicidal ideation (95% CI: −183.0, −5.5, p = 0.037) compared with those without suicidal ideation. After adjusting for confounders including depression, participants with suicidal ideation had a nearly four-fold increased odds of delivering a small for gestational age infant (OR: 3.73; 95% CI: 1.59–8.74). These findings suggest suicidal ideation during pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, especially low infant birthweight.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

      Yasmin V. Barrios; Bizu Gelaye; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Christina Nicolaidis; Marta B. Rondon; Pedro J. Garcia; Pedro A. Mascaro Sanchez (PLoS ONE, 2015-02-02)
      Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association of decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in early pregnancy with antepartum depression

      Fung, Jenny; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Sánchez, Sixto E S; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Hevner, Karin; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Rondón, Marta B. (Biomed Central Ltd, 2015-05-06)
      Acceso abierto
    • Association of Migraine Headaches With Suicidal Ideation Among Pregnant Women in Lima, Peru.

      Friedman, Lauren E; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E; Peterlin, B Lee; Williams, Michelle A; Rondón, Marta B.; lfriedm@hsph.harvard.edu (American Headache Society, 2016-04)
      BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally, and suicide prevalence rates have been shown to be increased in those with migraine. No previous study has examined the association between migraine and suicidal ideation during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between migraine and suicidal ideation among a cohort of pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3372 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale during early pregnancy. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was more common among those with migraine (25.6%) as compared to those with probable migraine (22.1%, P < .001) or non-migraineurs (12.3%, P < .001). After adjusting for confounders, including depression, those with migraine or probable migraine had a 78% increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.46-2.17), as compared with non-migraineurs. Women with both migraine and depression had a 4.14-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 4.14; 95% CI: 3.17-5.42) compared to those with neither condition. CONCLUSION: Migraine is associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in pregnant women even when controlling for depression. These findings support the consideration of screening women with comorbid migraine and depression for suicidal behavior during pregnancy.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association of poor subjective sleep quality with suicidal ideation among pregnant Peruvian women

      Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondón, Marta B.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Henderson, David C.; Williams, Michelle A. (Elsevier B.V., 2015-05-27)
      Objective: To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartumdepression and suicidal ideationwere assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Antepartumsubjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Results: Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep qualitywas more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterpartswho did not (47.2% vs. 24.8%, Pb.001). After adjustment for confounders including maternal depression, poor subjective sleep quality (defined using the recommended criteria of PSQI global score of N5 vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95% CI 1.02–2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95% CI 1.08–1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95% CI 1.96–6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Conclusion: Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association of social support and antepartum depression among pregnant women

      Friedman, L.E. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-03-01)
      Background: : Few investigators have evaluated the association between early pregnancy social support and depression; however, increased social support may improve mental health during pregnancy. Our objective is to examine whether in early pregnancy there is an association between social support and maternal depression among women in Peru. Methods: : 2,062 pregnant women participated in structured interviews. Early pregnancy social support was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ-6). We evaluated the number of individuals that participants could turn to in different situations (Social Support Number Score; SSQN) and their satisfaction with support received (Social Support Satisfaction Score; SSQS). Median SSQN and SSQS characterized participants according to high and low levels of support. SSQN family vs. non-family support were also evaluated separately. Antepartum depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: : 39.6% of women reported high SSQN and 45.5% reported high SSQS. Approximately 25% had antepartum depression. Women with high SSQN had 22% lower odds of antepartum depression (OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.63–0.97). Similarly, women with high SSQS scores had 45% lower odds of antepartum depression (OR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.45–0.68). Women with high SSQN non-family scores had 30% lower odds antepartum depression compared to those with low SSQN non-family scores (OR = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.57–0.86). The association between SSQN family scores and antepartum depression did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: : Increased social support may improve maternal mental health during pregnancy and this association should be assessed in longitudinal studies.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association of statin use and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Bielecka-Dabrowa, Agata; Bytyçi, Ibadete; Von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan; Jozwiak, Jacek; Rysz, Jacek; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Bajraktari, Gani; Mikhalidis, Dimitri P.; Banach, Maciej (BioMed Central Ltd, 2019-10-31)
      Background The role of statins in patients with heart failure (HF) of different levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear especially in the light of the absence of prospective data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in non-ischemic HF, and taking into account potential statins’ prosarcopenic effects. We assessed the association of statin use with clinical outcomes in patients with HF. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central until August 2018 for RCTs and prospective cohorts comparing clinical outcomes with statin vs non-statin use in patients with HF at different LVEF levels. We followed the guidelines of the 2009 PRISMA statement for reporting and applied independent extraction by multiple observers. Meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) of effects of statins on clinical outcomes used generic inverse variance method and random model effects. Clinical outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality and CV hospitalization. Results Finally we included 17 studies (n = 88,100; 2 RCTs and 15 cohorts) comparing statin vs non-statin users (mean follow-up 36 months). Compared with non-statin use, statin use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.83, P < 0.0001, I2 = 63%), CV mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76–0.88, P < 0.0001, I2 = 63%), and CV hospitalization (HR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69–0.89, P = 0.0003, I2 = 36%). All-cause mortality was reduced on statin therapy in HF with both EF < 40% and ≥ 40% (HR: 0.77, 95% Cl: 0.68–0.86, P < 0.00001, and HR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.69–0.82, P < 0.00001, respectively). Similarly, CV mortality (HR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79–0.93, P = 0.0003, and HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.90, P < 0.00001, respectively), and CV hospitalizations (HR 0.80 95% CI: 0.64–0.99, P = 0.04 and HR 0.76 95% CI: 0.61–0.93, P = 0.009, respectively) were reduced in these EF subgroups. Significant effects on all clinical outcomes were also found in cohort studies’ analyses; the effect was also larger and significant for lipophilic than hydrophilic statins. Conclusions In conclusion, statins may have a beneficial effect on CV outcomes irrespective of HF etiology and LVEF level. Lipophilic statins seem to be much more favorable for patients with heart failure.
      Acceso abierto
    • Association of stress-related sleep disturbance with psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women

