• Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

      Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Yoshito Nishi, Carlos; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu (Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevetion, 2014-01-08)
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    • Age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among infants from Periurban areas in Lima, Peru

      Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Mispireta, Mónica L.; Gil, Ana I.; Contreras, Carmen; Molina, Margarita; Amemiya, Isabel; Verastegui, Hector; Hall, Eric R.; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F. (Oxford University Press, 2015-05-30)
      BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are being recognized as important pediatric enteropathogens worldwide. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in age-related susceptibility to specific strains, especially among infants. METHODS: We conducted a passive surveillance cohort study of diarrhea that involved 1034 children aged 2-12 months in Lima, Peru. Control stool samples were collected from randomly selected children without diarrhea. All samples were analyzed for common enteric pathogens and for diarrheagenic E. coli with use of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The most frequently isolated pathogens in 1065 diarrheal episodes were diarrheagenic E. coli strains (31%), including enteroaggregative (15.1%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (7.6%). Diarrheagenic E. coli, Campylobacter species, and rotavirus were more frequently isolated from infants aged >or=6 months. Among older infants, diffusely adherent E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were more frequently isolated from diarrheal samples than from control samples (P <.05). Children aged >or=6 months who were infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli had a 4.56-fold increased risk of diarrhea (95% confidence interval, 1.20-17.28), compared with younger children. Persistent diarrhea was more common in infants aged <6 months (13.5% vs 3.6%; P <.001). Among children with diarrheagenic E. coli-positive samples, coinfections with other pathogens were more common in children with diarrhea than in control children (40.1% vs 15.6%; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheagenic E. coli strains were more frequently isolated in samples from older infants. In this setting with high frequency of pathogen exposure and high frequency of breastfeeding, we hypothesize that the major age-related differences result from decreased exposure to milk-related protective factors and from increased exposure to contaminated food and water.
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    • Agudeza visual baja según residir en una ciudad rural del norte del Perú: estudio de casos y controles

      Vilela Estrada, Martín A.; Araujo Chumacero, Mary M.; Solano Zapata, Fiorela E.; Dávila Adrianzén, Aarón; Mejia, Christian R.; martinvilelafmhupao@gmail.com (Elsevier B.V., 2016-06)
      Introduction In Peru, there are few studies which show that they might be a difference between school children in rural areas and the ones from non-rural areas, this is necessary because it has been shown that the place of residence is an influential exogenous factor in the development of low visual acuity. Likewise, the influence of environment on the development of visual errors and low visual acuity has been demonstrated. Methodology Case-control study between child population of an urban and a rural area (Piura and Joras); prior informed consent of their parents. The primary variable was the visual acuity, qualified with the principles of Snellen (sensitivity 85%, specificity 96%) 20/0 was considered as optimal and normal visual acuity was considered to 20/25. Values below were low visual acuity. Results 1,094 were surveyed. 50.0% (488) were female, and the median age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-10 years). 22.6% (221) of the children had low visual acuity. In bivariate analysis, the age of children (p = .001), the degree coursing (p <.001) and city of residence (p = .005) were associated with low visual acuity of children. The multivariate analysis found that non-rural children had 1.55 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.11, p-value = .005) more chances of having low visual acuity, adjusted for sex, age and degree academic growth of children. Conclusions It is concluded that children living non-rural residences have more low visual acuity in the northern Peru.
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    • “All citizens of the world can save a life” — The World Restart a Heart (WRAH) initiative starts in 2018

      Böttiger, B.W.; Lockey, A.; Aickin, R.; Castren, M.; de Caen, A.; Escalante, R.; Kern, K.B.; Lim, S.H.; Nadkarni, V.; Neumar, R.W.; Nolan, J.P.; Stanton, D.; Wang, T.-L.; Perkins, G.D.; bernd.boettiger@uk-koeln.de (Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 2018-07)
      “All citizens of the world can save a life”. With these words, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) is launching the first global initiative – World Restart a Heart (WRAH) – to increase public awareness and therefore the rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for victims of cardiac arrest. In most of the cases, it takes too long for the emergency services to arrive on scene after the victim's collapse. Thus, the most effective way to increase survival and favourable outcome in cardiac arrest by two- to fourfold is early CPR by lay bystanders and by “first responders”. Lay bystander resuscitation rates, however, differ significantly across the world, ranging from 5 to 80%. If all countries could have high lay bystander resuscitation rates, this would help to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. In order to achieve this goal, all seven ILCOR councils have agreed to participate in WRAH 2018. Besides schoolchildren education in CPR (“KIDS SAVE LIVES”), many other initiatives have already been developed in different parts of the world. ILCOR is keen for the WRAH initiative to be as inclusive as possible, and that it should happen every year on 16 October or as close to that day as possible. Besides recommending CPR training for children and adults, it is hoped that a unified global message will enable our policy makers to take action to address the inequalities in patient survival around the world.
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    • Alsinol, an arylamino alcohol derivative active against Plasmodium, Babesia, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania: past and new outcomes

