• Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      Ulloa Urizar, Gabriela; De Lama Odría, María del Carmen; Camarena Lizarzaburu, José; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel (Elsevier B.V., 2015-09-07)
      Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method. Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.
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    • Arboviruses emerging in Peru: need for early detection of febrile syndrome during El Niño episodes

      Tantaléan Yépez, Derek; Sánchez-Carbonel, José; Ulloa Urizar, Gabriela; Espinoza Morales, Diego; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Pons, Maria J; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; [email protected] (Elsevier B.V., 2016-07)
      The presence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) implies the presence of fluctuating rains in coastal areas and these changes influence the occurrence of febrile syndromes outbreaks. In Peru, Aedes aegypti is the vector responsible for various viruses such as the dengue, Zika, chikungunya, which is distributed in 18 Peruvian departments. These viruses cause similar clinical characteristics in the host and for this reason rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are needed so that the patient can receive timely treatment.
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    • Bordetella pertussis in children hospitalized with a respiratory infection: clinical characteristics and pathogen detection in household contacts

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Silva-Vásquez, Andrea; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Weilg, Pablo; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-05)
      Objective: Describe the prevalence of Bordetella pertussis via PCR in children under 5 years old hospitalized as probable cases of pertussis and report the most common clinical features among them. Results: A positive PCR result for B. pertussis was observed in 20.5% of our samples (18/88), one-third of them were from infants between 2 and 3 months old. The most common symptoms were paroxysms of coughing (88.9%), difficulty breathing (72.2%), cyanosis (77.8%) and fever (50%). The mother was the most common symptomatic carrier (27.8%), followed by uncles/aunts (22.2%) among children with pertussis.
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    • Clinical characteristics and molecular detection of in hospitalized children with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough in Peru.

      Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Del Valle, Luis J; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Zavaleta-Gavidia, Victor; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2021-01)
      Pertussis is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. In Peru, actual public health programs indicate that vaccination against B. pertussis must be mandatory and generalized, besides all detected cases must be reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age with a presumptive diagnosis of whopping cough in Cajamarca, a region located in northern Peru.
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    • Clinical characteristics and molecular detection of bordetella pertussis in hospitalized children with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough in Peru

      Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Del Valle, Luis J.; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Zavaleta-Gavidia, Victor; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2021-02-01)
      Background and Objectives: Pertussis is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. In Peru, actual public health programs indicate that vaccination against B. pertussis must be mandatory and generalized, be-sides all detected cases must be reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age with a presumptive diagnosis of whopping cough in Cajamarca, a region located in northern Peru. Materials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study were children under 5 years old hospitalized as presumptive cases of pertussis during December 2017 to December 2018. The nasopharyngeal samples were analyzed by real-time PCR for the detection of B. pertussis. Results: B. pertussis was identified as PCR + in 42.3% of our sample (33/78). The clinical presentation that was observed most frequently includes paroxysmal coughing (97%), difficulty breathing (69.7%), cyanosis (72.7%) and post-tussive em-esis (60.6%). Additionally, pneumonia was the most observed complication (33.3%). Four of the patients with PCR+ for B. pertussis presented only lymphocytosis, five only leukocytosis, two patients with decreased leukocytosis and lymphocytes and only one patient with leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis. There was a percentage of 84.8% of unvaccinated children in the PCR+ group. Finally, the mother was the most frequent symptom carrier (18.2%). Conclusion: In conclusion, in the studied population there is a high rate of PCR+ cases for B. pertussis. Laboratory values may show leukopenia or lymphopenia in patients with pertussis. It is necessary to use appropriate laboratory diagnostic tests in all infants with respiratory symptoms for B. pertussis. Since, the clinical diagnosis overestimates the diagnosis of pertussis.
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    • Co-infection with Bartonella bacilliformis and Mycobacterium spp. in a coastal region of Peru

      Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Mazulis, Fernando; Weilg, Claudia; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Sandoval, Isabel; Correa-Nuñez, German; Li, Dongmei; Song, Xiuping; Liu, Qiyong; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017-12-01)
      Objective This study investigated an outbreak of Bartonellosis in a coastal region in Peru. Results A total of 70 (n = 70) samples with clinical criteria for the acute phase of Bartonellosis and a positive peripheral blood smear were included. 22.85% (n = 16) cases of the samples were positive for Bartonella bacilliformis by PCR and automatic sequencing. Of those positive samples, 62.5% (n = 10) cases were positive only for B. bacilliformis and 37.5% (n = 6) cases were positive to both Mycobacterium spp. and B. bacilliformis. The symptom frequencies were similar in patients diagnosed with Carrion’s disease and those co-infected with Mycobacterium spp. The most common symptoms were headaches, followed by malaise and arthralgia.
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    • Community acquired Acinetobacter baumannii in pediatric patients under 1 year old with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough in Lima, Peru

