• Head-to-head comparison between endoscopic ultrasound guided lumen apposing metal stent and plastic stents for the treatment of pancreatic fluid collections: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Guzmán-Calderón, Edson; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Díaz, Ramiro; Li, Bruno; Martinez-Moreno, Belen; Aparicio, José Ramón (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022-02-01)
      Background/Aims: Peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) result from acute or chronic pancreatic inflammation that suffers a rupture of its ducts. Currently, there exists three options for drainage or debridement of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis (WON). The traditional procedure is drainage by placing double pigtail plastic stents (DPPS); lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has a biflanged design with a wide lumen that avoids occlusion with necrotic tissue, which is more common with DPPS and reduces the possibility of migration. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses head-to-head, including only studies that compare the two main techniques to drainage of PFCs: LAMS vs DPPS. Methods: We conducted a systematic review in different databases, such as PubMed, OVID, Medline, and Cochrane Databases. This meta-analysis considers studies published from 2014 to 2020, including only studies that compare the two main techniques to drainage of PFCs: LAMS vs DPPS. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analyses. Only one of all studies was a randomized controlled trial. These studies comprise 1584 patients; 68.2% were male, and 31.8% were female. Six hundred sixty-three patients (41.9%) were treated with LAMS, and 921 (58.1%) were treated with DPPS. Six studies included only WON in their analysis, two included only pancreatic pseudocysts, and five studies included both pancreatic pseudocysts and WON. The technical success was similar in patients treated with LAMS and DPPS (97.6% vs 97.5%, respectively, P =.986, RR = 1.00 [95% CI 0.93-1.08]). The clinical success was similar in both groups (LAMS: 90.1% vs DPPS: 84.2%, P =.139, RR = 1.063 [95% CI 0.98-1.15]). Patients treated with LAMS had a lower complication rate than the DPPS groups, with a significant statistical difference (LAMS: 16.0% vs DPPS: 20.2%, P =.009, RR = 0.746 [95% CI 0.60-0.93]). Bleeding was the most common complication in the LAMS group (33 patients, [5.0%]), whereas infection was the most common complication in the DPPS group (56 patients, [6.1%]). The LAMS migration rate was lower than in the DPPS (0.9% vs 2.2%, respectively, P =.05). The mortality rate was similar in both groups, 0.6% in the LAMS group (four patients) and 0.4% in the DPPS group (four patients; P =.640). Conclusion: The PFCs drainage is an indication when persistent symptoms or PFCs-related complications exist. EUS guided drainage with LAMS has similar technical and clinical success to DPPS drainage for the management of PFCs. The technical and clinical success rates are high in both groups. However, LAMS drainage has a lower adverse events rate than DPPS drainage. More randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the real advantage of LAMS drainage over DPPS drainage.
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    • Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with variations of gut microbiota in asymptomatic children between 6 and 12 years

      Benavides-Ward, Araceli; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Mazulis, Fernando; Urteaga, Numan; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-07-13)
      Objective: To determine the variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in asymptomatic children infected with Helicobacter pylori in comparison with children without the infection. Results: Children infected with H. pylori doubled their probability of presenting 3 of 9 genera of bacteria from the gut microbiota, including: Proteobacteria (p = 0.008), Clostridium (p = 0.040), Firmicutes (p = 0.001) and Prevotella (p = 0.006) in comparison to patients without the infection. We performed a nutritional assessment and found that growth stunting was statistically significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori (p = 0.046).
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    • Hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2007–2008

      Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez Ognio, Luis (Elsevier B.V., 2014-07-17)
      Objective: To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. Results: One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28–44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32–57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78–3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87–6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86–2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22–3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02–0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04–1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Conclusions: Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated.
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    • Hepatitis C: retos pendientes

      Montes Teves, Pedro (Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, 2014-09-29)
      Editorial
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    • Hepatocellular carcinoma in a woman with 34 weeks gestation and chronic hepatitis b