      Arias, Maria H.; Quiliano, Miguel; Bourgeade-Delmas, Sandra; Fabing, Isabelle; Chantal, Isabelle; Berthier, David; Minet, Cécile; Eparvier, Veronique; Sorres, Jonathan; Stien, Didier; Galiano, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Valentin, Alexis; Garavito, Giovanny; Deharo, Eric (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2020-10-01)
      Malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomosis, and leishmaniasis are some of the most life-threatening parasites, but the range of drugs to treat them is limited. An effective, safe, and low-cost drug with a large activity spectrum is urgently needed. For this purpose, an aryl amino alcohol derivative called Alsinol was resynthesized, screened in silico, and tested against Plasmodium, Babesia, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania. In silico Alsinol follows the Lipinski and Ghose rules. In vitro it had schizontocidal activity against Plasmodium falciparum and was able to inhibit gametocytogenesis; it was particularly active against late gametocytes. In malaria-infected mice, it showed a dose-dependent activity similar to chloroquine. It demonstrated a similar level of activity to reference compounds against Babesia divergens, and against promastigotes, and amastigotes stages of Leishmania in vitro. It inhibited the in vitro growth of two African animal strains of Trypanosoma but was ineffective in vivo in our experimental conditions. It showed moderate toxicity in J774A1 and Vero cell models. The study demonstrated that Alsinol has a large spectrum of activity and is potentially affordable to produce. Nevertheless, challenges remain in the process of scaling up synthesis, creating a suitable clinical formulation, and determining the safety margin in preclinical models.
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    • Alta frecuencia de plagio en tesis de medicina de una universidad pública peruana.

      Saldaña-Gastulo, J. Jhan C.; Quezada-Osoria, C. Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristan, Percy (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-03-21)
      An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.
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    • Alteraciones hematológicas en trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente a mezcla de benceno- tolueno-xileno (btx) en una fábrica de pinturas.

      Haro García, Luis; Vélez Zamora, Nadia; Aguilar Madrid, Guadalupe; Guerrero Rivera, Susana; Sánchez Escalante, Vanessa; Muñoz, Sergio R.; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-03-20)
      Objetivos. Evaluar las tres series celulares sanguíneas e identificar la presencia de hipocromía, macrocitosis, leucopenia, linfocitopenia y trombocitopenia en un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a la mezcla de benceno-tolueno-xileno (BTX). Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal donde se incluyó a 97 trabajadores de una empresa de pinturas de México a los que se les realizó una biometría hemática convencional y les fue estimada la exposición a través de la dosis diaria potencial acumulada para vapores de BTX. Resultados. Del total de trabajadores, 19,6%, mostró macrocitosis, 18,6%, linfocitopenia, 10,3% hipocromía, 7,2% trombocitopenia y 5,2% leucopenia. La asociación cruda de macrocitosis con exposición a dosis alta de mezcla de BTX fue la única significativa (OR:3,6; IC95%: 1,08 - 13,9; p=0,02) y en la que se estructuró un modelo de regresión logística (OR:6,7; IC95%: 1,33 - 13,55; p:0,02) ajustada por edad, consumo de alcohol y tabaquismo. Conclusiones. Todos los componentes citohemáticos analizados mostraron cambios leves; que podrían estar asociados con la exposición a la mezcla de BTX. De ellos, la macrocitosis podría constituirse en una manifestación precoz que merece ser vigilada.
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    • Altitude and excess mortality during COVID-19 pandemic in Peru

