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  • Relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and maternal employment status in Peru: A sub-analysis of the Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey

    Chávez-Zárate, Airin; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Quichiz-Lara, Antoinette Danciana; Zapata-Fajardo, Patricia Edith; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; (Public Library of Science, 2019-04)
    Objectives This study aimed to determine the relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months old and maternal employment status in Peru. Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted using information from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Peru. We used a representative sample of 4637 mother-child binomials to determine the association between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and the employment status of their mothers. Results The prevalence of stunting among children was 15.9% (95% CI: 13.9–16.7). The prevalence of working mothers was 63.7%. No association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.9 to 1.2; p = 0.627). However, on multivariate analysis we found that the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher among children of mothers performing unpaid work (12.4%) (PR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.2–1.6; p < 0.001) compared with those of paid working mothers. Conclusion No significant association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. However, children of mothers doing unpaid work are at higher risk of stunting. These findings support the implementation of educational programs and labour policies to reduce the prevalence of stunting among children. © 2019 Chávez-Zárate et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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  • Organically vs conventionally-grown dark and white chia seeds (salvia hispanica L.): Fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity and techno-functional properties

    K., Alvites-Misajel; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Miranda-Rodríguez, C.; Ramos-Escudero, F.; (CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2019-04-02)
    The effects of organic and conventional crop systems on chemical composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties were evaluated in white and dark chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. The organic system reduced the total protein content, and increased the total carbohydrates but did not change polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic or flavonoids. Organic white chia seeds showed the best techno-functional properties. The antioxidant capacity of chia extracts varied in relation to the chemical complexity and differential rate kinetics of different assays. Extractable total phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity were better in organic white chia seeds. In this first approach, we have demonstrated that the organic white chia seed has a better total antioxidant capacity measured by direct quencher approaches than its conventionally-grown counterpart. To summarize, we conclude that the organic white chia seed could be a dietary source of antioxidants with a potential to promote health benefits in systemic functions and/or microbiota and the use of its techno-functional properties for the food industry.
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  • Hipótesis alternativas sobre los beneficios de los fermentados sobre la microbiota intestinal

    Bernardi Espinoza, Diego; Jiménez Guerrero, Carlos Fernando; Milon, Pohl (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2018-11)
    Cartas al editor
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  • Effect of vegetarian diets on the presentation of metabolic syndrome or its components: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Picasso, Maria C.; Lo-Tayraco, Jessica A.; Ramos-Villanueva, Juselly M.; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Hernandez, Adrian V.;;;;; (Churchill Livingstone, 2018)
    Background & aims: Several studies have examined the effect of vegetarian diets (VD) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the association between VD and MetS or its components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], fasting glucose triglycerides, waist circumference [WC], HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) in adults. Methods: The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched. RCTs, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies evaluating the effects of VD on MetS or its components in adults, with omnivore diet as control group, were included. Random effects meta-analyses stratified by study design were employed to calculate pooled estimates. Results: A total of 71 studies (n = 103 008) met the inclusion criteria (6 RCTs, 2 cohorts, 63 cross-sectional). VD were not associated with MetS in comparison to omnivorous diet (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50–1.85, p = 0.9) according to meta-analysis of five cross-sectional studies. Likewise, meta-analysis of RCTs and cohort studies indicated that consumption of VD were not associated with MetS components. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies demonstrated that VD were significantly associated with lower levels of SBP (mean difference [MD] −4.18 mmHg, 95%CI −5.57 to −2.80, p < 0.00001), DBP (MD −3.03 mmHg, 95% CI −4.93 to −1.13, p = 0.002), fasting glucose (MD −0.26 mmol/L, 95% CI −0.35to −0.17, p < 0.00001), WC (MD −1.63 cm, 95% CI −3.13 to −0.13, p = 0.03), and HDL-C (MD −0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.03, p < 0.0001) in comparison to omnivorous diet. Heterogeneity of effects among cross-sectional studies was high. About, one-half of the included studies had high risk of bias. Conclusions: VD in comparison with omnivorous diet is not associated with a lower risk of MetS based on results of meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. The association between VD and lower levels of SBP, DBP, HDL-C, and fasting glucose is uncertain due to high heterogeneity across the cross-sectional studies. Larger and controlled studies are needed to evaluate the association between VD and MetS and its components.
  • Comentario de Terrones Arias AE en: Incidencia del periodo vacacional de Navidad en el estado ponderal de escolares de Primaria

    Terrones Arias, Angel Eduardo; Carbajal Huamani, Oliverio (Asociacion Espanola de Dietistas-Nutricionistas, 2018-03-16)
    Carta al editor
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  • Ingesta de arsénico: el impacto en la alimentación y la salud humana