      Sato-Espinoza, Karina; Ferrer, Javier Díaz; Ventura, Yessica Mitzy Jaramillo (Sociedad Argentina de Gastroenterologia, 2021-01-01)
      A 24-year-old pregnant woman arrived at the emergency service at 34 weeks of gestational age with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. An abdominal ultrasound was performed showing signs of hepatopathy with multiple neo-formative nodules with mild ascites and fetal biometry confirmed at 34 weeks gestation. During her hospitalization, an emergency caesarean was induced with favorable result in the survival of the mother and the baby.
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    • High anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion rates before the second wave in Manaus, Brazil, and the protective effect of social behaviour measures: results from the prospective DETECTCoV-19 cohort

      Lalwani, Pritesh; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V.; Ganoza, Christian A.; Salgado, Bárbara Batista; Pereira Filho, Ivanildo Vieira; da Silva, Danielle Severino Sena; de Morais, Thiago Barros do Nascimento; Jordão, Maele Ferreira; Ortiz, Jessica Vanina; Barbosa, Aguyda Rayany Cavalcante; Sobrinho, Wlademir Braga Salgado; Cordeiro, Isabelle Bezerra; de Souza Neto, Júlio Nino; de Assunção, Enedina Nogueira; da Costa, Cristiano Fernandes; de Souza, Pedro Elias; de Albuquerque, Bernardino Claudio; Astofi-Filho, Spartaco; Holanda, Aldina Iacy Paulain; Gomes, Ana Lúcia Silva; França, Ana Paula Souza de; Monteiro, André Victor Rabelo; Santos, Andressa dos Passos; Teixeira, Antônia de Sousa; Souza, Antônio Vinicius Soares de; Pinheiro, Beatriz; Santos, Bianca Pires dos; Farias, Brenda Pereira; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Silva, Caio Lúcio Andreola da; Oliveira, Cinthya Iamile Frithz Brandão de; Martins, Dalila de Alcântara; Oliveira, Eline Araújo de; Carvalho, Elisson Denny da Costa; Costa, Evillyn Fernandes Da; Simplicio, Fernanda Guilhon; Pereira, Fernanda Serrão; Sinimbu, Gabriele Pimentel; Cardenes, Genilton de Oliveira; Silva, Giane Alves da; Costa, Iago Sampaio Fernandes da; Correia, Ingrid Silva; Santos, Ilia Gilmara Carvalho dos; Guimarães, Jackeline Vieira; Pinheiro, Jessica Samile Batista; Romana, Juliana Correa; França, Josineide de Oliveira Novo; Pinto, Kerollen Runa; Freitas, Maria Fiamma Farias; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Moraes, Marizete Candido; Damasceno, Matheus da Silva; Ruiz, Michelle Araújo; Lemos, Milena Maria Cardoso de; Picanço, Neila Soares; Maia, Rayara Gonzaga; Bezerra, Regiane Carneiro; Souza, Romeu Santos de; Harjani, Susy Cavalcante; Souza, Vitor Batista de; Melo, Wellington Barbosa de; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-11-01)
      Background: The city of Manaus, Brazil, has seen two collapses of the health system due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We report anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG antibody seroconversion rates and associated risk factors in Manaus residents before the second wave of the epidemic in Brazil. Methods: A convenience sample of adult (aged ≥18 years) residents of Manaus was recruited through online and university website advertising into the DETECTCoV-19 study cohort. The current analysis of seroconversion included a subgroup of DETECTCoV-19 participants who had at least two serum sample collections separated by at least 4 weeks between Aug 19 and Oct 2, 2020 (visit 1), and Oct 19 and Nov 27, 2020 (visit 2). Those who reported (or had no data on) having a COVID-19 diagnosis before visit 1, and who were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG antibodies at visit 1 were excluded. Using an in-house ELISA, the reactivity index (RI; calculated as the optical density ratio of the sample to the negative control) for serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG antibodies was measured at both visits. We calculated the incidence of seroconversion (defined as RI values ≤1·5 at visit 1 and ≥1·5 at visit 2, and a ratio >2 between the visit 2 and visit 1 RI values) during the study period, as well as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) through cluster-corrected and adjusted Poisson regression models to analyse associations between seroconversion and variables related to sociodemographic characteristics, health access, comorbidities, COVID-19 exposure, protective behaviours, and symptoms. Findings: 2496 DETECTCoV-19 cohort participants returned for a follow-up visit between Oct 19 and Nov 27, 2020, of whom 204 reported having COVID-19 before the first visit and 24 had no data regarding previous disease status. 559 participants were seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG antibodies at baseline. Of the remaining 1709 participants who were seronegative at baseline, 71 did not meet the criteria for seroconversion and were excluded from the analyses. Among the remaining 1638 participants who were seronegative at baseline, 214 showed seroconversion at visit 2. The seroconversion incidence was 13·06% (95% CI 11·52–14·79) overall and 6·78% (5·61–8·10) for symptomatic seroconversion, over a median follow-up period of 57 days (IQR 54–61). 48·1% of seroconversion events were estimated to be asymptomatic. The sample had higher proportions of affluent and higher-educated people than those reported for the Manaus city population. In the fully adjusted and corrected model, risk factors for seroconversion before visit 2 were having a COVID-19 case in the household (IRR 1·49 [95% CI 1·21–1·83]), not wearing a mask during contact with a person with COVID-19 (1·25 [1·09–1·45]), relaxation of physical distancing (1·31 [1·05–1·64]), and having flu-like symptoms (1·79 [1·23–2·59]) or a COVID-19 diagnosis (3·57 [2·27–5·63]) between the first and second visits, whereas working remotely was associated with lower incidence (0·74 [0·56–0·97]). Interpretation: An intense infection transmission period preceded the second wave of COVID-19 in Manaus. Several modifiable behaviours increased the risk of seroconversion, including non-compliance with non-pharmaceutical interventions measures such as not wearing a mask during contact, relaxation of protective measures, and non-remote working. Increased testing in high-transmission areas is needed to provide timely information about ongoing transmission and aid appropriate implementation of transmission mitigation measures. Funding: Ministry of Education, Brazil; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas; Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO.
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    • High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru.

      Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquím; Molina, Margarita; Del Valle, Luis J.; Vargas, Martha; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Hall, Eric; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2014-03-19)
      Abstract. In a prospective passive diarrhea surveillance cohort study of 1,034 infants of low socioeconomic communities in Lima, Peru, we determined the prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility of the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli was 29% (161 of 557) in children with gastroenteritis and 30% (58 of 195) in the control group without diarrhea. The most common E. coli pathogens in diarrhea were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (14%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (7%), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (4%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (4%). Diarrheagenic E. coli as a group exhibited high levels of antimicrobial drug resistance in diarrheal cases to ampicillin (85%), cotrimoxazole (79%), tetracycline (65%), and nalidixic acid (28%). Among individual E. coli groups in patients with diarrhea, DAEC and EAEC exhibited significant higher frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and nalidixic acid than EPEC and ETEC. Antimicrobial drug resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were more frequent in E. coli isolated from diarrheal samples than controls, which reflected greater antibiotic exposure in patients with gastroenteritis.
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    • High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

      Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R.; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2016-02-01)
      This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru.
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    • High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.; [email protected] (2017-01-27)
      Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
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    • High-Risk, but Hidden: Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru, 2012-2014

      Passaro, R.C. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-02-03)
      Background: Binge drinking (BD) is common in Peru, but may not be routinely detected by standard assessments of hazardous drinking. Objectives: We describe prevalence and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru who met criteria for BD as compared with those who met criteria for hazardous drinking. Methods: In a cross-sectional sample of MSM and TW from Lima (2012-2014), we calculated prevalence of BD (consuming ≥6 alcoholic drinks per occasion by AUDIT-3 criteria), conducted bivariate analyses of associations of BD with demographic and behavioral characteristics, and compared prevalence and behaviors of BD to those of hazardous drinkers (identified by AUDIT-10 criteria). Results: Of 1,520 MSM (n = 1,384) and TW (n = 137) with median age 27 years, 74.4% of MSM and 86.9% of TW met criteria for BD. Among MSM, BD was associated with a greater likelihood of using alcohol (41.6% vs. 13.8%; p <.01) or drugs (7.8% vs. 2.8%; p <.01) prior to a recent sexual contact. Among TW, BD was associated with greater frequency of alcohol use (44.9% vs. 11.1%; p <.01) or unprotected anal intercourse (58.8% vs. 33.3%; p =.04) during ≥1 of their three most recent sexual contacts. There was a higher prevalence of BD (75.5%) than hazardous drinking (53.2%) in our sample, with binge drinkers exhibiting similar sexual risk behaviors to hazardous drinkers. Conclusions: Binge drinking is common among MSM and TW in Lima, associated with risky sexual behavior, and may not be adequately captured by AUDIT-10 criteria.
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    • La hipertensión arterial: lo que tenemos hasta hoy