      Quevedo-Ramirez, Andres; Al-kassab-Córdova, Ali; Mendez-Guerra, Carolina; Cornejo-Venegas, Gonzalo; Alva-Chavez, Kenedy P. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-10-01)
      We have read with interest the short communication published by Segovia-Juarez et al., 2020 in Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology establishing that high altitude reduces the infection rate of COVID-19 but not the case fatality rate in the Peruvian setting. We support this hypothesis, however there could be an important number of under registered deaths on account of a low rate of diagnostic tests performed per inhabitant and mostly in symptomatic patients (Pasquariello and Stranges, 2020).
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    • Alto uso de anticoncepción oral de emergencia en Perú: reconsideración de su libre acceso

      Quispe-Pineda, Diana; Rebolledo-Ponietsky, Kirbeliz; Ganoza-Calero, Antonelhla M.; Miranda-Medina, José; Elejalde-Farfán, Natalia; Arévalo-Revelo, Diego; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; renee.pereyra.elias@gmail.com (2016-12-13)
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    • Ameliorative Effect of the Oral Administration of Chuquiraga spinosa in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer Induced with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

      Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge Luis; Herrera-Calderon, Oscar; Tinco-Jayo, Johnny Aldo; Rojas-Armas, Juan Pedro; Rauf, Abdur; Hañari-Quispe, Renán; Figueroa-Salvador, Linder; Fernández-Guzmán, Victor; Yuli-Posadas, Ricardo Ángel (EManuscript Technologies, 2020-05-01)
      Objective: To determine the ameliorative effect of the ethanolic extract of Chuquiraga spinosa (ChS) on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats. Methods: 36 female Holztman rats were divided into 6 groups. I) The negative control group received physiological saline (PS). II) ChS-200 group received 200 mg/kg of ChS. III) DMBA group was induced with DMBA (20 mg/Kg) dissolved in PS and administrated orally for 15 weeks. IV) DMBA + ChS-50 group, V) DMBA + ChS-250 group, and VI) DMBA + ChS-500 group, which received the extract orally for 15 weeks after DMBA induction. All data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet test was carried out to compare the mean value of different groups Histopathological analysis was evaluated by using Image J software. Results: Hematology showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P< 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P <0.01) in groups III, IV and V. Also, ChS extract significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P <0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P<0.01). Conclusions: Chuquiraga spinosa showed an ameliorative effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats as well as antioxidant, antitumor and antigenotoxic properties.
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    • An atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania peruviana in the valleys of Ancash-Peru

      Espinoza-Morales, Diego; Lucchetti Rodríguez, Aldo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Suárez Ognio, Luis; Pons, María J.; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana Mercedes (2017-11)
      We present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Sihuas district, located in the Andean valleys of Ancash-Peru. A 62-year-old man with no particular medical history presented multiple lesions located on the inferior abdomen, lumbar region and the right anterior thigh. Histological analysis found leishmanial amastigotes in the lesion sample, the Montenegro reaction was positive for Leishmania spp, and the polymerase chain reaction was positive for Leishmania peruviana. In conclusion, the atypical presentation of this disease may be related to the presence of an uncommon parasite strain or host immune deficiencies. The molecular identification of the etiology for disseminated leishmaniasis, will allow a better understanding of the presentation and proper treatment, as well as associated risk factors.
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    • An evaluation of distal hair cortisol concentrations collected at delivery

      Orta, Olivia R.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Coull, Brent A.; Gelaye, Bizu; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA;; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA;; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA;; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA;; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA;; Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany;; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), Lima, Peru;; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, USA; (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2018-04-04)
      Distal hair segments collected at delivery may allow for the assessment of maternal cortisol secretion in early pregnancy, an important time window for fetal development. Therefore, an investigation of the validity of distal hair cortisol concentrations is warranted. We examined the concordance between proximal and distal hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), both representing the first trimester of pregnancy. The study population was comprised of a random sample of 97 women participating in the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Each participant provided two hair samples: once at enrollment [mean gestational age (GA) = 13.1 weeks] and again at full-term delivery (mean GA = 39.0 weeks). Hair segments reflecting the first trimester were: 3 cm hair segments closest to the scalp on the first hair sample (proximal) and 6–9 cm from the scalp on the second hair sample (distal). HCC was determined using Luminescence Immunoassay. A subset (N = 28) had both hair segments additionally analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HCC values were log-transformed (logHCC), and proximal–distal differences tested using paired sample t-tests. Concordance was evaluated within and across assay types. LogHCC, measured using immunoassay, in distal hair segments was lower compared to proximal hair segments (1.35 versus 1.64 respectively; p = .02). No difference was observed using LC-MS/MS (1.99 versus 1.83, respectively; p=.33). Proximal–distal concordance was low within assay (immunoassay: Pearson = 0.27 and κ = 0.10; LC-MS/MS: Pearson = 0.37 and κ = 0.07). High correlation was observed across assays for both distal (Pearson = 0.78, p < .001; κ = 0.64) and proximal segments (Pearson = 0.96, p < .001; κ = 0.75). In conclusion, distal first-trimester hair segments collected at delivery have lower absolute HCC compared to HCC in proximal first trimester hair segments collected in early pregnancy, and are poorly concordant with HCC in proximal segments. Findings may inform the design of future studies.
    • An unidentified cluster of infection in the Peruvian Amazon region