      Peña-Tuesta, Isaac; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Veronica; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
      Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii in children aged less than 1 year admitted with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough. Results: A total of 225 nasopharyngeal samples from children under 1 year old hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of whooping cough were studied from January 2010 to July 2012. The presence of A. baumannii was detected in 20.89% (47/225) of the nasopharyngeal swab samples. Among the 47 patients with A. baumannii: 5 were diagnosed with A. baumannii monoinfection, 17 co-infection with bacteria, 7 co-infection with virus and 18 co-infection with bacteria + virus. It was observed that 51.6% (116/225) were children between 29 days and 3 months old, this same group had the highest overall prevalence with 53.3%. The most common co-infecting pathogens were Bordetella pertussis in 55.3%, Adenovirus in 42.6% and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 23.4%.
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    • Dengue diagnosis in an endemic area of Peru: Clinical characteristics and positive frequencies by RT-PCR and serology for NS1, IgM, and IgG

      Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; del Valle, Luis J.; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Claudia; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Viñas-Ospino, Adriana; Stimmler, Luciana; Mallqui Espinoza, Naysha; Aquino Ortega, Ronald; Espinoza Espíritu, Walter; Misaico, Erika; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; [email protected] (Elsevier B.V., 2019-04)
      Background: Huánuco is a central eastern region of Peru whose geography includes high forest and low jungle, as well as a mountain range that constitutes the inter-Andean valleys. It is considered a region endemic for dengue due to the many favorable conditions that facilitate transmission of the virus. Methods: A total of 268 serum samples from patients in Huánuco, Peru with an acute febrile illness were assessed for the presence of dengue virus (DENV) via RT-PCR and NS1, IgM, and IgG ELISA during December 2015 and March 2016. Results: DENV was detected in 25% of samples via RT-PCR, 19% of samples by NS1 antigen ELISA, and 10.5% of samples by IgM ELISA. DENV IgG was detected in 15.7% of samples by ELISA. The most frequent symptoms associated with fever across all groups were headache, myalgia, and arthralgia, with no significant difference between the four test methods Conclusions: In this study, DENV was identified in up to 25% of the samples using the standard laboratory method. In addition, a correlation was established between the frequency of positive results and the serological tests that determine NS1, IgM, and IgG. There is an increasing need for point-of-care tests to strengthen epidemiological surveillance in Peru.
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    • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in febrile patients from an endemic region of dengue and chikungunya in Peru

      Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Troyes-Rivera, Lucinda; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Cabellos-Altamirano, Felipe; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Del Valle, Luis J.; Kym, Sungmin; Miranda-Maravi, Sebastian; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (Public Library of Science, 2022-04-01)
      Introduction The rapid expansion of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has raised serious public health concerns due to the possibility of misdiagnosis in regions where arboviral diseases are endemic. We performed the first study in northern Peru to describe the detection of SARSCoV-2 IgM antibodies in febrile patients with a suspected diagnosis of dengue and chikungunya fever. Materials and methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was performed in febrile patients attending primary healthcare centers from April 2020 through March 2021. Patients enrolled underwent serum sample collection for the molecular and serological detection of DENV and CHIKV. Also, serological detection of IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed. Results 464 patients were included during the study period, of which (40.51%) were positive for one pathogen, meanwhile (6.90%) presented co-infections between 2 or more pathogens. The majority of patients with monoinfections were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgM with (73.40%), followed by DENV 18.09% and CHIKV (8.51%). The most frequent co-infection was DENV + SARS-CoV-2 with (65.63%), followed by DENV + CHIKV and DENV + CHIKV + SARSCoV-2, both with (12.50%). The presence of polyarthralgias in hands (43.75%, p<0.01) and feet (31.25%, p = 0.05) were more frequently reported in patients with CHIKV monoinfection. Also, conjunctivitis was more common in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgM (11.45%, p<0.01). The rest of the symptoms were similar among all the study groups. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies were frequently detected in acute sera from febrile patients with a clinical suspicion of arboviral disease. The presence of polyarthralgias in hands and feet may be suggestive of CHIKV infection. These results reaffirm the need to consider SARS-CoV-2 infection as a main differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in arboviruses endemic areas, as well as to consider co-infections between these pathogens. Copyright:
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    • Detection of Zika virus infection among asymptomatic pregnant women in the North of Peru