      Quiroz, Guillermo; [email protected] (Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), 2014-08-11)
      Se me ha invitado a editorializar –agradezco la gentileza- un simposio desarrollado por connotados especialistas sobre una enfermedad prevalente, crónica, callada, abigarrada en sus distintas fases clínicas, con signología única, basada en los números que indica un aparato y, por tanto, privilegio diagnóstico de un segmento de la población que por alguna razón accede a él.
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    • How the initiating ribosome copes with ppGpp to translate mRNAs

      Vinogradova, Daria S.; Zegarra, Victor; Maksimova, Elena; Nakamoto, Jose Alberto; Kasatsky, Pavel; Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L.; Milón, Pohl (Public Library of Science, 2020-01-01)
      During host colonization, bacteria use the alarmones (p)ppGpp to reshape their proteome by acting pleiotropically on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Here, we elucidate how the initiating ribosome senses the cellular pool of guanosine nucleotides and regulates the progression towards protein synthesis. Our results show that the affinity of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and the inhibitory concentration of ppGpp for the 30S-bound initiation factor IF2 vary depending on the programmed mRNA. The TufA mRNA enhanced GTP affinity for 30S complexes, resulting in improved ppGpp tolerance and allowing efficient protein synthesis. Conversely, the InfA mRNA allowed ppGpp to compete with GTP for IF2, thus stalling 30S complexes. Structural modeling and biochemical analysis of the TufA mRNA unveiled a structured enhancer of translation initiation (SETI) composed of two consecutive hairpins proximal to the translation initiation region (TIR) that largely account for ppGpp tolerance under physiological concentrations of guanosine nucleotides. Furthermore, our results show that the mechanism enhancing ppGpp tolerance is not restricted to the TufA mRNA, as similar ppGpp tolerance was found for the SETI-containing Rnr mRNA. Finally, we show that IF2 can use pppGpp to promote the formation of 30S initiation complexes (ICs), albeit requiring higher factor concentration and resulting in slower transitions to translation elongation. Altogether, our data unveil a novel regulatory mechanism at the onset of protein synthesis that tolerates physiological concentrations of ppGpp and that bacteria can exploit to modulate their proteome as a function of the nutritional shift happening during stringent response and infection.
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    • Human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy in the prevention of anogenital warts: systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Tejada, Romina A; Vargas, Kris G; Benítes-Zapata, Vicente A.; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Hernandez, Adrian V.; [email protected] (Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, 2017-02)
      Objective: To review evidence on the efficacy of HPV vaccines in the prevention of non-cancer lesions (anogenital warts [AGW], recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and oral papillomatosis). Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials. We performed random effect models and effects were reported as relative risks (RR) and their confidence intervals (95%CI) following both intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Results: We included six studies (n=27 078). One study was rated as high risk of bias. One study could not be included in the meta-analysis because it provided combined results. We found that quadrivalent vaccine reduced the risk of AGW by 62% (RR: 0.38, 95%CI:0.32-0.45, I2:0%) in the ITT analysis and by 95% (RR: 0.05, 95%CI:0.01-0.25, I2:66%) in the PP analysis. Subgroup analyses of studies in women or with low-risk of bias provided similar results. Conclusion: HPV quadrivalent vaccine is efficacious in preventing AGW in men and women.
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    • Identfication of viral and bacterial etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children under 5 years old hospitalized

