Recent Submissions

  • Exploratory study on knowledge and frequency of consumption of processed and ultraprocessed products in university students of Peru

    Mamani-Urrutia, Víctor; Dominguez-Curi, Cesar H.; Sosa-Macalupu, Marjhory A.; Torres-Vicharra, Lourdes F.; Bustamante-López, Alicia (Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria, 2022-01-01)
    Background: The promotion of a healthy diet should take place at all levels, including the university community. The main objective was to explore the knowledge and frequency of consumption of processed and ultra-processed products in students of a private university in Lima-Peru. Methods: Cross-sectional, exploratory study, where a structured questionnaire was applied that collected information on 398 university students of both sexes, residents in Metropolitan Lima during the period from April to June 2019. Results: Of the total number of respondents, 50.8% study a career in Health Sciences. Most of the participants claimed to recognize a processed product (75.9%), however, only 43.4% of them gave valid examples. Regarding the term ultra-processed, only 18.1% claimed to have heard them and most of them confirmed with examples. Regarding the frequency of consumption, it was evidenced that bakery products (77.6%), cheeses (64.4%), cookies (56%), yogurts and sugary milk drinks (54.3%) and snacks (52.5%) were the most consumed in the week prior to the study. Regarding the frontal labeling, it was evidenced that 40.7% of the participants affirmed that they knew them. It was found that the main factor that influenced the dissemination of the existence of octagons (50%) was through the food industry who has already been implementing front labeling on their products that are sold for consumption. Conclusions: University students show insufficient knowledge about the differences between processed and ultraprocessed products, as well as a high frequency of consumption of these products, especially ultra-processed ones.
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  • Analysis of the distribution of macronutrients of food baskets delivered by municipalities during the Covid-19 pandemic in Peru

    Morales-Cahuancama, Bladimir; Dolores-Maldonado, Gandy; Hinojosa-Mamani, Paul; Bautista-Olortegui, William; Quispe-Gala, Cinthia; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Aparco, Juan Pablo (Instituto Nacional de Salud, 2022-01-01)
    Objectives. Evaluate and compare the macronutrient distribution of the food baskets delivered by Peruvian municipalities during the COVID-19 pandemic according to the geographic domain and assigned budget level. Materials and methods. Secondary analysis of the database “Consultation of Acquisition and distribution of basic necessities of the basic family basket” of the General Comptroller of the Republic. Stratified probability sampling was carried out. The distribution of caloric intake was calculated according to macronutrients and compared with the Acceptable Intervals of Macronutrient Distribution (IADM) of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) and the National Institute of Civil Defense (INDECI). Results. At the national level, the median caloric intake of proteins was 7.7%; carbohydrates 62.5%; and fats 28.1%. The proportion of municipalities with a protein deficit was 84%; Municipalities with excess carbohydrates ranged from 16.5% (according to INCAP) to 35.9% (according to INDECI), and with excess fat, it was 61.6% (according to INCAP) and 20.2% (according to INDECI). According to INDECI, nationally only 9.2% of municipalities delivered baskets with an adequate distribution of macronutrients; Metropolitan Lima stands out with the highest proportions of adequate baskets, while in the Jungle this percentage was less than 5%. Conclusions. Most of the baskets delivered did not have adequate macronutrient distribution. Especially the baskets of municipalities outside of Metropolitan Lima or that had a smaller budget. Carbohydrates and fats were the nutrients that were included in excess, while proteins were deficient.
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  • Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of meeting the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines among latin american adults: a multi-national cross-sectional study

