• High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.; jdelvall@upc.edu.pe (2017-01-27)
      Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
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    • Incidence of Respiratory Viruses in Peruvian Children With Acute Respiratory Infections

      Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo Tapia, Ángela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.; Pumarola, Toma´ s (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-03-23)
      Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi–mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses
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    • Molecular etiological profile of atypical bacterial pathogens, viruses and coinfections among infants and children with community acquired pneumonia admitted to a national hospital in Lima, Peru

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Verne, Eduardo; Ugarte, Claudia; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; De Lama-Odría, María del Carmen; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Casabona-Ore, Verónica; Weilg, Pablo; del Valle, Luis J. (2017-12-06)
      Objective: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of 14 respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae), via polymerase chain reaction in patients under 18 years old hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from Lima, Peru. Results: Atypical pathogens were detected in 40% (58/146); viral etiologies in 36% (52/146) and coinfections in 19% (27/146). The most common etiological agent was M. pneumoniae (n = 47), followed by C. pneumoniae (n = 11). The most frequent respiratory viruses detected were: respiratory syncytial virus A (n = 35), influenza virus C (n = 21) and parainfluenza virus (n = 10). Viral-bacterial and bacterium-bacterium coinfections were found in 27 cases. In our study population, atypical bacteria (40%) were detected as frequently as respiratory viruses (36%). The presence of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae should not be underestimated as they can be commonly isolated in Peruvian children with CAP.
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