• Gait speed and the appearance of neurocognitive disorders in older adults: Results of a Peruvian cohort

      Parodi, José F; Nieto-Gutierrez, Wendy; Tellez, Walter A; Ventocilla-Gonzales, Iris; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro (Elsevier España, 2017-09-07)
      Introducción La prevención y el manejo de los trastornos neurocognitivos (TNC) en adultos mayores puede mejorar si se identifica tempranamente sus factores de riesgo, como la velocidad de marcha. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar la asociación entre velocidad de la marcha y el desarrollo de TNC en una población de adultos mayores del Perú. Material y métodos Cohorte realizada en adultos mayores que acudieron al servicio de geriatría del Centro Médico Naval (Callao, Perú). Se registró la velocidad de la marcha de los participantes durante la evaluación basal, sometiéndoles a seguimiento anualmente hasta 60 meses, con un promedio de 21 meses. El desarrollo de TNC fue definido como la ocurrencia de una puntuación≤24 puntos en el Mini Mental State Examination (test de cribado) durante el seguimiento. Se hallaron hazard ratio (HR) y sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%) usando regresiones de Cox. Resultados Se incluyeron 657 adultos mayores, con edad promedio de 73,4±9,2 (DE) años, de los cuales el 47,0% fueron varones. El 47,8% reportaron una velocidad de marcha <0,8 m/s, y el 20,1% desarrollaron TNC durante el seguimiento. Se encontró que los adultos mayores con una velocidad de marcha <0,8 m/s en la evaluación basal tuvieron más probabilidades de desarrollar TNC que aquellos con una velocidad de marcha ≥0,8 m/s (HR ajustada=1,41; IC 95%=1,34-1,47). Conclusión Encontramos asociación entre la velocidad de marcha disminuida y el desarrollo de TNC, lo cual sugeriría que la velocidad de marcha podría ser útil para identificar pacientes en riesgo para tal trastorno. Abstract Introduction The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. Material and methods Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants’ gait speed was recorded. Subsequently, participants were followed-up annually for 5 years, with a mean of 21 months. NCD onset was defined as the occurrence of a score ≤24 points on the Mini Mental State Examination (screening test) during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox regression. Results The study included 657 participants, with a mean age of 73.4±9.2 (SD) years, of whom 47.0% were male, 47.8% had a gait speed <0.8 m/s, and 20.1% developed NCD during the follow up. It was found that older adults who had gait speed <0.8 m/s at baseline were more likely to develop NCD than those who had a gait speed ≥0.8 m/s (adjusted HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.34-1.47). Conclusion A longitudinal association was found between decreased gait speed and NCD onset, suggesting that gait speed could be useful to identify patients at risk of NCD onset.
    • Gender Associated with the Intention to Choose a Medical Specialty in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in 11 Countries in Latin America

      Ng-Sueng, Luis Fernando; Vargas Matos, Iván; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Pereyra Elías, Reneé; Montenegro Idrogo, Juan José; Inga Berrospi, Fiorella; Ancalli, Felix; Bonilla Escobar, Francisco; Diaz Velez, Cristian; Gutierrez Quezada, Erick; Gomez Alhach, Jennifer; Muñoz Medina, Carlos E.; Sanchez Pozo, Adriana; Vidal, Milisen; percy.mayta@upc.edu.pe (2016-08-12)
      The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship.Secondary analysis of the Collaborative Working Group for the Research of Human Resources for Health (Red-LIRHUS) data; a multi-country project of students in their first year and fifth year of study, from 63 medical schools in 11 Latin American countries. All students who referred intention to choose a certain medical specialty were considered as participants.There is an association between the female gender and the intention to choose Obstetrics/ Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery, Dermatology, and Oncology. We recommend conducting studies that consider other factors that can influence the choice of a medical specialty.
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    • Genetic diversity of locus of enterocyte effacement genes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Peruvian children.