      Cornejo Tapia, Ángela; Gomes, Cláudia; Suárez Ognio, Luis; Martínez Puchol, Sandra; Bustamante, Pershing; Pons, Maria J.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana (The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 2015-05-21)
      Introduction: Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of Carrion’s disease, which is a neglected disease linked to people in low-socioeconomic populations in Andean valleys. An outbreak of B. bacilliformis was reported in a rural area of the Peruvian Amazon region. The aim of this study was to characterize this outbreak using molecular techniques. Methodology: Fifty-three blood samples from patients diagnosed with Carrion’s disease were analyzed by molecular tools, using both a Bartonella-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and an universal PCR, both based on 16S rRNA gene amplification. Additional water samples from the area were also analyzed. Results: Unexpectedly, the samples were positive only when the universal PCR was used. Although environmental contamination cannot be ruled out, the results showed that Sphingomonas faeni was the possible causative agent of this outbreak, and that water was the most feasible infection source. Conclusions: Diagnosis by clinical criteria or microscopy may lead to misdiagnosis. There is a need to include molecular tools in the routine diagnosis of febrile syndromes, including Carrion’s disease.
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    • Analyzing the Development of Vaccines for Flavivirus-Endemic Scenarios: The Case of Dengue and Dengue Vaccine in Peru

      Ruiz Alejos, Andrea; Navarro Huaman, Laura; Segura, Eddy R.; aoriette@gmail.com (The Journal of Infectious Diseases (JID), 2014-11-03)
      Cartas ak editor
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    • Análisis factorial del «Cuestionario para la evaluación del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo» en estudiantes de medicina peruanos

      Cáceres Mejía, Brenda; Roca Quicaño, Ricardo; Torres M, F.; Pavic Espinoza, I.; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Fiestas, F. (Elsevier B.V., 2014-09-16)
      Introducción: El «Cuestionario para la evaluación del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo» (CESQT) fue propuesto para evaluar este síndrome en diversas poblaciones, sin embargo, no ha sido utilizado en estudiantes universitarios en Latinoamérica. Objetivo: Evaluar la estructura dimensional del CESQT en una población de estudiantes de medicina peruanos. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico de corte transversal en una muestra de 71 estudiantes de medicina que cursaban el último a˜no de la carrera (interno médico) en un hospital público en Lima, Perú. Se desarrolló un análisis factorial exploratorio para establecer la estructura de las dimensiones con mejor ajuste a los datos. Posteriormente, se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal múltiple para explorar la asociación entre síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo con el sexo y la rotación clínica en la que se encontraban (ginecología-obstetricia, cirugía, pediatría y medicina interna). Resultados: El análisis factorial exploratorio encontró que el modelo con 2 dimensiones explicaba mejor la variabilidad de los datos (61,8% de la varianza). Estas 2 dimensiones se denominaron desgaste e ilusión. La regresión lineal mostró que el sexo y la rotación clínica actual no estuvieron asociados a ninguna de estas dimensiones (p> 0,05). La ilusión estuvo inversamente asociada al desgaste, inclusive después de ajustar por sexo y rotación clínica actual (p = 0,007; = -0,33). Conclusión: La información contenida en el CESQT se resume en 2 dimensiones altamente correlacionadas: ilusión y desgaste. Esta estructura es establecida independientemente del sexo y la rotación clínica que cursaban los alumnos.
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    • Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