      Weilg, Claudia; Troyes, Lucinda; Villegas, Zoila; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Mazulis, Fernando; Febres, Ammy; Troyes, Mario; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-05-18)
      Objective: To report an outbreak of ZIKV infection among asymptomatic pregnant women during 2016 in the city of Jaen, Cajamarca. Results: Zika virus RNA was detected in 3.2% (n = 36) of cases by RT-PCR. The mean age of patients positive for ZIKV infection was 29.6 years. 7 patients (19.4%) infected with ZIKV were in their first-trimester of gestation, 13 (36.1%) were in their second-trimester, and 16 (44%) were in their third-trimester. All of the infected pregnant women were asymptomatic. ZIKV infection remains a major public health issue that calls for constant epidemiological surveillance. It can cause the congenital Zika virus syndrome in the newborns of infected mothers. The lack of molecular diagnostic methods in isolated localities and the similarity of symptoms to other arboviral infections, lead to an under-diagnosis of this disease in endemic areas.
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    • Emerging and reemerging arboviruses: A new threat in Eastern Peru

      Alva-Urcia, Carlos; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Suárez Ognio, Luis; Weilg, Pablo; Manrique, Carlos; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; del Valle, Luis J.; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; [email protected] (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2017-11-14)
      Background Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) and a significant health problem in South America. In Peru, laboratory etiologic identification of these infections occurs in less than 50% of cases, leading to underdiagnoses of important emerging arboviruses. Aim To assess the prevalence of the Dengue (DENV), Oropouche (OROV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in patients with acute febrile illness from Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Methodology Serum samples were obtained from patients with AFI during January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 139 specimens were analyzed for the presence of DENV, OROV, CHIKV, MAYV, and ZIKV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results CHIKV in 9.4% and OROV in 8.6% were the most prevalent arboviruses, followed by DENV and ZIKV, with a prevalence of 6.5% and 5%, respectively. Among all patients, the most common symptoms accompanying fever were headaches 79.9%, muscle pain 65.5% and joint pain 63.3%. Conclusions During this short 3-month period, 4 arboviruses were detected by PCR, CHIKV and OROV being the most common arboviruses in Puerto Maldonado (Peru). Thus, it is crucial to include OROV detection in the national health surveillance. Furthermore, the etiologic clinical diagnosis of arboviral infections is not possible due to the low specificity of symptoms; therefore an increase of cases confirmed by molecular diagnostic methods will enhance arboviral surveillance in Peru.
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    • An emerging public health threat: Mayaro virus increases its distribution in Peru

      Aguilar-Luis, M.A. (Elsevier B.V., 2020-03-01)
      Background: The infection caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV), which presents as an acute febrile illness, is considered a neglected tropical disease. The virus is an endemic and emerging pathogen in South America and the Caribbean, responsible for occasional and poorly characterized outbreaks. Currently there is limited information about its expansion and risk areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 10 urban primary care health centers in the Cajamarca region of Peru from January to June 2017. A total of 359 patients with suspected febrile illness were assessed. RNA was extracted from serum samples, following which MAYV real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of the nsP1 gene was performed. Results: MAYV was detected in 11.1% (40/359) of samples after RT-PCR amplification and confirmatory DNA sequencing. Most infections were detected in the adult population aged 18–39 years (40%) and 40–59 years (32.5%). Headache was the most frequent symptom in patients with MAYV infection (77.5%), followed by fever (72.5%), myalgia (55.0%), and arthralgia (50.0%). During the study, most of the MAYV cases were seen in May (47.5%) and April (35.0%), corresponding to the dry season (months without rain). Conclusions: This study is novel in describing the presence of MAYV in Cajamarca, an Andean region of Peru. Symptoms are non-specific and can be confused with those of other arbovirus or bacterial infections. Molecular biology methods such as RT-PCR allow the timely and accurate detection of MAYV and could thus be considered as a tool for surveillance in endemic areas.
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    • Etiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea in hospitalized children in rural Peru

      Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Orellana- Peralta, Fiorella; Weilg, Pablo; Bazan-Mayra, Jorge; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Ulloa-Urizar, Gabriela; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Pons, Maria Jesus; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (2017-12-10)
      Introduction: Diarrhea remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age especially in low-income countries. In Peru, epidemiological reports about enteropathogens related to acute diarrhea are scarce in rural areas. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of the principal causes of acute infectious diarrhea in in a northern rural region of Peru. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2012 to describe the main pathogens causing acute diarrhea using PCR assay. Results: A total of 117 children diagnosed with acute diarrhea were included in the study. A single etiological agent was identified in 41.03% of samples, being rotavirus followed by norovirus and Shigella. Co-infections containing virus and bacteria were found in 22.22% of samples. Vomiting was most commonly found symptoms in 58.97% cases followed by fever (54.70%). Malnutrition was detected in 14.53% of the children. Conclusions: High prevalence of rotavirus, as well as adenovirus and norovirus, was observed in the present study. Shigella was the most common bacteria found in acute diarrhea in the area. The implementation of a better surveillance system is mandatory in order to identify the principal etiologies of gastroenteritis in the rural areas of Peru and to develop of better prevention strategies and reduce diarrhea-associated mortalities.
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    • Frequency and coinfection between genotypes of human papillomavirus in a population of asymptomatic women in northern Peru

      Ponce-Benavente, Luis; Rejas-Pinelo, Patricia; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Becerra-Goicochea, Lorena; Pinillos-Vilca, Luis; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Costa, Luis E.; Weilg, Pablo; Alvitrez-Arana, Juan; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-07)
      Objective: Describe the prevalence of HPV genotypes via PCR and DNA sequencing in 397 women who attended to the gynecological outpatient center in the Hospital Regional Docente de Cajamarca from March to September 2017. Results: A positive PCR result for HPV was observed in 121 cervical samples. A high-risk genotype was found in 63.6% (77/121) of patients, a probably oncogenic type in 23.1% (28/121) and a low-risk type in 7.4%. Among the high-risk genotypes, HPV-31 was the most common one present in 20% (21/77), followed by HPV-16 in 11.4% (12/77). Coinfections between two or more genotypes were observed in 12 cases.
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    • Genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic Peruvian women: a community-based study

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Becerra-Goicochea, Lorena; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Pinillos-Vilca, Luis; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Taco-Masias, Andre Alonso; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Sarmiento-Ramirez, Cynthia Wendy; Del Valle, Luis J. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
      Objective: To determine the general and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV and to identify potential risk factors for the infection in a population-based screening of Peruvian women. Results: A total of 524 samples were analyzed by PCR and a total of 100 HPV positive samples were found, of which 89 were high-risk, 19 were probably oncogenic, 9 were low-risk and 27 other HPV types. The 26–35 and 36–45 age groups showed the highest proportion of HPV positive samples with a total of 37% (37/100) and 30% (30/100), respectively. Moreover, high-risk HPV was found in 33.7% of both groups and probably oncogenic HPV in 52.6% and 31.6%, respectively. High-risk HPV were the most frequent types identified in the population studied, being HPV-52, HPV-31 and HPV-16 the most commonly detected with 17.6%, 15.7% y 12.9%, respectively. Demographic characteristics and habits were assessed in the studied population. A total of 62% high-risk HPV were detected in married/cohabiting women. Women with two children showed the highest proportion (33.8%) of high-risk HPV, followed by women with only one child (26.9%). Those women without history of abortion had a higher frequency of high-risk HPV (71.9%), followed by those with one abortion (25.8%).
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    • Gut microbiota in hospitalized children with acute infective gastroenteritis caused by virus or bacteria in a regional Peruvian hospital

