• A community randomised controlled trial evaluating a home-based environmental intervention package of improved stoves, solar water disinfection and kitchen sinks in rural Peru: Rationale, trial design and baseline findings

      Hartinger, S.M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Hattendorf, J.; Gil, I.; Verastegui, H.; Ochoa, T.; Mäusezahl, D. (Elsevier B.V., 2015-03-24)
      Introduction: Pneumonia and diarrhoea are leading causes of death in children. There is a need to develop effective interventions. Objective: We present the design and baseline findings of a community-randomised controlled trial in rural Peru to evaluate the health impact of an Integrated Home-based Intervention Package in children aged 6 to 35 months. Methods: We randomised 51 communities. The intervention was developed through a community-participatory approach prior to the trial. They comprised the construction of improved stoves and kitchen sinks, the promotion of hand washing, and solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS). To reduce the potential impact of non-blinding bias, a psychomotor stimulation intervention was implemented in the control arm. The baseline survey included anthropometric and socio-economic characteristics. In a sub-sample we determined the level of faecal contamination of drinking water, hands and kitchen utensils and the prevalence of diarrhoegenic Escherichia coli in stool specimen. Results: We enrolled 534 children. At baseline all households used open fires and 77% had access to piped water supplies. E. coli was found in drinking water in 68% and 64% of the intervention and control households. Diarrhoegenic E. coli strains were isolated from 45/139 stool samples. The proportion of stunted children was 54%. Conclusions: Randomization resulted in comparable study arms. Recently, several critical reviews raised major concerns on the reliability of open health intervention trials, because of uncertain sustainability and non-blinding bias. In this regard, the presented trial featuring objective outcome measures, a simultaneous intervention in the control communities and a 12- month follow up period will provide valuable evidence.
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    • Age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among infants from Periurban areas in Lima, Peru

      Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Mispireta, Mónica L.; Gil, Ana I.; Contreras, Carmen; Molina, Margarita; Amemiya, Isabel; Verastegui, Hector; Hall, Eric R.; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F. (Oxford University Press, 2015-05-30)
      BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are being recognized as important pediatric enteropathogens worldwide. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in age-related susceptibility to specific strains, especially among infants. METHODS: We conducted a passive surveillance cohort study of diarrhea that involved 1034 children aged 2-12 months in Lima, Peru. Control stool samples were collected from randomly selected children without diarrhea. All samples were analyzed for common enteric pathogens and for diarrheagenic E. coli with use of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The most frequently isolated pathogens in 1065 diarrheal episodes were diarrheagenic E. coli strains (31%), including enteroaggregative (15.1%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (7.6%). Diarrheagenic E. coli, Campylobacter species, and rotavirus were more frequently isolated from infants aged >or=6 months. Among older infants, diffusely adherent E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were more frequently isolated from diarrheal samples than from control samples (P <.05). Children aged >or=6 months who were infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli had a 4.56-fold increased risk of diarrhea (95% confidence interval, 1.20-17.28), compared with younger children. Persistent diarrhea was more common in infants aged <6 months (13.5% vs 3.6%; P <.001). Among children with diarrheagenic E. coli-positive samples, coinfections with other pathogens were more common in children with diarrhea than in control children (40.1% vs 15.6%; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheagenic E. coli strains were more frequently isolated in samples from older infants. In this setting with high frequency of pathogen exposure and high frequency of breastfeeding, we hypothesize that the major age-related differences result from decreased exposure to milk-related protective factors and from increased exposure to contaminated food and water.
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    • Combining interventions: improved chimney stoves, kitchen sinks and solar disinfection of drinking water and kitchen clothes to improve home hygiene in rural Peru.