      Medina Flores, Dyanne Adenea; Ulloa Urizar, Gabriela; Camere Colarossi, Rosella; Caballero García, Stefany; Mayta Tovalino, Frank; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; jdelvall@upc.edu.pe (2016-03)
      Objective To evaluate the cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) (achiote) methanol extract against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods Two methanol extracts of B. orellana were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and leaves. The antibacterial activity of extracts against S. mutans and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxic activity was determinated by using the cell line MDCK. Results A stronger antibacterial effect was observed with the leaves methanolic extract with an inhibition zone of (19.97 ± 1.31) mm against S. mutans and (19.97 ± 1.26) mm against S. sanguinis. The methanolic extract of the seeds had an activity of (15.11 ± 1.03) mm and (16.15 ± 2.15) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The MIC of the leaf and the seed extracts against S. sanguinis was 62.5 and 125 μg/mL, respectively, and the MIC of the leaf extract against S. mutans was 62.5 μg/mL, and for the seed extract it was 31.25 μg/mL. The 50% cytotoxic concentration was 366.45 and 325.05 μg/mL for the leaves and seeds extracts, respectively. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote) on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.
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    • Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      Ulloa Urizar, Gabriela; De Lama Odría, María del Carmen; Camarena Lizarzaburu, José; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel (Elsevier B.V., 2015-09-07)
      Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method. Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.
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    • Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

      Camere Colarossi, Rosella; Ulloa Urizar, Gabriela; Medina Flores, Dyanne; Caballero García, Stefany; Mayta Tovalino, Frank; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana Mercedes; jdelvall@upc.edu.pe (Elsevier B.V., 2016-09)
      Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) (M. dubia) methanol extract, against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of M. dubia were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and pulp. Ten independent tests were prepared for each type of extract, using 0.12% chlorhexidine solution as positive control. Agar diffusion test was used by preparing wells with the experimental solutions cultivated in anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 °C. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cytotoxic effect over MDCK cell line was found. Results: A higher antibacterial effect was observed with the methanol seed extract with an inhibitory halo of (21.36 ± 6.35) mm and (19.21 ± 5.18) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The methanol extract of the pulp had an effect of (16.20 ± 2.08) mm and (19.34 ± 2.90) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the pulp extract was 62.5 µg/mL for both strains, whereas for the seed antibacterial activity was observed even at low concentrations. The CC50 of the seeds extract was at a higher concentration than 800 µg/mL and 524.37 µg/mL for the pulp extract.
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    • Antibiotic resistance in Bartonella bacilliformis clinical isolates from an endemic area of Peru

      Silva-Caso, Wilmer; J. Ruiz; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pons, Maria J (Elsevier B.V., 2015-10-15)
      Bartonella bacilliformis is a facultative, intracellular, aerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus causing the so-called Carrión's disease, a human infection endemic to specific areas mainly inhabited by low-income communities of Peru but also present in other Andean communities. It is considered a truly neglected tropical disease and is transmitted through the bite of female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia [1]. Carrión's disease has two different clinical presentations; an initial febrile and haemolytic anaemia phase, known as Oroya fever, which has a mortality rate ranging from 44% to 88% in untreated patients; and a second phase characterised by the development of dermal eruptions known as Peruvian wart [1,2]. 
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    • Anticholinergic toxicity in a one-year-old male following ingestion of Lupinus mutabilis seeds: case report

      Flores-Pamo, Adrian Ernesto; Pisano, Elinor; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri; Universidad Nacional San Agustín de Arequipa (UNSA), Peru; Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, United States; Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), Peru; Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas, Peru; yhuroc@gmail.com (Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM, 2017-11-06)
      CONTEXT: The seeds from Lupinus mutabilis Sweet, also called “chocho”, are an important part of the diet in several countries in South America. Prior to consumption, processing is required to remove toxic alkaloids. These alkaloids are known to have pharmacological properties as antiarrhythmics, antimuscarinics and hypoglycemics. CASE REPORT: We report a case in which a one-year-old male initially presented with altered mental status and respiratory distress and subsequently developed symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity, after ingesting a large amount of chocho seeds. CONCLUSION: In spite of going through a difficult clinical condition, the subject evolved favorably through receiving supportive treatment. The seeds from Lupinus mutabilis provide nutritional benefits when consumed, but people need to know their risks when these seeds are consumed without proper preparation.
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