      Contreras, C. A.; Ochoa, T. J.; Ruiz, J.; Lacher, D. W.; Durand, D.; DebRoy, C.; Lanata, C. F.; Cleary, T. G. (Society for General Microbiology, 2014-03-19)
      The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and allele associations of locus of enterocyte effacement encoded esp and tir genes among 181 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains (90 diarrhoea-associated and 91 controls) isolated from Peruvian children under 18 months of age. We analysed espA, espB, espD and tir alleles by PCR-RFLP. EPEC strains were isolated with higher frequency from healthy controls (91/424, 21.7 %) than from diarrhoeal samples (90/936, 9.6 %) (P,0.001); 28.9% of diarrhoeal and 17.6% of control samples were typical EPEC (tEPEC). The distribution of espA alleles (alpha, beta, beta2 and gamma) and espD alleles (alpha, beta, gamma and a new variant, espD-N1) between tEPEC and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was significantly different (P,0.05). espD-alpha was more common among acute episodes (P,0.05). espB typing resulted in five alleles (alpha, beta, gamma and two new suballeles, espB-alpha2 and espB-alpha3), while tir-beta and tir-gamma2 were the most common intimin receptor subtypes. Seventy-two combinations of espA, espB, espD and tir alleles were found; the most prevalent combination was espA-beta, espB-beta, espD-beta, tir-beta (34/181 strains), which was more frequent among tEPEC strains (P,0.05). Our findings indicate that there is a high degree of heterogeneity among EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children and that aEPEC and tEPEC variants cluster.
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    • Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children

      Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F. (American Society for Microbiology, 2014-03-19)
      Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines.
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    • Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review.

      Claudio F. Lanata; Christa L. Fischer-Walker; Ana C. Olascoaga; Carla X. Torres; Martin J. Aryee; Robert E. Black (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-03-19)
      Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children ,5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p,0?0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children ,5 years in the world.
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    • Global kidney disease

      Herrera Añazco, Percy; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Hernández, Adrian V. (Elsevier B.V., 2014-07-03)
      We read with interest the Lancet Series on Global Kidney Disease. Valerie Luyckx and colleagues describe the economics and medical management of chronic kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa.1 We note clear similarities with patients in Peru. Indeed, in Peru, the Ministry of Health (MINSA)—which covers 70% of the population—does not have a comprehensive programme for the management of patients with chronic kidney disease, including renal replacement therapies. However, the Social Security System (Essalud)—which covers 20% of the population—has a chronic kidney disease programme.
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    • Global variations in prevalence of eczema symptoms in children from ISAAC Phase Three.

      Odhiambo, Joseph A; Williams, Hywel C; Clayton, Tadd O; Robertson, Colin F; Asher, M Innes; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group.; t.clayton@auckland.ac.nz (Mosby Inc., 2009-12-01)
      Background: In 1999, The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One reported the prevalence of eczema symptoms in 715,033 children from 154 centers in 56 countries by using standardized epidemiologic tools. Objective: To update the world map of eczema prevalence after 5 to 10 years (ISAAC Phase Three) and include additional data from over 100 new centers. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys using the ISAAC questionnaire on eczema symptoms were completed by adolescents 13 to 14 years old and by parents of children 6 to 7 years old. Current eczema was defined as an itchy flexural rash in the past 12 months and was considered severe eczema if associated with 1 or more nights per week of sleep disturbance. Results: For the age group 6 to 7 years, data on 385,853 participants from 143 centers in 60 countries showed that the prevalence of current eczema ranged from 0.9% in India to 22.5% in Ecuador, with new data showing high values in Asia and Latin America. For the age group 13 to 14 years, data on 663,256 participants from 230 centers in 96 countries showed prevalence values ranging from 0.2% in China to 24.6% in Columbia with the highest values in Africa and Latin America. Current eczema was lower for boys than girls (odds ratio, 0.94 and 0.72 at ages 6 to 7 years and 13 to 14 years, respectively). Conclusion:ISAAC Phase Three provides comprehensive global data on the prevalence of eczema symptoms that is essential for public health planning. New data reveal that eczema is a disease of developing as well as developed countries.
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    • Gravedad de la gastroenteritis causada por Vibrio parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémic o en el Perú

      Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Miranda, Hernán; Prada, Ana; Seas, Carlos; Hall, Eric R.; Meza, Rina; Barreno, Carmen M.; Maúrtua, Dora; G. Balakrish Nair; agil@iin.sld.pe (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-08-11)
      Objective. To determine the epidemiological and clinic characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains of the pandemic group in Peru. Material and methods. Clinical and laboratory records were searched in 100 cases of gastroenteritis caused by V parahaemolyticus, either of the pandemic or non pandemic group. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected and statistical analysis was done to evaluate if the severity of illness was associated with the pandemic group. Results. Epidemiological data were collected in 85% of cases, and clinical data were only available in 37% of cases, mainly on those hospitalized. Cases associated with the pandemic strains had a higher probability of liquid stools (96.3% vs. 62.5%, p<0.05), moderate or severe dehydration (100% vs. 60%, p<0.05), and hospital care (98% vs. 42.9%, p<0.0001). Cases aged thirty or older were associated with the pandemic strains (63% vs. 39.5%, p<0.05). Conclusions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus of the pandemic group causes more severe gastrointestinal disease than none pandemic strains, with higher probability of requiring hospital care. Based on this report, it is advisable to include the identification of V. parahaemolyticus in the etiological diagnosis of agents causing severe gastroenteritis in the Peruvian health system.
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    • Guía para diagnóstico y tratamiento de la Enfermedad de Gaucher