      Saiki-Macedo, Stephanie; Valverde-Ezeta, Jorge; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Castillo, Maria Esther; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Verónica; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Del Valle, Luis J.; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Bada, Carlos; Del Aguila, Olguita; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019-01-21)
      Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income countries. Unfortunately, information regarding their epidemiology is still limited in Peru. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in children with a probable diagnosis of Pertussis from January 2010 to July 2012. All samples were analyzed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the following etiologies: Influenza-A, Influenza-B, RSV-A, RSV-B, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza 1 virus, Parainfluenza 2 virus, Parainfluenza 3 virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Results: A total of 288 patients were included. The most common pathogen isolated was Adenovirus (49%), followed by Bordetella pertussis (41%) from our previous investigation, the most prevelant microorganisms were Mycoplasma pneumonia (26%) and Influenza-B (19.8%). Coinfections were reported in 58% of samples and the most common association was found between B. pertussis and Adenovirus (12.2%). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of Adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other etiologies in patients with a probable diagnosis of pertussis. Despite the presence of persistent cough lasting at least two weeks and other clinical characteristics highly suspicious of pertussis, secondary etiologies should be considered in children under 5 years-old in order to give a proper treatment.
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    • Identification of a norovirus outbreak on a hematopoietic stem cell transplant unit and development and implementation of a novel infection prevention algorithm for controlling transmission

      Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V.; Snyder, Graham M.; Sullivan, Bernadette F.; Alonso, Carolyn D.; Wright, Sharon B. (Cambridge University Press, 2020-04-01)
      Controlling norovirus transmission in units with immunocompromised patients is challenging. We present a cluster of norovirus cases that occurred on a stem-cell transplant unit and the prevention efforts that were implemented to limit the outbreak. Protocols developed to control this cluster may provide a model for other facilities.
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    • Identification of coinfections by viral and bacterial pathogens in covid-19 hospitalized patients in peru: Molecular diagnosis and clinical characteristics

      Pérez-Lazo, Giancarlo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Morales-Moreno, Adriana; Ballena-López, José; Soto-Febres, Fernando; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Del Valle, Luís J.; Kym, Sungmin; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Peña-Tuesta, Issac; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Illescas, Luis Ricardo (MDPI, 2021-11-01)
      The impact of respiratory coinfections in COVID-19 is still not well understood despite the growing evidence that consider coinfections greater than expected. A total of 295 patients older than 18 years of age, hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of moderate/severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (according to definitions established by the Ministry of Health of Peru) were enrolled during the study period. A coinfection with one or more respiratory pathogens was detected in 154 (52.2%) patients at hospital admission. The most common coinfections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae (28.1%), Chlamydia pneumoniae (8.8%) and with both bacteria (11.5%); followed by Adenovirus (1.7%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.7%), Chlamydia pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.7%), RSV-B/Chlamydia pneumoniae (0.3%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydia pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.3%). Expectoration was less frequent in coinfected individuals compared to non-coinfected (5.8% vs. 12.8%). Sepsis was more frequent among coinfected patients than non-coinfected individuals (33.1% vs. 20.6%) and 41% of the patients who received macrolides empirically were PCR-positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae.
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    • Identification of human papillomavirus as a preventive strategy for cervical cancer in asymptomatic women in the Peruvian Andes

      Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Olivera Irazábal, Miluska; León Álvarez, Pedro; Del Valle, Luis J.; Díaz Estacio, Sonia; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim; Bermúdez García, Alejandro; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana (Elsevier B.V., 2014-11-20)
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    • Identification of infection by Chikungunya, Zika, and Dengue in an area of the Peruvian coast. Molecular diagnosis and clinical characteristics