    Medina-Pizzali, María; Robles, Pamela; Mendoza, Mónica; Torres, Celeste (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2018-04-09)
    Arsenic is an element that is widely distributed throughout the environment. Its compounds are mainly in the state of pentavalent and trivalent oxidation; and in inorganic and organic forms. Arsenical species vary in their degree of toxicity, with inorganic compounds being more political than organic, and trivalent compounds more toxic than pentavalent compounds. There would be interconversion between the less toxic species and other more toxic species and the cooking and processing methods could affect it. Arsenic is a carcinogenic agent and causes multiple negative effects on human health in the short and long term. Non-occupational human exposure to arsenic occurs mainly through water and food. The regulation is variable for each country and is based on WHO standards, the Codex Alimentarius, and the European Union. Many studies focus on determining the total arsenic content but do not identify arsenical species in foods. Globally, fish and seafood, chicken, meat, rice, and seaweed have high levels of arsenic. In Peru, there are few studies on total arsenic content and arsenical species in food despite the fact that we have areas with high levels of environmental contamination. The objective of this review is to discuss exposure to arsenic through food and water intake, related regulations, toxicity, consequences on human health and main foods that contribute to its intake.
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  • Efecto de la anemia en el desarrollo infantil: Consecuencias a largo plazo

    Zavaleta, Nelly; Astete-Robilliard, Laura (Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS), 2017-12)
    Anemia in children younger than 3 years is a public health problem in Peru and worldwide. It is believed that one of the primary causes of anemia is iron deficiency. Numerous studies and reviews have reported that iron deficiency limited psychomotor development in children and that, despite the correction of anemia, children with iron deficiency experienced poorer long-term performance in cognitive, social, and emotional functioning. These outcomes were reported in observational studies, follow-up studies, and experimental studies with a control group. Anemia can decrease school performance, productivity in adult life, quality of life, and the general income of affected individuals. Here we describe possible mechanisms underlying the effect of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, on childhood development. The high rate of anemia in this age group is a cause for concern. Moreover, anemia should be prevented in the first year of life to avoid long-term negative effects on individual development.
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  • Importancia de diferenciar puntos de corte del IMC de acuerdo a la edad

    Reyes Huarcaya, Rossy María Elena; Núñez Sánchez, Mery Cristy (Grupo Aula Medica S.A., 2017-09-14)
    El IMC es un indicador de la relación entre el peso y la talla. Se utiliza frecuentemente para identificar el estado nutricional de un individuo, el cual depende de la edad y/o sexo
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  • Discordancia lipídica y placa carotídea en pacientes obesos en prevención primaria

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; (Elsevier España S.L., 2017-11)
    Introduction Obese patients with lipid discordance (non-HDL cholesterol levels 30mg/dL above the LDL-c value) may have a greater prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Our study objectives were: 1) To assess the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population of obese patients; 2) To investigate the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Methods Obese subjects aged >18 years (BMI ≥30kg/m2) with no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or lipid-lowering treatment from six cardiology centers were included. Lipid discordance was defined when, regardless of the LDL-c level, the non-HDL cholesterol value exceeded the LDL-c value by 30mg/dL. Presence of CAP was identified by ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Results The study simple consisted of 325 obese patients (57.2% men; mean age, 52.3 years). Prevalence of lipid discordance was 57.9%. CAP was found in 38.6% of patients, but the proportion was higher in subjects with lipid discordance as compared to those without this lipid pattern (44.4% vs. 30.7%, P=.01). In both the univariate (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.87; P=.01) and the multivariate analysis (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.54; P=.007), presence of lipid discordance was associated to an increased probability of CAP. Conclusion In these obese patients, lipid discordance was associated to greater prevalence of CAP. Evaluation of obese patients with this strategy could help identify subjects with higher residual cardiovascular risk.
  • Traducción, adaptación cultural y validación del Salt Knowledge Questionnaire al idioma español

    Quinteros-Reyes, C.; Marcionelli-Sandhaus, T.; Mayta-Tristan, Percy (Elsevier España, S.L.U, 2017-11)
    Abstract INTRODUCTION: In order to reduce salt consumption in Spanish speaking countries it is necessary to know the level of salt knowledge in the population. However, there are no tools in Spanish to measure salt knowledge, but the only valid tool of measurement is the 'Salt Knowledge Questionnaire' (SKQ) developed in Australia, in English. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validation study was conducted in three phases: (Phase1) Translation of the original Australian version into Spanish; (Phase2) Cultural adaptation based on a Spanish-speaking population such as Peru and following criteria used in the development of the original questionnaire which was evaluated by a panel of experts; (Phase3) Construct validity by comparing the scores of three groups (experts, medical students and non-experts) and reliability by performing a test retest. RESULTS: The translation of the SKQ into Spanish maintained a semantic equivalence with the original questionnaire and a panel of experts accepted the cultural adaptation. The SKQ enables discrimination between those who know and those who do not because differences of scores were found between the group of experts, students and non-experts (P<.001). A good overall internal consistency of the instrument was found (KR20=0.69) and a good overall intraclass correlation (0.79) and no test variations in test-retest (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: The SKQ questionnaire in Spanish is valid, reliable and is a suitable first tool to measure knowledge about salt in the Spanish language. It is considered possible to adapt it culturally to the Spanish-speaking country that wishes to use it.
  • Importancia de un adecuado muestreo y la consideración de los efectos secundarios del tratamiento en pacientes psiquiátricos