    Ferrari, Gerson; Alberico, Claudia; Drenowatz, Clemens; Kovalskys, Irina; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; García, Martha Yépez; Liria-Domínguez, Maria Reyna; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Peralta, Miguel; Marques, Adilson; Marconcin, Priscila; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Farías-Valenzuela, Claudio; Fisberg, Mauro; Rollo, Scott (BioMed Central Ltd, 2022-12-01)
    Background: 24-hour movement behaviors, including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time (ST), and sleep duration, have important implications for health across the lifespan. However, no studies exist that have examined the integration of these 24-hour movement behaviors in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guideline recommendations and sociodemographic correlates of meeting the guidelines in adults from eight Latin American countries. Methods: This was a multi-national cross-sectional study of 2338 adults aged 18 to 64 years from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health. MVPA and ST data were collected using accelerometers. Sleep duration was self-reported using a daily log. Socio-demographic correlates included sex, age, education level, and marital status. Meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines was defined as: ≥150 min/week of MVPA; ≤8 h/day of ST; and between 7 and 9 h/day of sleep. Logistic regression models were estimated on pooled data. Results: The prevalence of adults who met the MVPA, ST, sleep duration, and integrated recommendations was 48.3, 22.0, 19.4, and 1.6%, respectively. Overall, being a woman (OR: 0.72; 95%CI: 0.55,0.93) and having a middle (0.63; 0.47,0.85) or high education level (0.31; 0.17,0.56) was associated with lower odds of meeting all three of the 24-hour movement guideline recommendations. Being married (1.70; 1.25,2.29) was associated with greater odds of meeting all three recommendations. Being a woman (0.46; 0.39,0.55), aged 50-64 years (0.77; 0.60,0.97), and married (0.79; 0.65,0.96) were associated with lower odds of meeting the MVPA recommendation. Having a middle (0.64; 0.50,0.80) or high (0.36; 0.23,0.55) education level was associated with lower odds and being married (1.86; 1.46,2.36) was associated with greater odds of meeting the ST recommendation. Being a woman (0.63; 0.51,0.78) was associated with lower odds; whereas being aged 50-64 years (1.40; 1.04,1.88) and having a middle education level (1.37; 1.09,1.73) were associated with greater odds of meeting the sleep duration recommendation. Conclusions: Overall, the proportion of Latin American adults achieving healthy levels of 24-hour movement behaviors was low. Further efforts are needed to promote more MVPA, less ST, and sufficient sleep in Latin American adults. Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT02226627. Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.
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  • Alcohol contribution to total energy intake and its association with nutritional status and diet quality in eight latina american countries

    Brenes, Juan Carlos; Gómez, Georgina; Quesada, Dayana; Kovalskys, Irina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; García, Martha Cecilia Yépez; Liria-Domínguez, Reyna; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Guajardo, Viviana; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Ferrari, Gerson; Fisberg, Mauro (MDPI, 2021-12-01)
    Alcohol consumption is a modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to characterize alcohol consumers at the nutritional, anthropometric, and sociodemographic levels. Data from 9218 participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela participating in “Latin American Health and Nutrition Study (ELANS)”, a multi-country, population-based study, were used. Dietary intake was collected through two, 24 h recalls. Participants were classified into consumers (n = 1073) and non-alcohol consumers (n = 8145) using a cut-off criterium of ≥15 g/day of alcohol consumption calculated from the estimation of their usual daily intake. Among alcohol consumers, the mean alcohol consumption was 69.22 ± 2.18 grams (4.6. beverages/day), contributing to 484.62 kcal, which corresponded to 16.86% of the total energy intake. We found that the risk of alcohol consumption was higher in young and middle-aged men from low and middle socioeconomic status. Argentine, Brazil, and Chile had the highest percentage of consumers, while Ecuador showed the highest alcohol consumption. Alcohol drinkers were characterized by having higher body weight and wider neck, waist, hips circumferences. Alcohol drinkers had a higher energy intake, with macronutrients providing relatively less energy at the expense of the energy derived from alcohol. Alcohol drinkers showed lower and higher consumptions of healthy and unhealthy food groups, respectively. In addition, adequacy ratios for all micronutrients assessed were lower in alcohol consumers. All these deleterious effects of alcohol on nutritional and anthropometric parameters increased with the number of alcoholic beverages consumed daily. Altogether, these findings suggest that limiting alcohol consumption can contribute to reducing the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diet-related diseases.
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  • We continue to lose to the pandemic: Support for the food industry to the detriment of healthy eating?