      Taco-Masias, Andre Alonso; Fernandez-Aristi, Augusto R.; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Del Valle, Luis J.; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Zavaleta-Gavidia, Victor; Weilg, Pablo; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Puyen, Zully M.; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (PeerJ Inc., 2020-11-03)
      Background. Acute infective gastroenteritis (AIG) is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. In Peru, more than 40% of cases of AIG occurring in children under 5 years old. The disruption of the gut microbiota can increase risk for several health complications especially in patients with gastric infections caused by viruses or bacteria. Objective. The main objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of 13 representative bacteria from the gut microbiota (GM) in stools samples from children under 5 years of age with acute infective gastroenteritis. Results. The most commonly isolated bacteria from the GM were Firmicutes (63.2% 74/117) Bacteriodetes (62.4%; 73/117), Lactobacillus (59.8%; 70/117), Prevotella (57.2%; 67/117), Proteobacterium (53.8%; 63/117), regardless of the etiological agent responsible for the AIG. Interestingly, despite the high prevalence of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus and Prevotella across all samples, a visible reduction of these agents was observed especially among patients with a single bacterial infection or even bacteria–bacteria coinfections when compared to viral etiologies. Patients with exclusive or mixed breastfeeding registered the highest amount of gut microbiota bacteria, in contrast to infants who received formula or were not breastfed.
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    • Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with variations of gut microbiota in asymptomatic children between 6 and 12 years

      Benavides-Ward, Araceli; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Mazulis, Fernando; Urteaga, Numan; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; [email protected] (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-07-13)
      Objective: To determine the variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in asymptomatic children infected with Helicobacter pylori in comparison with children without the infection. Results: Children infected with H. pylori doubled their probability of presenting 3 of 9 genera of bacteria from the gut microbiota, including: Proteobacteria (p = 0.008), Clostridium (p = 0.040), Firmicutes (p = 0.001) and Prevotella (p = 0.006) in comparison to patients without the infection. We performed a nutritional assessment and found that growth stunting was statistically significantly higher in patients infected with H. pylori (p = 0.046).
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    • High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

      del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.; [email protected] (2017-01-27)
      Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
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    • Identfication of viral and bacterial etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children under 5 years old hospitalized

      Saiki-Macedo, Stephanie; Valverde-Ezeta, Jorge; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Castillo, Maria Esther; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Verónica; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Del Valle, Luis J.; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Bada, Carlos; Del Aguila, Olguita; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Vasquez-Achaya, Fernando; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019-01-21)
      Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income countries. Unfortunately, information regarding their epidemiology is still limited in Peru. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in children with a probable diagnosis of Pertussis from January 2010 to July 2012. All samples were analyzed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the following etiologies: Influenza-A, Influenza-B, RSV-A, RSV-B, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza 1 virus, Parainfluenza 2 virus, Parainfluenza 3 virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Results: A total of 288 patients were included. The most common pathogen isolated was Adenovirus (49%), followed by Bordetella pertussis (41%) from our previous investigation, the most prevelant microorganisms were Mycoplasma pneumonia (26%) and Influenza-B (19.8%). Coinfections were reported in 58% of samples and the most common association was found between B. pertussis and Adenovirus (12.2%). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of Adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other etiologies in patients with a probable diagnosis of pertussis. Despite the presence of persistent cough lasting at least two weeks and other clinical characteristics highly suspicious of pertussis, secondary etiologies should be considered in children under 5 years-old in order to give a proper treatment.
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    • Identification of coinfections by viral and bacterial pathogens in covid-19 hospitalized patients in peru: Molecular diagnosis and clinical characteristics

      Pérez-Lazo, Giancarlo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Morales-Moreno, Adriana; Ballena-López, José; Soto-Febres, Fernando; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Del Valle, Luís J.; Kym, Sungmin; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Peña-Tuesta, Issac; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Illescas, Luis Ricardo (MDPI, 2021-11-01)
      The impact of respiratory coinfections in COVID-19 is still not well understood despite the growing evidence that consider coinfections greater than expected. A total of 295 patients older than 18 years of age, hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of moderate/severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (according to definitions established by the Ministry of Health of Peru) were enrolled during the study period. A coinfection with one or more respiratory pathogens was detected in 154 (52.2%) patients at hospital admission. The most common coinfections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae (28.1%), Chlamydia pneumoniae (8.8%) and with both bacteria (11.5%); followed by Adenovirus (1.7%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.7%), Chlamydia pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.7%), RSV-B/Chlamydia pneumoniae (0.3%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydia pneumoniae/Adenovirus (0.3%). Expectoration was less frequent in coinfected individuals compared to non-coinfected (5.8% vs. 12.8%). Sepsis was more frequent among coinfected patients than non-coinfected individuals (33.1% vs. 20.6%) and 41% of the patients who received macrolides empirically were PCR-positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae.
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