      Sanchez, S.E. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-06-01)
      Background: Physiological changes during pregnancy are often accompanied by reduced sleep quality, sleep disruptions, and insomnia. Studies conducted among men and non-pregnant women have documented psychiatric disorders as common comorbidities of insomnia and other sleep disorders. However, no previous study has examined the association between stress-related sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders among pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 2051 pregnant women in Peru. The Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) was used to assess sleep disruptions due to stressful situations. Symptoms of antepartum depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version, respectively. High risk for psychosis was assessed using the Prodromal Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Stress-related sleep disturbance was reported by 33.2% of women. Of all women, 24.9% had antepartum depression, 32.2% had generalized anxiety disorder, 30.9% had PTSD, and 27.6% were assessed as having a high risk of psychosis. After adjusting for confounders, women with stress-related sleep disturbances were more likely to experience antepartum depression (OR = 2.74; 95%CI: 2.22–3.38), generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 2.48; 95%CI: 2.04–3.02), PTSD (OR = 2.36; 95%CI: 1.93–2.88), and high risk for psychosis (OR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.69–2.54) as compared to women without stress-related sleep disturbances. Conclusions: Stress-related sleep disturbances during pregnancy are associated with increased odds of psychiatric disorders. Inquiring about stress related sleep disturbances during antenatal care may be beneficial for identifying and caring for women at high risk of psychiatric disorders.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Association of types of dietary fats and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: A prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of prospective studies with 1,148,117 participants

      Mazidi, Mohsen; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Sattar, Naveed; Toth, Peter P.; Judd, Suzanne; Blaha, Michael J.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Penson, Peter E.; Banach, Maciej (Churchill Livingstone, 2020-01-01)
      Background: Associations between dietary fats and mortality are unclear. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between quartiles of total fat, mono-unsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption, and all-cause, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated mortality in 24,144 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999–2010. We added our results to a meta-analysis based on searches until November 2018. Results: In fully adjusted Cox-proportional hazard models in our prospective study, there was an inverse association between total fat (HR: 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.82, 0.99, Q4 vs Q1) and PUFA (0.81, 0.78–0.84) consumption and all-cause mortality, whereas SFA were associated with the increased mortality (1.08, 1.04–1.11). In the meta-analysis of 29 prospective cohorts (n = 1,148,117) we found a significant inverse association between total fat (0.89, 0.82–0.97), MUFA (0.93, 0.87–0.99) and PUFA (0.86, 0.80–0.93) consumption and all-cause mortality. No association was observed between total fat and CVD (0.92, 0.79–1.08) or CHD mortality (1.03 0.99–1.09). A significant association between SFA intake and CHD mortality (1.10, 1.01–1.20) was observed. Neither MUFA nor PUFA were associated with CVD or CHD mortality. Inverse associations were observed between MUFA (0.80, 0.67–0.96) and PUFA (0.84, 0.80–0.90) intakes and stroke mortality. Conclusions: We showed differential associations of total fat, MUFA and PUFA with all-cause mortality, but not CVD or CHD mortalities. SFA was associated with higher all-cause mortality in NHANES and with CHD mortality in our meta-analysis. The type of fat intake appears to be associated with important health outcomes.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Associations between adverse childhood experiences and migraine among teenage mothers in Peru

