• The International Study of Wheezing in Infants: questionnaire validation.

      Mallol, Javier; García-Marcos, Luis; Aguirre, Viviana; Martinez-Torres, Antonela; Perez-Fernández, Virginia; Gallardo, Alejandro; Calvo, Mario; Rosario Filho, Nelson; Rocha, Wilson; Fischer, Gilberto; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Chiarella, Pascual; Pinto, Rosario; Barria, Claudio; jmallol@usach.cl (Karger AG, Basel, 2007-01-01)
      Background: There are no internationally validated questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of infant wheezing. This study was undertaken to validate a questionnaire for the International Study on the Prevalence of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). Material and Methods: Construct and criterion validity were tested for the question 'Has your baby had wheezing or whistling in the chest during his/her first 12 months of life?'. Construct validity (i.e. the ability of parents and doctors to refer to the same symptoms with the same words) was tested in a sample of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezy infants 12-15 months of age in each of 10 centres from 6 different Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries. Criterion validity (i.e. the ability of parents to correctly detect the symptom in the general population) was evaluated in 2 samples (Santiago, Chile and Cartagena, Spain) of 50 wheezing and 50 non-wheezing infants (according to parents) of the same age, randomly selected from the general population, who were later blindly diagnosed by a paediatric pulmonologist. Results: Construct validity was very high (κ test: 0.98-1) in all centres. According to Youden's index, criterion validity was good both in Cartagena (75.5%) and in Santiago (67.0%). Adding questions about asthma medication did not improve diagnosis accuracy. Conclusions: The EISL questionnaire significantly distinguished wheezy infants from healthy ones. This questionnaire has a strong validity and can be employed in large international multicentre studies on wheezing during infancy.
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    • Maternal post-natal tobacco use and current parental tobacco use is associated with higher body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

      Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; irene.braithwaite@mrinz.ac.nz (BioMed Central Ltd., 2015-12-24)
      Background: We investigated whether maternal smoking in the first year of life or any current parental smoking is associated with childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a multi-centre, multi-country, cross-sectional study (ISAAC Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 years completed questionnaires about their children's current height and weight, whether their mother smoked in the first year of the child's life and current smoking habits of both parents. Adolescents aged 13-14 years completed questionnaires about their height, weight and current parental smoking habits. A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and parental smoking. Results: 77,192 children (18 countries) and 194 727 adolescents (35 countries) were included. The BMI of children exposed to maternal smoking during their first year of life was 0.11 kg/m 2 greater than those who were not (P = 0.0033). The BMI of children of currently smoking parents was greater than those with non-smoking parents (maternal smoking: +0.08 kg/m 2 (P = 0.0131), paternal smoking: +0.10 kg/m 2 (P < 0.0001)). The BMI of female adolescents exposed to maternal or paternal smoking was 0.23 kg/m 2 and 0.09 kg/m 2 greater respectively than those who were not exposed (P < 0.0001). The BMI of male adolescents was greater with maternal smoking exposure, but not paternal smoking (0.19 kg/m 2 , P < 0.0001 and 0.03 kg/m 2 , P = 0.14 respectively). Conclusion: Parental smoking is associated with higher BMI values in children and adolescents. Whether this is due to a direct effect of parental smoking or to confounding cannot be established from this observational study.
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