    Mamani-Urrutia, Víctor; Salvatierra-Ruiz, Rosa; Pillaca-Ogosi, Lady L.; Domínguez-Curi, César H. (Sociedad Chilena de Nutricion Bromatologia y Toxilogica, 2021-04-01)
    Carta al editor
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  • Association between perception of practical advice, educational messages of the Dietary Guidelines and the media in Peruvian university students

    Mamani-Urrutia, Víctor; Dominguez-Curi, César Hugo; la Puente, Stephanie Inés Pineda; López-Guerrero, Pamela Alejandra; Bustamante-López, Alicia (Archivos Latinoamericanos Nutricion, 2021-03-01)
    Objective: To determine the association between the perception of practical advice and the educational messages of the food guides in students of a private university in Peru. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. The population corresponded to undergrads who are from the first to tenth semester of their degrees in a private university of Lima-Peru. The sample was 480 university students who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected in the period from october to november of the year 2019. A questionnaire was applied to collect the perception of university students about the messages of the dietary guidelines and the media where they would like to know information about educational messages. Results: 46.5% correspond to undergrads of the Faculty of Health Sciences. Messages 1, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11 of the Peruvian GABAS showed an evident statistical association (p <0.05). The media with the highest proportion by which they would like to know educational messages about healthy eating were Television (28.5%), Instagram (27.7%) and Facebook (19.0%). Conclusion: Differentiated advertising should be designed and implemented on television, Instagram and Facebook on healthy eating to contribute to the improvement of the health and nutrition status of Peruvian university students. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2021; 71(1): 36-44.
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  • Evaluation of processed and ultra-processed foods: An analysis before the implementation of front-of-package labeling in Peru

    Mamani-Urrutia, Víctor Alfonso; Dominguez-Curi, César H.; Moreno-Díaz, Ana L.; Silva-Díaz, Verónica; Bustamante-López, Alicia (Sociedad Chilena de Nutricion Bromatologia y Toxilogica, 2021-06-01)
    Objective. The objective of the current study was to evaluate critical nutrients of industrialized foods and compare them with the technical parameters established in the Peruvian regulations, in its two stages of implementation, referring to front-of-package labeling before the beginning of its validity in June 2019. Methods. Cross-sectional study in which the critical nutrients of sodium, total sugar, saturated fat and transfat were analyzed from data declared in the nutritional labels of 511 processed and ultra-processed foods that were part of the products purchased for the consumption of 88 families of students from one private university in Lima. The technical parameters used to evaluate the critical nutrients are those established in the Regulation of Law 30021. All analyses were carried out with Excel and SPSS version 21, Student’s t-statistics and McNemar’s test were used. Results. 79 processed foods and 432 ultra-processed foods were analyzed. Of the total processed and ultra-processed products evaluated, it was found that for sodium 14.3% and 37.2% respectively exceeded the parameters in the first and second stages established in the regulations; for sugar 54.2% and 62.6%; while for saturated fats 52.8% and 59.5%, respectively. Solid foods are those that will have the greatest changes in front labeling between the first and second stages of implementation, unlike liquids that without changing the composition of their products, their front labeling would not vary significantly. Conclusions. The saturated fat present in solid products (processed and ultra-processed), exceeds the parameters in both stages of implementation in most products. Of the foods compared, regardless of type and category, the critical nutrient sugar was the one that was highly present in most of the products evaluated for the first and second stages of implementation.
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  • Design and validation of a nutritional recipe for a snack made of green banana peel flour (Musa paradisiaca)