      Colquicocha Murillo, Maria; Cucho Jurado, Janetliz; Eyzaguirre Zapata, Renee Mercedes; Manassero Morales, Gioconda; Moreno Larrea, Mariela del Carmen; Salas Arbizu, Katia Liliana; Torres Argandoña, Aimee Margarita; Vargas Castro, Jesús Olga (Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Facultad de Medicina "Alberto Hurtado", 2015-07-06)
      La enfermedad de Gaucher (EG), debe su nombre por haber sido descrita por Phillipe Gaucher en 1882. Es la enfermedad más frecuente del grupo de las enfermedades de depósito lisosomal comprendidas dentro de los errores innatos del metabolismo (1). La enfermedad de Gaucher se debe a mutaciones en el gen responsable de la síntesis de la enzima lisosomal b-glucocerebrosidasa ácida, también llamada ß-Glucosidasa ácida, (o ß-GA), cuyos locus se ubica en 1q21, es decir en la banda uno de la región 2 del brazo largo del cromosoma 1. El patrón de herencia es autosómico recesivo, es decir que la mutación en éste gen debe darse en estado de homocigocia (2).
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    • Guías de práctica clínica en el Perú: evaluación de su calidad usando el instrumento AGREE II

      Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Balbin, Graciela; Perez-Gomez, Ángela; Florez, Iván D. (2016-12-13)
      Con el fin de evaluar la calidad metodológica de las guías de práctica clínica (GPC) desarrolladas por el Ministerio de Salud (MINSA) de Perú, se evaluaron 17 GPC del MINSA publicadas entre 2009-2014, por tres expertos metodológicos, de forma independiente, usando el instrumento AGREE II. La puntuación de los dominios del AGREE II fue baja y muy baja en todas las GPC: alcance y propósito (mediana, 44%), claridad de la presentación (mediana, 47%), participación de decisores (mediana, 8%), rigor metodológico (mediana 5%), aplicabilidad (mediana, 5%), e independencia editorial (mediana, 8%). Se concluye que la calidad metodológica de las GPC del MINSA es baja. Como consecuencia, no es posible recomendar su uso. Urge la incorporación de metodología estandarizada para el desarrollo de GPC de calidad en el Perú.
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    • Guías de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar

      Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; raffo.escalante@gmail.com (Colegio Médico del Perú, 2014-07-18)
      El presente artículo busca como objetivo primordial, una aproximación a las Guías 2010 y principales cambios; estamos convencidos que el entrenamiento y aprendizaje de ella se basa en los conceptos de metodología activa y simulación clínica, no podemos tener un conocimiento de la ciencia y protocolos de reanimación cardiopulmonar sin antes no haber experimentado la discusión de temas y desarrollo de casos escenarios vivenciales, para cada uno de los tópicos descritos a continuación. Una de las estrategias más importantes es la diseminación de los conceptos contenidos en las Guías ILCOR de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar que se han consensuado en la ERC y AHA. Ello ha permitido que el personal de salud trate a los pacientes victimas de paro cardiaco o emergencias cardiacas con mayor eficiencia. Las guías actuales fundamentan todos sus aspectos en investigación y recomendaciones, los cambios se iniciaron con una variación sustantiva de la cadena de supervivencia incorporando conceptos de integración de cuidados postparo1,2. Las Guías de Reanimación Cardiopulmonar fueron publicadas y puestas on-line (Resuscitation y American Heart Association) en Octubre 18, 20109,10.
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    • Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with variations of gut microbiota in asymptomatic children between 6 and 12 years

      Benavides-Ward, Araceli; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Mazulis, Fernando; Urteaga, Numan; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; araceli.benavides.95@gmail.com (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-07-13)
      Objective: To determine the variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in asymptomatic children infected with Helicobacter pylori in comparison with children without the infection. Results: Children infected with H. pylori doubled their probability of presenting 3 of 9 genera of bacteria from the gut microbiota, including: Proteobacteria (p = 0.008), Clostridium (p = 0.040), Firmicutes (p = 0.001) and Prevotella (p = 0.006) in comparison to patients without the infection. We performed a nutritional assessment and found that growth stunting was statistically significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori (p = 0.046).
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    • Hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2007–2008

      Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez Ognio, Luis (Elsevier B.V., 2014-07-17)
      Objective: To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. Results: One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28–44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32–57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78–3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87–6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86–2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22–3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02–0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04–1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Conclusions: Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated.
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    • Hepatitis C: retos pendientes

      Montes Teves, Pedro (Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, 2014-09-29)
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    • Hepatocellular carcinoma in a woman with 34 weeks gestation and chronic hepatitis b

      Sato-Espinoza, Karina; Ferrer, Javier Díaz; Ventura, Yessica Mitzy Jaramillo (Sociedad Argentina de Gastroenterologia, 2021-01-01)
      A 24-year-old pregnant woman arrived at the emergency service at 34 weeks of gestational age with intermittent right upper abdominal pain. An abdominal ultrasound was performed showing signs of hepatopathy with multiple neo-formative nodules with mild ascites and fetal biometry confirmed at 34 weeks gestation. During her hospitalization, an emergency caesarean was induced with favorable result in the survival of the mother and the baby.
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    • High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru.

      Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquím; Molina, Margarita; Del Valle, Luis J.; Vargas, Martha; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Hall, Eric; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2014-03-19)
      Abstract. In a prospective passive diarrhea surveillance cohort study of 1,034 infants of low socioeconomic communities in Lima, Peru, we determined the prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility of the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli was 29% (161 of 557) in children with gastroenteritis and 30% (58 of 195) in the control group without diarrhea. The most common E. coli pathogens in diarrhea were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (14%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (7%), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (4%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (4%). Diarrheagenic E. coli as a group exhibited high levels of antimicrobial drug resistance in diarrheal cases to ampicillin (85%), cotrimoxazole (79%), tetracycline (65%), and nalidixic acid (28%). Among individual E. coli groups in patients with diarrhea, DAEC and EAEC exhibited significant higher frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and nalidixic acid than EPEC and ETEC. Antimicrobial drug resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were more frequent in E. coli isolated from diarrheal samples than controls, which reflected greater antibiotic exposure in patients with gastroenteritis.
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    • High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

      Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R.; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2016-02-01)
      This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru.
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    • High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.; jdelvall@upc.edu.pe (2017-01-27)
      Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
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    • High-Risk, but Hidden: Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru, 2012-2014

      Passaro, R.C. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-02-03)
      Background: Binge drinking (BD) is common in Peru, but may not be routinely detected by standard assessments of hazardous drinking. Objectives: We describe prevalence and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru who met criteria for BD as compared with those who met criteria for hazardous drinking. Methods: In a cross-sectional sample of MSM and TW from Lima (2012-2014), we calculated prevalence of BD (consuming ≥6 alcoholic drinks per occasion by AUDIT-3 criteria), conducted bivariate analyses of associations of BD with demographic and behavioral characteristics, and compared prevalence and behaviors of BD to those of hazardous drinkers (identified by AUDIT-10 criteria). Results: Of 1,520 MSM (n = 1,384) and TW (n = 137) with median age 27 years, 74.4% of MSM and 86.9% of TW met criteria for BD. Among MSM, BD was associated with a greater likelihood of using alcohol (41.6% vs. 13.8%; p <.01) or drugs (7.8% vs. 2.8%; p <.01) prior to a recent sexual contact. Among TW, BD was associated with greater frequency of alcohol use (44.9% vs. 11.1%; p <.01) or unprotected anal intercourse (58.8% vs. 33.3%; p =.04) during ≥1 of their three most recent sexual contacts. There was a higher prevalence of BD (75.5%) than hazardous drinking (53.2%) in our sample, with binge drinkers exhibiting similar sexual risk behaviors to hazardous drinkers. Conclusions: Binge drinking is common among MSM and TW in Lima, associated with risky sexual behavior, and may not be adequately captured by AUDIT-10 criteria.
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    • La hipertensión arterial: lo que tenemos hasta hoy

      Quiroz, Guillermo; oguillermo.quiroz@gmail.co (Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), 2014-08-11)
      Se me ha invitado a editorializar –agradezco la gentileza- un simposio desarrollado por connotados especialistas sobre una enfermedad prevalente, crónica, callada, abigarrada en sus distintas fases clínicas, con signología única, basada en los números que indica un aparato y, por tanto, privilegio diagnóstico de un segmento de la población que por alguna razón accede a él.
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