      Sánchez-Carbonel, José; Tantaléan-Yépez, Derek; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Weilg, Pablo; Vásquez-Achaya, Fernando; Costa, Luis; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Sandoval, Isabel; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-03-14)
      Objective: To assess the presence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika in serum samples of patients with acute febrile illness in Piura, Peru and describe the most common clinical features. Results: Dengue was the most common arbovirus detected in 170/496 (34.3%), followed by Zika in 39/496 (7.9%) and Chikungunya in 23/496 (4.6%). Among the 170 samples positive for Dengue, serotype 2 was the most predominant type present in 97/170 (57.1%) of samples, followed by the serotype 3 in 9/170 (5.3%). Headaches, muscle pain, and joint pain were the most common symptoms associated with fever in patients with Dengue and Zika. No symptoms predominance was observed in patients with Chikungunya.Dengue is considered the most frequent arbovirus in Peru and the number of cases has increased dramatically in the last 5 years. However, it is not the only arbovirus that circulates along the northern coast of Peru. It has also been determined the presence of Zika and Chikungunya in our population, which may suggest the circulation of other arboviruses that have not been detected.
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    • Immunosuppressive and angiogenic cytokine profile associated with Bartonella bacilliformis infection in post-outbreak and endemic areas of Carrion's disease in Peru

      Pons, Maria J.; Gomes, Cláudia; Aguilar, Ruth; Barrios, Diana; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Ruiz, Joaquim; Dobaño, Carlota; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Moncunill, Gemma; [email protected] (Public Library of Science, 2017-06-19)
      Analysis of immune responses in Bartonella bacilliformis carriers are needed to understand acquisition of immunity to Carrion’s disease and may allow identifying biomarkers associated with bacterial infection and disease phases. Serum samples from 144 healthy subjects from 5 villages in the North of Peru collected in 2014 were analyzed. Four villages had a Carrion’s disease outbreak in 2013, and the other is a traditionally endemic area. Thirty cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were determined in sera by fluorescent bead-based quantitative suspension array technology, and analyzed in relation to available data on bacteremia quantified by RT-PCR, and IgM and IgG levels measured by ELISA against B. bacilliformis lysates. The presence of bacteremia was associated with low concentrations of HGF (p = 0.005), IL-15 (p = 0.002), IL-6 (p = 0.05), IP-10 (p = 0.008), MIG (p = 0.03) and MIP-1α (p = 0.03). In multi-marker analysis, the same and further TH1-related and pro-inflammatory biomarkers were inversely associated with infection, whereas angiogenic chemokines and IL-10 were positively associated. Only EGF and eotaxin showed a moderate positive correlation with bacteremia. IgM seropositivity, which reflects a recent acute infection, was associated with lower levels of eotaxin (p = 0.05), IL-6 (p = 0.001), and VEGF (p = 0.03). Only GM-CSF and IL-10 concentrations were positively associated with higher levels of IgM (p = 0.01 and p = 0.007). Additionally, IgG seropositivity and levels were associated with high levels of angiogenic markers VEGF (p = 0.047) and eotaxin (p = 0.006), respectively. Our findings suggest that B. bacilliformis infection causes immunosuppression, led in part by overproduction of IL-10. This immunosuppression probably contributes to the chronicity of asymptomatic infections favoring B. bacilliformis persistence in the host, allowing the subsequent transmission to the vector. In addition, angiogenic markers associated with bacteremia and IgG levels may be related to the induction of endothelial cell proliferation in cutaneous lesions during chronic infections, being possible candidate biomarkers of asymptomatic infections.
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    • Impact of Food Assistance Programs on Obesity in Mothers and Children: A Prospective Cohort Study in Peru.

      Carrillo Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; [email protected] (American Journal of Public Health, 2016-05-19)
      Objectives. To assess obesity risk among mothers participating in Community Kitchens and children participating in Glass of Milk (Peru food assistance programs). Methods. We analyzed prospective data from the Young Lives study. The exposure consisted in varying degrees of benefit from any of the programs (no participation in any of the programs, program participation for some months, or program participation nearly every month) at baseline (2006–2007). The outcome was overweight and obesity in mothers and children at follow-up (2009–2010). Results. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 15.5% and 5.1%, respectively; the corresponding figures for mothers were 40.5% and 14.6%. Children exposed nearly every month to the Glass of Milk program had a 65% lower risk of becoming obese compared with children not participating in the program (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.66). Mothers participating frequently in the Community Kitchens program had almost twice the risk of becoming obese compared with those who did not participate (RR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.18, 3.15). Conclusions. Participating in food assistance programs in Peru was associated with a lower risk of obesity in children and greater risk of obesity in mothers.
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