    Acosta-Coello, Camila; Parodi-Redhead, Almendra; Medina-Pizzali, Maria Luisa (Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos - ITAL, 2021-03-24)
    This study aims to design and validate a nutritional recipe for a snack made of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Peel Flour (GBPF) and to assess the nutritional composition and microbiological quality of the flour. Banana peel, a food industry by-product, is a nutritious, low-cost material available for all year. Banana peel flower could be used as a functional ingredient due to its high fiber content and good functional properties. In general, university students have a deficient dietary fiber intake due to altered dietary patterns; thus, this study was focused on this population. The GBPFs were obtained from the peels of pre-climacteric bananas by fluidized bed (FDB) dryer, after which, microbiological, proximate, and dietary fiber analyses were applied. It was designed the nutritional recipe for the snack taking into account the energy and dietary fiber nutritional requirements of the target population. It could be validated and adjusted the recipe following the methodology of Centro Nacional de Alimentaci n y Nutrici n, concluding with the determination of dietary fiber in the end-product. The dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, protein, total fat and energy contents of the GBPF were as following: 38.7 g, 76.3 g, 5.9 g, 3.6 g, and 361.2 kcal, per 100 g of flour. The snack contained 7.74 g of dietary fiber per serving size, having a good acceptance among the university students' panelists based on an organoleptic test. In conclusion, the GBPF showed great potential as a source of dietary fiber, and it was an excellent source of carbohydrates and other nutrients to a lesser degree. When included as a functional ingredient in the nutritional formulation of a snack, it had an overall positive effect on the product's organoleptic characteristics.
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  • Development of the set of scales to assess the job satisfaction among physicians in Peru: validity and reliability assessment

    Villarreal-Zegarra, David; Torres-Puente, Roberto; Castillo-Blanco, Ronald; Cabieses, Baltica; Bellido-Boza, Luciana; Mezones-Holguin, Edward (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Background: To assess the validity and reliability of the set of scales (general professional activity, health services management, and working conditions) on the different areas of job satisfaction in Peruvian physicians based on the data from the National Survey of Satisfaction of Users in Health (ENSUSALUD). Method: We carried out a psychometric study based on the secondary data analysis of Questionnaire 2 of ENSUSALUD-2016. Participants were selected from a two-stage stratified national probability representative sampling by political region. Validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and measurement invariance analysis. We assessed the reliability using internal consistency coefficients (alpha and omega). The set of scales were composed of items related to three different areas of job satisfaction: 1) satisfaction with general professional activity, 2) satisfaction with the health services management, and 3) satisfaction with the working conditions of the health center. Results: We included 2137 participants in the analysis. The general professional activity scale with six items (Comparative Fit Index, CFI = 0.946; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA = 0.071; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual, SRMR = 0.035), the health services management scale with eight items (CFI) = 0.972; RMSEA = 0.081; SRMR = 0.028), showed good measurement properties for the one-dimensional model. The working conditions scale with eight items for individual conditions and three items for infrastructural conditions (CFI = 0.914; RMSEA = 0.080; SRMR = 0.055) presented adequate measurement properties with a two-dimensional model. The invariance analysis showed that comparisons between sex, age, civil status, medical speciality, working in other institutions, work-related illness, chronic disease, and time working in the healthcare center. All scales had adequate internal consistency (ω and α between 0.70 and 0.90). Conclusions: The set of scales has a solid factorial structure and measurement invariance, making it possible for group comparison. The study achieved stability in the scores as they showed adequate internal consistency coefficients. Based on our findings, these instruments are suitable for measuring job satisfaction among outpatient physicians throughout Peru, as our data is representative of the country level.
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  • Co‐occurrence and clustering of sedentary behaviors, diet, sugar‐sweetened beverages, and alcohol intake among adolescents and adults: The latin american nutrition and health study (elans)