      Siego, Cynthia Veronica; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Jimenez, Maria L.; Rondon, Marta B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Gelaye, Bizu (Elsevier Inc., 2021-08-01)
      Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between (1) different types of ACEs and migraine, and (2) the number of ACEs and migraine among adolescent mothers in Lima, Peru. Methods: Our cross-sectional study included 787 adolescent mothers (14- to 18-years of age) in Peru. In-person interviews were conducted postpartum, in hospital, within 2-days of delivery. Nine types of ACEs were assessed, including exposure to three categories of abuse, two categories of neglect, and four categories of household dysfunction. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between ACEs and migraine while adjusting for putative confounders. Results: Approximately 75% of adolescent mothers reported having experienced at least one type of ACE. Adolescent mothers who reported any childhood abuse had 1.49-fold increased odds of migraine (aOR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.03–2.18) compared to those with no history of childhood abuse. Adolescent mothers who reported experiencing household dysfunction had 1.56-fold increase odds of migraine (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.09–2.24). Compared to participants who reported no ACE, those who experienced four or more ACEs had 3.09-fold (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI 1.80–5.40) increased odds of migraine (ptrend < 0.001). Conclusion: Exposure to ACEs is highly prevalent in adolescent-aged mothers postpartum and is associated with increased odds of migraine. These findings support the importance of screening for ACEs and migraine among adolescent mothers; and the need for providing culturally appropriate, trauma-informed headache care.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Asthma and Rhinitis in South America: How Different They are From Other Parts of the World.

      Chong Neto, Herberto José; Rosário, Nelson Augusto; Solé, Dirceu; Chiarella, Pascual; Latin American ISAAC Study Group; nelson.rosario@ufpr.br (Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease, 2012-03-01)
      Asthma and rhinitis epidemiology has wide variations around the world. The aim of this review was verify the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in South America and report differences from other regions of the world. We reviewed studies with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) methodology in South America, Phases I and III. In South America the ISAAC Phase I ranked four countries among top ten in prevalence of asthma and three countries among top ten in prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. ISAAC Phase III showed little changes in asthma and rhinitis prevalence in South American countries. The prevalence increases of asthma and rhinitis in South American centers indicate that the burden of both is continuing to rise, but the differences in prevalence are lessening.
      Acceso abierto
    • Asthma control in Latin America: the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey.

      Neffen, Hugo; Fritscher, Carlos; Schacht, Francisco Cuevas; Levy, Gur; Chiarella, Pascual; Soriano, Joan B; Mechali, Daniel; Daniel.G.Mechali@gsk.com (Pan American Health Organization, 2005-03-01)
      Objectives. The aims of this survey were (1) to assess the quality of asthma treatment and control in Latin America, (2) to determine how closely asthma management guidelines are being followed, and (3) to assess perception, knowledge and attitudes related to asthma in Latin America. Methods. We surveyed a household sample of 2 184 adults or parents of children with asthma in 2003 in 11 countries in Latin America. Respondents were asked about healthcare utilization, symptom severity, activity limitations and medication use. Results. Daytime asthma symptoms were reported by 56% of the respondents, and 51 % reported being awakened by their asthma at night. More than half of those surveyed had been hospitalized, attended a hospital emergency service or made unscheduled emergency visits to other healthcare facilities for asthma during the previous year. Patient perception of asthma control did not match symptom severity, even in patients with severe persistent asthma, 44.7% of whom regarded their disease as being well or completely controlled. Only 2.4% (2.3% adults and 2.6% children) met all criteria for asthma control. Although 37% reported treatment with prescription medications, only 6% were using inhaled corticosteroids. Most adults (79%) and children (68%) in this survey reported that asthma symptoms limited their activities. Absence from school and work was reported by 58% of the children and 31% of adults, respectively. Conclusions. Asthma control in Latin America falls short of goals in international guidelines, and in many aspects asthma care and control in Latin America suffer from the same shortcomings as in other areas of the world.
      Acceso abierto