• Abandono de la terapia nutricional y pérdida de peso en pacientes bariátricos: Cohorte retrospectiva en Lima, Perú

      Giacchetti-Vega, Monica; Baquerizo-vonBerswordts, Pamela; Carbone-Moane, Camila; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; m.giacchetti4@gmail.com (Fundación Española de Dietistas-Nutricionistas (FEDN), 2017-04-04)
      Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of patients who meet international recommendations for bariatric surgery and to assess the association between weight loss and dropout rate during diet therapy. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study performed using data from clinical records of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy in a private clinic of Lima, Peru. Two outcomes were evaluated, eligibility for bariatric surgery according to international recommendations (BMI≥40kg/m2 or ≥35kg/m2 with comorbidities) and abandonment before and after starting nutritional management (no nutritional assessment after 60 days from the previous visit without achieving ideal BMI). The exposure was the percentage of weight lost in the first five weeks after surgery split into <10% and ≥10%. Poisson regression was used and relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Results: Data from 423 medical records of bariatric patients, mean age 39.2 years (±12.3), 294 (69.5%) women, were analyzed. Only 117 (27.7%) patients met international recommendations for bariatric surgery. Before starting nutritional management, 48/117 (41%) abandoned treatment, whereas an additional 29/69 (42.0%) abandoned before six months of nutritional management. Patient losing ≥10% of weight in the first month had 90% lower risk (RR=0.10; 95%CI:0.01-0.68) of nutritional therapy dropout compared to those who lost <10% of weight, controlling for sex and age. Conclusions: A great proportion of patients undergoing bariatric surgery did not meet the international criteria. A greater loss of weight during the first month was associated a lower dropout rate during nutritional therapy.
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    • An update on the status of front-of-package labelling regulations in Latin America

      Robles-Valcarcel, Pamela; roblesvpamela@gmail.com (Cambridge University Press, 2016-12-20)
      Carta al Editor
    • Are we adequately measuring food consumption and diet satisfaction in older adults?

      Jara, Alessandra Carolina Arroyo; García, Valeria Melanie Heredia; Quispe, Jorge Luis Maguiña (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2020-01-01)
      Carta al editor
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    • Asociación entre la carga glicémica de la ingesta alimentaria y el síndrome metabólico en niños y adolescentes obesos

      Cornejo Monthedoro, Angela Patricia; Negreiros Sánchez, Isel Luisa Valeria; Del Águila Villar,Carlos; Ysla Marquillo, Marlit; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; angela_022007@hotmail.com (Sociedad Argentina de Pediatria, 2017-08-01)
      Objective. To study the association between the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the glycemic load (GL) of food intake among obese children and adolescents seen in consultation by the endocrinology team in a pediatric referral hospital in Lima, Peru. Population and Method. Cross-sectional study among obese children and adolescents (body mass index ≥ 95 percentile), 10-15 years old. The MS was classified according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. A 24 hour reminder was used, and the overall and per meal GL was calculated. The association between the GL tertiles (comparison with the lower tertile) and the MS was assessed using prevalence ratios adjusted by demographic outcome measures, family history, physical activity and total carbohydrate consumption in Poisson regression models with a robust variance. Results. Out of 273 obese children and adolescents, 52.4% were male and 94.9% did not engage in any physical activity. Glycemic load median value was 213 (164.8-287.4) and the daily calorie intake value was 2275 (1851-3024) kcal, consisting mainly of carbohydrates (62%). MS prevalence was 22.3%; the most prevalent components were abdominal obesity (81.7%) and low values of high density lipoprotein (HDL) (63.7%). Lastly, an association was observed between a high consumption of GL and the risk of developing MS (aRP 4.5; 95% CI: 1.3-15.3). Conclusions. There is an association between a high consumption of GL and the presence of MS among obese children and adolescents.
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    • Asociación entre obesidad y consumo de frutas y verduras: un estudio de base poblacional en Perú