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Ferrari, Gerson; Fisberg, Regina M.; Kovalskys, Irina; Gómez, Georgina; Cortes, Lilia Yadira; Gárcia, Martha Cecilia Yépez; Herrera‐cuenca, Marianella; Rigotti, Attilo; Liria‐domínguez, María Reyna; Fisberg, Mauro (MDPI AG, 2021-06-01)
    Poor diet, sedentary behaviors, sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB) and alcohol intake seem to co‐exist in complex ways that are not well understood. The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of the extent to which unhealthy behaviors cluster in eight Latin America countries. A secondary aim was to identify socio‐demographic characteristics associated with these behaviors by country. Data from adolescents and adults from the “Latin American Health and Nutrition Study” was used and the prevalence of screen‐time, occupational and transportation–sedentary time, socializing with friends, poor diet, SSB and alcohol intake, alone and in combination, were identified. The eight Latin America (LA) countries added to analyses were: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between ≥2 behaviors clustering, socio‐demographics and weight status. Among 9218 individuals, the most prevalent behaviors were transportation and occupation–sedentary time, SSB and alcohol intake. Younger, female, married/living with a partner, low and middle‐income and obese individuals had higher chances for these clustering behaviors. These results provide a multi-country level of understanding of the extent to which behaviors co‐occur in the LA population.
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  • Characterization of the gut microbiota in diabetes mellitus II patients with adequate and inadequate metabolic control

    Hamasaki-Matos, Angie Joyce; Cóndor-Marín, Katherine Marlene; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the composition of the gut microbiota in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients with adequate and inadequate metabolic control, and its relationship with fiber consumption. Results: A total of 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled, of which 7 (26.9%) cases had adequate metabolic control (HbA1c < 7%) and 19 (73.1%) inadequate metabolic control (HbA1c ≥ 7%). It was observed that among patients with controlled T2DM, 2 (28.6%) cases presented good intake of fiber and 5 (71.4%) cases a regular intake. In contrast, in patients with uncontrolled T2DM, 13 (68.4%) patients reported a regular intake and 6 (31.6%) a poor intake. In relation to the identification of the gut microbiota, both groups presented a similar characterization. There were differences in the population of bacteria identified in both groups, however, the results were not statistically significant. The most frequently identified bacteria in controlled and uncontrolled T2DM patients were Prevotella (71.4% vs 52.6%), followed by Firmicutes (71.4% vs 42.1%), Proteobacteria (71.4% vs 36.8%) and Bacteroidetes (57.1% vs 37.8%). On the other hand, Fusobacterium, Actinobacteria were not identified in either of the two groups of study.
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  • An Evaluation of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Perceived Social Distancing Policies in Relation to Planning, Selecting, and Preparing Healthy Meals: An Observational Study in 38 Countries Worldwide

    Backer, Charlotte De; Teunissen, Lauranna; Cuykx, Isabelle; Decorte, Paulien; Pabian, Sara; Gerritsen, Sarah; Matthys, Christophe; Sabbah, Haleama Al; Royen, Kathleen Van; Bergheim, Ina; Staltner, Raphaela; Devine, Amanda; Sambell, Ros; Wallace, Ruth; Allehdan, Sabika Salem; Alalwan, Tariq Abdulkarim; Al-Mannai, Mariam Ahamad; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Backer, Charlotte De; Ouvrein, Gaelle; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Maldoy, Katrien; Matthys, Christophe; Smits, Tim; Vrinten, Jules; Desmet, Ann; Teughels, Nelleke; Geuens, Maggie; Vermeir, Iris; Proesmans, Viktor; Hudders, Liselot; De Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ostermann, Cristina; Brock, Ana Luiza; Favieiro, Cynthia; Trizotto, Rafaela; Stangherlin, Isadora; Mafra, Anthonieta Looman; Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Fisher, Maryanne L.; Maceacheron, Melanie; White, Katherine; Habib, Rishad; Dobson, David S.; Schnettler, Berta; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Chang, Angela Wen Yu; Jiao, Wen; Tingchi, Matthew; Liu; Grunert, Klaus G.; Christensen, Rikke Nyland; Reisch, Lucia; Janssen, Meike; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Encalada, Lorena; Kamel, Iman; Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Salmivaara, Laura; Makela, Johanna; Torkkeli, Kaisa; Mai, Robert; Kerschke-Risch, Pamela; Altsitsiadis, Efthymios; Stamos, Angelos; Antronikidis, Andreas; Tsafarakis, Stelios; Delias, Pavlos; Rasekhi, Hamid; Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Majid, Karandish; Eftekhari, Hassan; Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Sinead; McCarthy, Mary; Micalizzi, Alessandra; Schulz, Peter J.; Farinosi, Manuela; Komatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kubota, Hiromi; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J.; Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Ibrahim, Mohammed O.; Hammouh, Fadwa; Dashti, Somaia; Dashti, Basma; Alkharaif, Dhuha; Alshatti, Amani; Mazedi, Maryam Al (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-02-04)
    Objectives: To examine changes in planning, selecting, and preparing healthy foods in relation to personal factors (time, money, stress) and social distancing policies during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: Using cross-sectional online surveys collected in 38 countries worldwide in April-June 2020 (N = 37,207, Mage 36.7 SD 14.8, 77% women), we compared changes in food literacy behaviors to changes in personal factors and social distancing policies, using hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results: Increases in planning (4.7 SD 1.3, 4.9 SD 1.3), selecting (3.6 SD 1.7, 3.7 SD 1.7), and preparing (4.6 SD 1.2, 4.7 SD 1.3) healthy foods were found for women and men, and positively related to perceived time availability and stay-at-home policies. Psychological distress was a barrier for women, and an enabler for men. Financial stress was a barrier and enabler depending on various sociodemographic variables (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Stay-at-home policies and feelings of having more time during COVID-19 seem to have improved food literacy. Stress and other social distancing policies relate to food literacy in more complex ways, highlighting the necessity of a health equity lens.
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  • Comment about the article: «Understanding of different front-of-package labels by the Spanish population: Results of a comparative study»