      Hartinger, Stella M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Hattendorf, Jan; Verastegui, Hector; Mäusezahl, Daniel (Institut Veolia Environnement, 2014-03-25)
      Home based interventions are advocated in rural areas against a variety of diseases. The combination of different interventions might have synergistic effects in terms of health improvement and cost effectiveness. However, it is crucial to ensure cultural acceptance. The aim of the study was to develop an effective and culturally accepted home-based intervention package to reduce diarrhoea and lower respiratory illnesses in children. In two rural Peruvian communities we evaluated the performance and acceptance of cooking devices, household water treatments (HWT) and home–hygiene interventions, with qualitative and quantitative methods. New ventilated stove designs reduced wood consumption by 16%. The majority of participants selected solar water disinfection as HWT in a blind tasting. In-depth interviews on hygiene improvement further revealed a high demand for kitchen sinks. After one year of installation the improved chimney stoves and kitchen sinks were all in use. The intervention package was successfully adapted to local customs, kitchen-, home–and hygiene management. High user satisfaction was primarily driven by convenience gains due to the technical improvements and only secondarily by perceived health benefits.
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    • Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from two paediatric cohort studies in Lima, Peru

      Medina, Anicia M.; Rivera, Fulton P.; Pons, Maria J; Riveros, Maribel; Gomes, Cláudia; Bernal, María; Meza, Rina; Maves, Ryan C.; Huicho, Luis; Chea Woo, Elsa; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquim; joruiz@clinic.ub.es (Oxford University Press, 2015-08)
      Background Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, being of special concern in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in 205 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from two cohort studies in children <24 months in Lima, Peru. Methods ETEC were identified by an in-house multiplex real-time PCR. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion; mechanisms of resistance were evaluated by PCR. Results ETEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin (64%), cotrimoxazole (52%), tetracycline (37%); 39% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Heat-stable toxin producing (ETEC-st) (48%) and heat-labile toxin producing ETEC (ETEC-lt) (40%) had higher rates of multidrug resistance than isolates producing both toxins (ETEC-lt-st) (21%), p<0.05. Only 10% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and none to ciprofloxacin or cefotaxime. Ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole resistance were most often associated with blaTEM (69%) and sul2 genes (68%), respectively. Tetracycline resistance was associated with tet(A) (49%) and tet(B) (39%) genes. Azithromycin inhibitory diameters were ≤15 mm in 36% of isolates, with 5% of those presenting the mph(A) gene. Conclusions ETEC from Peruvian children are often resistant to older, inexpensive antibiotics, while remaining susceptible to ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins and furazolidone. Fluoroquinolones and azithromycin remain the drugs of choice for ETEC infections in Peru. However, further development of resistance should be closely monitored.
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    • Fecal Leukocytes in Children Infected with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

      Mercado, Erik H.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ecker, Lucie; Cabello, Martin; Durand, David; Barletta, Francesca; Molina, Margarita; Gil, Ana I.; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F.; Cleary, Thomas G. (American Society for Microbiology, 2014-03-12)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and to compare these levels between diarrhea and control cases. We analyzed 1,474 stool samples from 935 diarrhea episodes and 539 from healthy controls of a cohort study of children younger than 2 years of age in Lima, Peru. Stools were analyzed for common enteric pathogens, and diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR. Stool smears were stained with methylene blue and read by a blinded observer to determine the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field (L/hpf). Fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 11.8% (110/935) of all diarrheal episodes versus 1.1% (6/539) in controls (P < 0.001). Among stool samples with diarrheagenic E. coli as the only pathogen isolated (excluding coinfection), fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 8.5% (18/212) of diarrhea versus 1.3% (2/157) of control samples (P < 0.01). Ninety-five percent of 99 diarrheagenic E. coli diarrhea samples were positive for fecal lactoferrin. Adjusting for the presence of blood in stools, age, sex, undernutrition, and breastfeeding, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolation as a single pathogen, excluding coinfections, was highly associated with the presence of fecal leukocytes (>10 L/hpf) with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 15.51; P < 0.05). Although diarrheagenic E. coli was isolated with similar frequencies in diarrhea and control samples, clearly it was associated with a more inflammatory response during symptomatic infection; however, in general, these pathogens elicited a mild inflammatory response.
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    • Gravedad de la gastroenteritis causada por Vibrio parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémic o en el Perú

      Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Miranda, Hernán; Prada, Ana; Seas, Carlos; Hall, Eric R.; Meza, Rina; Barreno, Carmen M.; Maúrtua, Dora; G. Balakrish Nair; agil@iin.sld.pe (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-08-11)
      Objective. To determine the epidemiological and clinic characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains of the pandemic group in Peru. Material and methods. Clinical and laboratory records were searched in 100 cases of gastroenteritis caused by V parahaemolyticus, either of the pandemic or non pandemic group. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected and statistical analysis was done to evaluate if the severity of illness was associated with the pandemic group. Results. Epidemiological data were collected in 85% of cases, and clinical data were only available in 37% of cases, mainly on those hospitalized. Cases associated with the pandemic strains had a higher probability of liquid stools (96.3% vs. 62.5%, p<0.05), moderate or severe dehydration (100% vs. 60%, p<0.05), and hospital care (98% vs. 42.9%, p<0.0001). Cases aged thirty or older were associated with the pandemic strains (63% vs. 39.5%, p<0.05). Conclusions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus of the pandemic group causes more severe gastrointestinal disease than none pandemic strains, with higher probability of requiring hospital care. Based on this report, it is advisable to include the identification of V. parahaemolyticus in the etiological diagnosis of agents causing severe gastroenteritis in the Peruvian health system.
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    • High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru.

      Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquím; Molina, Margarita; Del Valle, Luis J.; Vargas, Martha; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Hall, Eric; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2014-03-19)
      Abstract. In a prospective passive diarrhea surveillance cohort study of 1,034 infants of low socioeconomic communities in Lima, Peru, we determined the prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility of the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli was 29% (161 of 557) in children with gastroenteritis and 30% (58 of 195) in the control group without diarrhea. The most common E. coli pathogens in diarrhea were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (14%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (7%), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) (4%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (4%). Diarrheagenic E. coli as a group exhibited high levels of antimicrobial drug resistance in diarrheal cases to ampicillin (85%), cotrimoxazole (79%), tetracycline (65%), and nalidixic acid (28%). Among individual E. coli groups in patients with diarrhea, DAEC and EAEC exhibited significant higher frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and nalidixic acid than EPEC and ETEC. Antimicrobial drug resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were more frequent in E. coli isolated from diarrheal samples than controls, which reflected greater antibiotic exposure in patients with gastroenteritis.
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    • Niveles de resistencia a quinolonas y otros antimicrobianos en cepas de Escherichia coli comensales en niños de la zona periurbana de Lima, Perú

      Pons, Maria J; Mosquito, Susan; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vargas, Martha; Molina, Margarita; Lluque, Angela; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Lanata, Claudio F.; Del Valle, Luis J.; Ruiz, Joaquim; joruiz@clinic.ub.es (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-08-11)
      The main aim of this study was to establish the resistance levels to antimicrobial agents, in 222 non-pathogenic E. Coli strains of fecal origin in Peru. The proportion of resistance found to the evaluated antimicrobials was ampicillin (62.6%), cotrimoxazole (48,6%), tetracycline (43,0%) and chloramphenicol (15,8%). We emphasize the high resistance levels found for quinolones: 32% for nalidixic acid (NAL) and 12% for ciprofloxacin (CIP). These high levels of quinoloneresistance in non-pathogenic strains isolated from children in this age group highlight the extensive use and the impact of the intake of this kind of antimicrobials in the community, showing the potential risk of the loss of their utility in the area.
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    • Niveles de resistencia a quinolonas y otros antimicrobianos en cepas de Escherichia coli comensales en niños de la zona periurbana de Lima, Perú.