    Morales Velasquez, S; Escalante, D; (Sociedad Espanola de Dietetica, 2017-09)
    Carta al editor
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  • An update on the status of front-of-package labelling regulations in Latin America

    Robles-Valcarcel, Pamela; (Cambridge University Press, 2016-12-20)
    Carta al Editor
  • Limitaciones del peso y talla autorreferidos

    Benavente, Andrea; Becker, Carla; (Arán Ediciones, 2017-07-28)
    Carta al Editor.
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  • Impulsividad y conducta alimentaria en varones

    Olano Yalta, Anthonny Micheel; (Arán Ediciones, 2017-07-28)
    Cartas al Editor
    Acceso abierto
  • Snacks en las loncheras de niños de un nido peruano

    Estrada-Tejada, Dayna K.; Alviso-Orellana, Claudia L.; (Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (SAP), 2017-06)
    Cartas al Editor
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  • Sesgos en la medición del índice de masa corporal en adultos mayores

    Conroy-Ferreccio, Gabriel; (Grupo Arán, 2017-02-01)
    En relación con el artículo “Influencia del sobrepeso y obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio del deuterio, pero no en el agua corporal total y la composición corporal en mujeres mayores de 60 años”, es necesario discutir sobre cuál es la mejor definición de sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos mayores en este tipo de estudios.
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  • Prevalencia de anemia ferropénica en deportistas seleccionados del Instituto Peruano del Deporte durante el año 2013: estudio transversal

    Rivera Ameri, Alexandra; Quiroz Acurio, Valeria; Arias Montano, Kevyn; (Elsevier B.V., 2017-07-24)
    Introducción: El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de anemia ferropénica según el componente dinámico y estático, identificando de esta manera los deportes con mayor prevalencia de anemia y determinar la asociación entre el sexo, la edad y anemia.Material y métodos: Estudio observacional de tipo corte transversal analítico. Se utilizó la base de datos de la Dirección Nacional de Servicios Biomédicos del Instituto Peruano del Deporte, en el periodo de enero a diciembre de 2013. De un universo de 1833 deportistas, se seleccionaron aquellos entre 18 y 35 años de edad. Las variables numéricas se evaluaron usando la prueba de t de Student o la prueba de Mann-Whitney dependiendo del estado de normalidad de las variables. Las variables categóricas fueron evaluadas usando χ2. Razones de prevalencias crudas y ajustadas fueron calculadas usando regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta, para evaluar la asociación entre sexo y anemia.Resultados: Se analizaron 633 deportistas, siendo en su mayoría varones (68,4%). Las variables que se incluyeron en el modelo bivariado fueron sexo, edad deportiva y suplementación con hierro, las cuales fueron también incluidas en el modelo multivariado, encontrándose asociación entre anemia y edad deportiva (p=0,01). No se encontró asociación entre sexo y anemia (RPa= 0,96; IC95%: 0,60-1,40; p=0,85), sin embargo, la prevalencia de anemia fue por encima del 15% (17,9% hombres y 16,8% mujeres).Conclusiones: Se halló mayor prevalencia de anemia ferropénica en los deportes de alto componente estático y dinámico. No se encontró asociación entre anemia ferropénica y sexo en deportistas seleccionados del Instituto Peruano del Deporte en el año 2013.
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  • Importancia de reportar la selección de casos y controles

    Benavides Ward, Araceli; Hilbck Arámbulo, Estefanía; Arnaiz Seminario, Paloma; (Aula Médica Ediciones, 2017-07-28)
    Carta al Editor
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  • Abandono de la terapia nutricional y pérdida de peso en pacientes bariátricos: Cohorte retrospectiva en Lima, Perú

    Giacchetti-Vega, Monica; Baquerizo-vonBerswordts, Pamela; Carbone-Moane, Camila; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; (Fundación Española de Dietistas-Nutricionistas (FEDN), 2017-04-04)
    Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of patients who meet international recommendations for bariatric surgery and to assess the association between weight loss and dropout rate during diet therapy. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study performed using data from clinical records of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy in a private clinic of Lima, Peru. Two outcomes were evaluated, eligibility for bariatric surgery according to international recommendations (BMI≥40kg/m2 or ≥35kg/m2 with comorbidities) and abandonment before and after starting nutritional management (no nutritional assessment after 60 days from the previous visit without achieving ideal BMI). The exposure was the percentage of weight lost in the first five weeks after surgery split into <10% and ≥10%. Poisson regression was used and relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Results: Data from 423 medical records of bariatric patients, mean age 39.2 years (±12.3), 294 (69.5%) women, were analyzed. Only 117 (27.7%) patients met international recommendations for bariatric surgery. Before starting nutritional management, 48/117 (41%) abandoned treatment, whereas an additional 29/69 (42.0%) abandoned before six months of nutritional management. Patient losing ≥10% of weight in the first month had 90% lower risk (RR=0.10; 95%CI:0.01-0.68) of nutritional therapy dropout compared to those who lost <10% of weight, controlling for sex and age. Conclusions: A great proportion of patients undergoing bariatric surgery did not meet the international criteria. A greater loss of weight during the first month was associated a lower dropout rate during nutritional therapy.
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