    Grados-Jares, Manuel D.; Munoz-Denegri, Viviana M.; Medina-Pizzali, Maria L. (Elsevier Doyma, 2020-08-01)
    Carta al editor.
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  • Comments on: "Family life stories in teenage mothers: Qualitative study conducted at the Engativá ESE Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia"

    Rodríguez-Soto, Karen; Reyes-Aranibar, Sara; Uribe-Chincha, Tula; Torres-Slimming, Paola (NLM (Medline), 2020-06-01)
    Carta al editor.
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  • Association between household socioeconomic level and consumption of fast food and soft drinks: A cross-sectional assessment of the Young Lives cohort in Peru

    Najar, Carol Argelia; Vila-Quispe, Jessi Nataly; Astete-Robilliard, Laura; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio (Asociacion Espanola de Dietistas-Nutricionistas, 2020-01-01)
    Introduction: The consumption of fast food and soft drinks is a risk factor for developing overweight and obesity. This study aimed at assessing if there is association between household socioeconomic level and the consumption of fast food and soft drinks among children. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional assessment of the data from the third round (2009-2010) of the youngest cohort of the Young Lives study in Peru was conducted. Sampling was conducted in three stages: In the first one, the country was divided into equal geographical regions, excluding the 5% of the richest district; in the second stage, 20 sentinel sites were chosen and an area within each sentinel site was selected. Finally, in the third stage, eligible children were selected. Outcomes were the self-reported consumption of fast food and soft drinks (never, sometimes, and always), whereas the exposure was household socioeconomic status (in quintiles). Crude and adjusted models were created between variables of interest using Poisson regression models, with robust variance, to report prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Data of 1901 children, of which 942 (49.6%) were girls, with a mean age of 7.5 (SD: 0.5) was analyzed. A total of 24.1% (95%CI: 22.2%-26.1%) reported always consuming fast food, whilst this number was 22.4% (20.5%-24.3%) for soft drinks. Compared to the lowest socioeconomic quintile, those who were in higher socioeconomic status had more probability of consuming fast food and soft drinks (Chi-squared for trends <0.001). The highest socioeconomic quintile had a greater probability to always consume fast food (PR=1.42; 95%CI: 1.08-1.88) and soft drinks (PR=1.71; 95%CI: 1.24-2.37). Conclusions: This study shows that there is a significant association between the household socioeconomic level and the consumption of soft drinks and fast food.
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  • Are we adequately measuring food consumption and diet satisfaction in older adults?