      Arribas Harten, Cristina; Battistini Urteaga, Tania; Rodriguez Teves, María Gracia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio (Sociedad Chilena de Nutrición, Bromatología y Toxicología, 2015-11-24)
      Objective: To evaluate if fruits and vegetables consumption is associated with overweight and obesity in Peruvian adults and as to describe the sociodemographic profi le of the people with overweight and obesity. Subjects and methods: Populationbased study that used data from the National Demographic and Health Survey (DHSENDES) performed in the 25 regions of Perú. The outcomes were overweight and obesity assessed using the Body Mass Index, whereas the exposure variable was the fruit and vegetable consumption evaluated by self-report during the last seven days. Poisson regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to evaluate associated factors with overweight and obesity, as well as the association of interest, reporting prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confi dence intervals (95%CI). Results: Data from 4,641 participants, mean age 37.1 years (SD: 11.8) and 53.6% women, were analyzed. Only 220 (4.8%; 95%CI 4.1%-5.4%) individuals reported a fruit and vegetable consumption of ≥5 portions per day, whereas 1,818 (39.2%; 95% CI 37.8%-40.6%) had overweight and 865 (18.6%; IC95% 17.5%-19.8%) presented obesity. Factors associated with overweight and obesity included gender, age, education level, socioeconomic level, marital status, and hypertension diagnosis. No association was found between a greater fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight (p=0.98) or obesity (p=0.99). Conclusions: No evidence of association between overweight and obesity with fruit and vegetable consumption was found. Only 1 out of 20 individuals reported consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables per day, whereas 60% had overweight and obesity.
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    • Association between sitting time and obesity: A population-based study in Peru

      Paz-Krumdiek, M. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-01)
      Aim: To assess if there is an association between sitting time and obesity among adult Peruvian population, using three different anthropometric measurements. Methods: A secondary analysis using data from a population-based study, the National Household Survey (ENAHO, in Spanish), was conducted enrolling adults aged ≥18 years from the 25 regions of Peru using a multistage random sampling technique. The outcome of interest was obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI > 30 kg/m2), waist circumference (WC > 80 and >90 cm in women and men, respectively) and waist to height ratio (WHR > 0.5); while the exposure was sitting time, measured using the last domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and then categorised in <4 hours/day, 4 to <8 hours/day and 8+ hours/day. Associations were estimated using Poisson regression models, reporting prevalence ratios (PRs) and their respective 95% CI. Results: Data from 8587 subjects were analysed; mean age was 38.4 (SD: 13.5) and 53.6% were females. The prevalence of obesity was 16.3% (95% CI: 15.2–17.5%) by BMI, 58.5% (95% CI: 56.9–60.0%) by WC, and 78.0% (95% CI: 76.5–79.3%) by WHR. In the multivariable model, subjects reporting a sitting time of 8+ hours/day were more likely to be obese than those reporting <4 hours/day according to BMI (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.15–1.65), WC (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12–1.28) and WHR (PR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01–1.10). Conclusions: Subjects with greater sitting time were more likely to be obese, and this association was evident with three different anthropometric indicators. Findings suggest the need of generating public health actions to reduce sedentary behaviour.
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    • Características de la lonchera del preescolar y conocimiento nutricional del cuidador: un estudio piloto en Lima, Perú, 2016

      Arévalo-Rivasplata, Lupe; Castro-Reto, Susan; García-Alva, Geraldine; Segura, Eddy R.; gerig1296@gmail.com (Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría, 2017-04)
      Cartas al Editor
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    • Comentario de Terrones Arias AE en: Incidencia del periodo vacacional de Navidad en el estado ponderal de escolares de Primaria

      Terrones Arias, Angel Eduardo; Carbajal Huamani, Oliverio (Asociacion Espanola de Dietistas-Nutricionistas, 2018-03-16)
      Carta al editor
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    • Comments to the article "Overweight and clinical course in children younger than two years old hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection"

      Bejarano-Talavera, Grecia Odalis; Acosta, Carla Andrea Estrada; Quispe, Jorge Luis Maguiña; Cruz-Retamozo, Ximena (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2020-01-01)
      Carta al editor.
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    • Contenido de sodio en la dieta diaria de niños de un albergue peruano

      Trujillo Espino, Stefany; Paredes Aramburú, Jacqueline; Miranda Rodríguez, Camila; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio (Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (SAP), 2015-01-26)
      Cartas al editor
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    • Discordancia lipídica y placa carotídea en pacientes obesos en prevención primaria

      Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; walter.masson@hospitalitaliano.org.ar (Elsevier España S.L., 2017-11)
      Introduction Obese patients with lipid discordance (non-HDL cholesterol levels 30mg/dL above the LDL-c value) may have a greater prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Our study objectives were: 1) To assess the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population of obese patients; 2) To investigate the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Methods Obese subjects aged >18 years (BMI ≥30kg/m2) with no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or lipid-lowering treatment from six cardiology centers were included. Lipid discordance was defined when, regardless of the LDL-c level, the non-HDL cholesterol value exceeded the LDL-c value by 30mg/dL. Presence of CAP was identified by ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Results The study simple consisted of 325 obese patients (57.2% men; mean age, 52.3 years). Prevalence of lipid discordance was 57.9%. CAP was found in 38.6% of patients, but the proportion was higher in subjects with lipid discordance as compared to those without this lipid pattern (44.4% vs. 30.7%, P=.01). In both the univariate (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.87; P=.01) and the multivariate analysis (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.54; P=.007), presence of lipid discordance was associated to an increased probability of CAP. Conclusion In these obese patients, lipid discordance was associated to greater prevalence of CAP. Evaluation of obese patients with this strategy could help identify subjects with higher residual cardiovascular risk.
    • Efecto de la anemia en el desarrollo infantil: Consecuencias a largo plazo

      Zavaleta, Nelly; Astete-Robilliard, Laura (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2017-12)
      La anemia en niños menores de tres años es un problema de salud pública en el Perú y el mundo. Se estima que la causa principal de la anemia, aunque no la única, es la deficiencia de hierro. Existen muchos estudios y revisiones sobre cómo esta carencia en los infantes impacta negativamente en el desarrollo psicomotor y, a pesar de corregirse la anemia, los niños con este antecedente presentan, a largo plazo, un menor desempeño en las áreas cognitiva, social y emocional. Estos hallazgos se describen en estudios observacionales, de seguimiento, así como en experimentales con grupo control. La anemia puede disminuir el desempeño escolar, y la productividad en la vida adulta, afectando la calidad de vida, y en general la economía de las personas afectadas. Se describen algunos posibles mecanismos de cómo la deficiencia de hierro, con o sin anemia, podría afectar el desarrollo en la infancia; por ello, causa preocupación la alta prevalencia de anemia que se observa en este grupo de edad. La prevención de la anemia en el primer año de vida debe ser la meta para evitar consecuencias en el desarrollo de la persona a largo plazo.
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    • Effect of vegetarian diets on the presentation of metabolic syndrome or its components: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Picasso, Maria C.; Lo-Tayraco, Jessica A.; Ramos-Villanueva, Juselly M.; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Hernandez, Adrian V.; mariaclaudiapicasso@gmail.com; jlotayraco@gmail.com; jurv1114@gmail.com; lepiscean@gmail.com; adrianhernandezdiaz@gmail.com (Churchill Livingstone, 2018)
      Background & aims: Several studies have examined the effect of vegetarian diets (VD) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the association between VD and MetS or its components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], fasting glucose triglycerides, waist circumference [WC], HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) in adults. Methods: The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched. RCTs, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies evaluating the effects of VD on MetS or its components in adults, with omnivore diet as control group, were included. Random effects meta-analyses stratified by study design were employed to calculate pooled estimates. Results: A total of 71 studies (n = 103 008) met the inclusion criteria (6 RCTs, 2 cohorts, 63 cross-sectional). VD were not associated with MetS in comparison to omnivorous diet (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50–1.85, p = 0.9) according to meta-analysis of five cross-sectional studies. Likewise, meta-analysis of RCTs and cohort studies indicated that consumption of VD were not associated with MetS components. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies demonstrated that VD were significantly associated with lower levels of SBP (mean difference [MD] −4.18 mmHg, 95%CI −5.57 to −2.80, p < 0.00001), DBP (MD −3.03 mmHg, 95% CI −4.93 to −1.13, p = 0.002), fasting glucose (MD −0.26 mmol/L, 95% CI −0.35to −0.17, p < 0.00001), WC (MD −1.63 cm, 95% CI −3.13 to −0.13, p = 0.03), and HDL-C (MD −0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.03, p < 0.0001) in comparison to omnivorous diet. Heterogeneity of effects among cross-sectional studies was high. About, one-half of the included studies had high risk of bias. Conclusions: VD in comparison with omnivorous diet is not associated with a lower risk of MetS based on results of meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. The association between VD and lower levels of SBP, DBP, HDL-C, and fasting glucose is uncertain due to high heterogeneity across the cross-sectional studies. Larger and controlled studies are needed to evaluate the association between VD and MetS and its components.
    • Evaluación de la composición nutricional de los menús expendidos en restaurantes: necesidad de nueva información