      Pons, Maria J; Mosquito, Susan; J. Ochoa, Theresa; Vargas, Martha; Molina, Margarita; Lluque, Angela; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Lanata, Claudio F.; Del Valle, Luis J.; Ruiz, Joaquim (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-03-21)
      The main aim of this study was to establish the resistance levels to antimicrobial agents, in 222 non-pathogenic E. Coli strains of fecal origin in Peru. The proportion of resistance found to the evaluated antimicrobials was ampicillin (62.6%), cotrimoxazole (48,6%), tetracycline (43,0%) and chloramphenicol (15,8%). We emphasize the high resistance levels found for quinolones: 32% for nalidixic acid (NAL) and 12% for ciprofloxacin (CIP). These high levels of quinoloneresistance in non-pathogenic strains isolated from children in this age group highlight the extensive use and the impact of the intake of this kind of antimicrobials in the community, showing the potential risk of the loss of their utility in the area.
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    • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: a tool for investigation of asymptomatic versus symptomatic infections

      Barletta, Francesca; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Mercado, Erik H.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ecker, Lucie; Lopez, Giovanni; Mispireta, Monica; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Cleary, Thomas G. (Oxford University Press, 2015-05-30)
      BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains are pediatric pathogens commonly isolated from both healthy and sick children with diarrhea in areas of endemicity. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial load of EPEC isolated from stool samples from children with and without diarrhea to determine whether bacterial load might be a useful tool for further study of this phenomenon. METHODS: EPEC was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of colonies isolated on MacConkey plates from 53 diarrheal and 90 healthy children aged <2 years. DNA was isolated from stool samples by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction. To standardize quantification by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the correlation between fluorescence threshold cycle and copy number of the intimin gene of EPEC E2348/69 was determined. RESULTS: The detection limit of qRT-PCR was 5 bacteria/mg stool. The geometric mean load in diarrhea was 299 bacteria/mg (95% confidence interval [CI], 77-1164 bacteria/mg), compared with 29 bacteria/mg (95% CI, 10-87 bacteria/mg) in control subjects (P = .016). Bacterial load was significantly higher in children with diarrhea than in control subjects among children <12 months of age (178 vs 5 bacteria/mg; P = .006) and among children with EPEC as the sole pathogen (463 vs 24 bacteria/mg; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: EPEC load measured by qRT-PCR is higher in diarrheal than in healthy children. qRT-PCR may be useful to study the relationship between disease and colonization in settings of endemicity.
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    • Toxocariosis atípica: reporte de un caso en la costa norte del Perú.

      Terrones-Campos, Cynthia; Andrade, Teresa; Lachira, Arnaldo; Valladolid, Omar; Lanata, Claudio F. (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-03-21)
      We present the case of a 4.5 years old boy with atypic toxocariasis, from La Matanza, Morropon, Piura. The patient had non-specific symptoms during 9 days. Suspicion of Toxocariasis was supported by marked eosinophilia in the cell blood count (15% or 1470 cells/μL). Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory with ELISA serology demonstrating the presence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxocara antibodies. Symptoms receded before the patient received a five-day treatment with albendazol 15mg/kg/day.
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    • Transición nutricional en el Perú, 1991 - 2005

      Mispireta, Mónica L.; Rosas, Ángel M.; Velásquez, José E.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Lanata, Claudio F.; mmispireta@iin.sld.pe (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2014-08-11)
      Nutrition transition is a process including changes in the nutritional profile of populations. Many developing countries, including Peru, are in transition. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the variation of the nutritional profile of Peruvian children, mothers in reproductive age and families between 1991 and 2005. Material and methods: using available information from databases from Peruvian Health and Demographic National Surveys, between 1991 and 2005, we described the prevalence of malnutrition in Peruvian children less than 5 years of age, mothers in reproductive age, and families, at the national, regional, and socioeconomic level, and by residence area (urban/rural). Results: Stunting in children has been high and constant since 1996. Overweight in children has increased, mainly in Lima and the Coast. Overweight and obesity are the main nutritional problems of mothers in reproductive age, which have increased in Lima and the Coast. Coexistence of child stunting and maternal obesity at the family level has been low and without specific trend. Conclusions: The Peruvian nutritional profile is in transition. The main components are the high prevalence of stunting in children and the increase of maternal overweight and obesity. This findings show that Peruvian population is posed at a high risk of developing diseases related to both extremes of nutrition.
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