• Body Parts Matter: Social, Behavioral, and Biological Considerations for Urethral, Pharyngeal, and Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Screening Among MSM in Lima, Peru

      Passaro, R. Colby; Segura, Eddy R.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Cabeza, Jeanne; Montano, Silvia M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.; Clark, Jesse L. (American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association, 2018-02)
      Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM), and public health implications vary by anatomic site and bacterial agent. Urethral and rectal GC and CT can increase risk of HIV transmission, while pharyngeal GC may be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. To define screening priorities in Latin America, we compare differences in the prevalence and correlates of urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal GC and CT among MSM in Peru. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 787 MSM from Lima was screened between 2012-2014. We described prevalence of urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal GC and CT infection and conducted bivariate analyses of associations with social, behavioral, and biological characteristics. Poisson regression analyses assessed the correlates of each infection at each anatomic site. Results The most commonly symptomatic infection (urethral GC; 42.1%) was the least prevalent (2.4%). The most prevalent infections were rectal CT (15.8%) and pharyngeal GC (9.9%). Rectal CT was the least commonly symptomatic (2.4%) infection, and was associated with younger age (aPR, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.94-0.98), HIV infection (1.46, 1.06-2.02), and pasivo (receptive; 3.59, 1.62-7.95) and moderno (versatile; 2.63, 1.23-5.60) sexual roles. Conclusions Results highlight limitations of current syndromic screening strategies for STDs in Peru, wherein urethral CT and rectal GC and CT may be missed due to their frequently asymptomatic presentations. Successful management of GC and CT infections among MSM in low-resource settings requires differentiating between bacterial agent, symptomatic presentation, associated risk factors, and public health implications of untreated infection at different anatomic sites.
    • Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) increases the frequency of partner notification among MSM in Lima, Peru: a pilot randomized controlled trial

      Clark, Jesse L.; Segura, Eddy R.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Rios, Jessica; Montano, Silvia M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Villaran, Manuel; Sanchez, Jorge; Coates, Thomas J.; Lama, Javier R.; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017-05-04)
      Background: Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) has been shown to improve treatment outcomes among heterosexual partners of individuals with curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although the use of EPT with men who have sex with men (MSM) has been debated, due to the potential for missed opportunities to diagnose unidentified cases of HIV and syphilis infection in symptomatic partners, increases in partner notification (PN) resulting from use of EPT may promote testing and treatment of otherwise unidentified partners. We assessed the impact of EPT on self-reported PN among MSM in Peru with gonorrheal (GC) and/or chlamydial (CT) infection. Methods: We enrolled 173 MSM in Lima, Peru with symptomatic or asymptomatic GC and/or CT infection between 2012 and 2014. We enrolled 44 MSM with symptomatic urethritis/proctitis and 129 MSM with asymptomatic GC/CT infection, diagnosed based on nucleic acid testing (Aptima Combo 2 Transcription-Mediated Amplification [TMA]) from urethral, pharyngeal, and rectal sites. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive either standard PN counseling (n = 84) or counseling plus EPT (cefixime 400 mg/azithromycin 1 g) for up to five recent partners (n = 89). Self-reported notification was assessed by computer-assisted self-administered survey among 155 participants who returned for 14-day follow-up. Results: The median age of participants was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31) with a median of 3 sexual partners (IQR: 2-4) in the previous 30-day period. Among all participants, 111/155 (71.6%) notified at least one partner at 14-day follow-up with a median of 1 partner notified per participant (IQR: 0-2). For participants randomized to receive EPT, 69/83 (83.1%) reported notifying at least one partner, compared with 42/72 (58.3%) of participants in the control arm (odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-7.39). The proportion of all recent partners notified was significantly greater in the EPT than in the control arm (53.5%, 95% CI: 45.0-62.0% versus 36.4%, 95% CI: 27.0-47.4%). Conclusions: Provision of EPT led to significant increases in notification among Peruvian MSM diagnosed with GC/CT infection. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of EPT on biological outcomes, including persistent or recurrent infection, antimicrobial resistance, and HIV/STI transmission, in MSM sexual networks. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01720654. Registered on 10/29/2012.
    • Exploring contextual differences for sexual role strain among transgender women and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru

      Satcher, Milan F.; Segura, Eddy R.; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Reisner, Sari L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Lama, Javier R.; Operario, Don; Clark, Jesse L. (Springer, 2022-01-01)
      Sexual and gender politics inform relational expectations surrounding sexual experiences of Peruvian transgender women (TW) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the framework of sexual role strain, or incongruence between preferred sexual role and actual sexual practices, to explore potential conflicts between personally articulated identities and externally defined norms of gender and sexuality and its potential to increase HIV/STI risk. Cross-sectional individual- and dyad-level data from 766 TW and MSM in Lima, Peru were used to assess the partnership contexts within which insertive anal intercourse was practiced despite receptive role preference (receptive role strain), and receptive anal intercourse practiced despite insertive role preference (insertive role strain). Sexual role strain for TW was more common with non-primary partners, while for MSM it occurred more frequently in the context of a primary partnership. Receptive role strain was more prevalent for TW with unknown HIV status (reference: without HIV) or pre-sex drug use (reference: no pre-sex drug use). For homosexual MSM, receptive role strain was more prevalent during condomless anal intercourse (reference: condom-protected) and with receptive or versatile partners (reference: insertive). Among heterosexual or bisexual MSM, insertive role strain was more prevalent with insertive or versatile partners (reference: receptive), and less prevalent with casual partners (reference: primary). Our findings suggest TW and MSM experience different vulnerabilities during sexual role negotiation with different partner-types. Future studies should explore the impact of sexual role strain on condom use agency, HIV/STI risk, and discordances between public and private presentations of gender and sexual orientation.
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    • High-Risk, but Hidden: Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru, 2012-2014

      Passaro, R.C. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2020-02-03)
      Background: Binge drinking (BD) is common in Peru, but may not be routinely detected by standard assessments of hazardous drinking. Objectives: We describe prevalence and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru who met criteria for BD as compared with those who met criteria for hazardous drinking. Methods: In a cross-sectional sample of MSM and TW from Lima (2012-2014), we calculated prevalence of BD (consuming ≥6 alcoholic drinks per occasion by AUDIT-3 criteria), conducted bivariate analyses of associations of BD with demographic and behavioral characteristics, and compared prevalence and behaviors of BD to those of hazardous drinkers (identified by AUDIT-10 criteria). Results: Of 1,520 MSM (n = 1,384) and TW (n = 137) with median age 27 years, 74.4% of MSM and 86.9% of TW met criteria for BD. Among MSM, BD was associated with a greater likelihood of using alcohol (41.6% vs. 13.8%; p <.01) or drugs (7.8% vs. 2.8%; p <.01) prior to a recent sexual contact. Among TW, BD was associated with greater frequency of alcohol use (44.9% vs. 11.1%; p <.01) or unprotected anal intercourse (58.8% vs. 33.3%; p =.04) during ≥1 of their three most recent sexual contacts. There was a higher prevalence of BD (75.5%) than hazardous drinking (53.2%) in our sample, with binge drinkers exhibiting similar sexual risk behaviors to hazardous drinkers. Conclusions: Binge drinking is common among MSM and TW in Lima, associated with risky sexual behavior, and may not be adequately captured by AUDIT-10 criteria.
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    • Intimate Partner Violence Against Transgender Women: Prevalence and Correlates in Lima, Peru (2016–2018)

      Murphy, Ellen C.; Segura, Eddy R.; Lake, Jordan E.; Huerta, Leyla; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Reisner, Sari L.; Lama, Javier R.; Clark, Jesse L. (Springer, 2020-06-01)
      Limited data exists on intimate partner violence (IPV) among transgender women (TW), though global trends suggest IPV is associated with HIV risk in this population. We describe the prevalence of verbal, physical, and/or sexual violence as well as participant- and partner-level correlates of IPV among TW in Lima, Peru. Among 389 respondents, 15.2% reported IPV with one or more of their last three sexual partners: 9.2% verbal, 8.2% physical, and 2.3% sexual violence. Physical and verbal violence were more common with stable partners (aPR 3.46, 95% CI 1.17–10.25, aPR 2.46, 95% CI 1.14–5.28, respectively). Physical violence was associated with condomless receptive anal intercourse (cRAI) (aPR 2.22, 95% CI 1.19–4.13) and partner alcohol use (aPR 4.38, 95% CI 1.56–12.33) while verbal violence correlated with participant inebriation (aPR 4.86, 95% CI 1.63–14.46). Our results link IPV with stable partnerships, alcohol use, and cRAI, suggesting TW in Peru may benefit from multidimensional IPV prevention strategies to foster supportive relationships and reduce HIV transmission.
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