      Benavides, Mariale; Vizarreta, Daniela; Maguiña, Jorge L.; dani.viza.25@gmail.com (Sociedad Chilena de Nutrición, Bromatología y Toxicología, 2017-07)
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    • Evaluación del estado nutricional, patrones de consumo alimentario y de actividad física en escolares del Cercado de Lima

      Aparco, Juan Pablo; Bautista Olórtegui, William; Astete Robilliard, Laura; Pillaca, Jenny; japarco@ins.gob.pe (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2016-12)
      Objectives. To assess the nutritional status, physical activity, and eating habits of schoolchildren in Cercado de Lima (Lima district). Materials and methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included schoolchildren from first to fourth grade in four public elementary schools located in Cercado de Lima. The study variables were nutritional status, hemoglobin dose, physical activity, and eating habits. The percentages of the qualitative variables and central tendency measures for quantitative ones were calculated. The t-test and chi-squared test were applied to analyze differences between both genders. Results. Of 824 schoolchildren included in the study, 24% were obese, 22% were overweight, 5% had short stature, and 11.9% had anemia; in all instances, there were no substantial gender differences. More than 40% of schoolchildren would eat crackers and drink packaged juice and/or soda two or more times a week. In addition, 28% of schoolchildren were inactive; there were significant differences in both genders (P<0.05). Conclusions. Obesity is an ongoing problem with higher rates than overweight and, together, the aforementioned problems affect almost 50% of schoolchildren surveyed. Similarly, the study revealed patterns associated with a sedentary lifestyle and frequent consumption of foods with high levels of sugar, salt, and/or fats.
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    • Factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna exclusiva en una muestra de madres de Lima, Perú, 2013

      Laghi Rey, A; Yaipen Ayca, A.; Risco Denegri, R.V.; Pereyra Elías, Reneé (iMedPub Journals, 2015-11-24)
      Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has proven to be highly beneficial for children’s health. Identifying the associated factors with its cessation is useful in order to target specific groups for preventive interventions. Objective: To evaluate the associated factors with EBF cessation before six months of age in women with infants, living in a district in Lima. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was performed. It evaluated mothers with infants aged 6-24 months, in a periurban district in Lima, Peru, 2013. The study outcome was cessation in EBF before six months of age. Sociodemographic variables, factors related to gestation and delivery, and factors properly related to breastfeeding were assessed. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated through simple and multiple Poisson regression. Results: From the 109 mothers included in the analysis, 85.3% were 18 years old or more and all of them had a monthly family income under 250 US dollars. Seventy percent of women interrupted EBF before six months of age. Statistically significant association was found between EBF cessation and being primiparous (PR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.20-1.98), having problems with the nipples (PR: 1.58; 95%CI: 1.07-2.33) and the perception of infant’s persistent hunger with EBF (PR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.01-1.79). Conclusion: EBF cessation frequency was high in the study sample. Primiparity, having problems with the nipples and the perception of infant’s persistent hunger with EBF were found as associated factors. Preventive strategies might specially focus in mothers with this characteristics.
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    • Figures performance of glycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with intake of two breakfast with the same amount of carbohydrates

      Cóndor Marín, Katherine; Hamasaki Matos, Angie; angie.hamasaki@gmail.com (Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral, 2015-06)
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    • Hipótesis alternativas sobre los beneficios de los fermentados sobre la microbiota intestinal

      Bernardi Espinoza, Diego; Jiménez Guerrero, Carlos Fernando; Milon, Pohl (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2018-11)
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