    Jara, Alessandra Carolina Arroyo; García, Valeria Melanie Heredia; Quispe, Jorge Luis Maguiña (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2020-01-01)
    Carta al editor
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  • Comments to the article "Overweight and clinical course in children younger than two years old hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection"

    Bejarano-Talavera, Grecia Odalis; Acosta, Carla Andrea Estrada; Quispe, Jorge Luis Maguiña; Cruz-Retamozo, Ximena (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2020-01-01)
    Carta al editor.
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  • Association between sitting time and obesity: A population-based study in Peru

    Paz-Krumdiek, M. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-04-01)
    Aim: To assess if there is an association between sitting time and obesity among adult Peruvian population, using three different anthropometric measurements. Methods: A secondary analysis using data from a population-based study, the National Household Survey (ENAHO, in Spanish), was conducted enrolling adults aged ≥18 years from the 25 regions of Peru using a multistage random sampling technique. The outcome of interest was obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI > 30 kg/m2), waist circumference (WC > 80 and >90 cm in women and men, respectively) and waist to height ratio (WHR > 0.5); while the exposure was sitting time, measured using the last domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and then categorised in <4 hours/day, 4 to <8 hours/day and 8+ hours/day. Associations were estimated using Poisson regression models, reporting prevalence ratios (PRs) and their respective 95% CI. Results: Data from 8587 subjects were analysed; mean age was 38.4 (SD: 13.5) and 53.6% were females. The prevalence of obesity was 16.3% (95% CI: 15.2–17.5%) by BMI, 58.5% (95% CI: 56.9–60.0%) by WC, and 78.0% (95% CI: 76.5–79.3%) by WHR. In the multivariable model, subjects reporting a sitting time of 8+ hours/day were more likely to be obese than those reporting <4 hours/day according to BMI (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.15–1.65), WC (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.12–1.28) and WHR (PR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01–1.10). Conclusions: Subjects with greater sitting time were more likely to be obese, and this association was evident with three different anthropometric indicators. Findings suggest the need of generating public health actions to reduce sedentary behaviour.
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  • Relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and maternal employment status in Peru: A sub-analysis of the Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey

    Chávez-Zárate, Airin; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Quichiz-Lara, Antoinette Danciana; Zapata-Fajardo, Patricia Edith; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; [email protected] (Public Library of Science, 2019-04)
    Objectives This study aimed to determine the relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months old and maternal employment status in Peru. Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted using information from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Peru. We used a representative sample of 4637 mother-child binomials to determine the association between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and the employment status of their mothers. Results The prevalence of stunting among children was 15.9% (95% CI: 13.9–16.7). The prevalence of working mothers was 63.7%. No association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.9 to 1.2; p = 0.627). However, on multivariate analysis we found that the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher among children of mothers performing unpaid work (12.4%) (PR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.2–1.6; p < 0.001) compared with those of paid working mothers. Conclusion No significant association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. However, children of mothers doing unpaid work are at higher risk of stunting. These findings support the implementation of educational programs and labour policies to reduce the prevalence of stunting among children. © 2019 Chávez-Zárate et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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  • Organically vs conventionally-grown dark and white chia seeds (salvia hispanica L.): Fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity and techno-functional properties

    K., Alvites-Misajel; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Miranda-Rodríguez, C.; Ramos-Escudero, F.; [email protected] (CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2019-04-02)
    The effects of organic and conventional crop systems on chemical composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties were evaluated in white and dark chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. The organic system reduced the total protein content, and increased the total carbohydrates but did not change polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic or flavonoids. Organic white chia seeds showed the best techno-functional properties. The antioxidant capacity of chia extracts varied in relation to the chemical complexity and differential rate kinetics of different assays. Extractable total phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity were better in organic white chia seeds. In this first approach, we have demonstrated that the organic white chia seed has a better total antioxidant capacity measured by direct quencher approaches than its conventionally-grown counterpart. To summarize, we conclude that the organic white chia seed could be a dietary source of antioxidants with a potential to promote health benefits in systemic functions and/or microbiota and the use of its techno-functional properties for the food industry.
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