• A study on online intervention for early childhood eating disorders during COVID-19

      Cimino, Silvia; Almenara, Carlos A.; Cerniglia, Luca (MDPI, 2022-03-01)
      Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother–child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients’ needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers’ depression, anxiety, and obsession–compulsion symptoms. This study showed that video-feedback web-based intervention might be employed successfully to yield considerable beneficial effects. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
      Acceso abierto
    • Adaptación de la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en estudiantes universitarios peruanos

      Guzmán-Yacaman1, Jaime Enrique; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2018-06)
      El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en validar la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en una muestra peruana de universitarios de un programa nacional de becas. El proceso de adaptación consideró la doble traducción a partir de la versión original, la comparación lingüística con la adaptación chilena y mexicana, así como la revisión por jueces. Asimismo, se aplicó una prueba piloto. Los participantes fueron 332 becarios universitarios. Los resultados del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio confirmaron el modelo bifactorial de la EPGE-13. Asimismo, se obtuvieron evidencias de validez divergente y convergente utilizando el SPANAS. La confiabilidad estimada de los puntajes generados por el instrumento fueron α=.79 para el factor de eustrés y α= .77 para el factor de distrés. Los resultados demográficos indicaron mayor presencia de estrés percibido en mujeres que en hombres. No se observaron diferencias entre el estrés y el lugar de procedencia.
      Acceso abierto
    • Addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence in technical higher education students

      Alarcón-Allaín, Giovanni Franklin; Salas-Blas, Edwin (Instituto de Investigacion de Drogodependencias, 2022-01-01)
      Introduction. Social networks are used by around 3,600 million people, they facilitate communication and promote human ties; but its inappropriate use could cause problems and extreme addiction. Objective: Relate addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence. Method: Correlational study, 279 students of technical-superior level participated; The Social Media Addiction Questionnaire (ARS) and the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (EI) were administered. Results: Obsession (ARS) negatively correlates with Use of one’s own emotions and Regulation of emotions; likewise, Lack of control and Excessive use (ARS) with the dimensions Valuation of one’s own emotions, Use of one’s own emotions and Regulation of emotions; but, no factor of the ARS correlates with Valuation of the Emotions of the others; Likewise, men and women do not differ in the ARS, those who have more hours of connection are more likely to show higher scores in network addiction; and, in terms of emotional intelligence, women value the emotions of others more. Conclusions: Addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence are negatively related in almost all their dimensions, but it is an association of low magnitudes.
      Acceso abierto
    • Apoyo organizacional percibido y compromiso organizacional en una empresa privada de Lima, Perú

      Flores M., Jessica; Ingrid, Gómez V. (Ajayu, 2018-03)
      En la presenta investigación se busca determinar la correlación entre las variables Apoyo Organizacional Percibido y Compromiso Organizacional en una institución privada de Lima. Se utilizó una muestra representativa de 135 teleoperadores de una empresa dedicada a un call center. La muestra estuvo conformada por un 56% de mujeres y un 44% de hombres, la edad promedio de ambos sexos fue de 24 años, el 73% ha nacido en Lima, el 26% en provincia y el 1% en el extranjero. Asimismo, en esta investigación se empleó la escala de Apoyo Organizacional Percibido de Eisenberger (1986) y la escala de Compromiso Organizacional de Meyer y Allen (1991). En esta investigación se concluyó que efectivamente el apoyo organizacional percibido y el compromiso organizacional presentan una relación positiva. La permanencia de un colaborador en la empresa dependerá de la percepción positiva de apoyo organizacional y la conformidad con el trabajo. Asimismo, si la persona tiene una percepción negativa de apoyo organizacional es muy probable que se sienta disconforme con su trabajo y por ende, abandone su puesto de trabajo.
      Acceso abierto
    • Assessment of Fear of COVID-19 in Older Adults: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel; Ventura-León, José; Gallegos, Miguel; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Vilca, Lindsey W. (Springer, 2021-01-01)
      There is no information in Peru on the prevalence of mental health problems associated with COVID-19 in older adults. In this sense, the aim of the study was to gather evidence on the factor structure, criterion-related validity, and reliability of the Spanish version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in this population. The participants were 400 older adults (mean age = 68.04, SD = 6.41), who were administered the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Revised Mental Health Inventory-5, Patient Health Questionnaire-2 items, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale 2 items. Structural equation models were estimated, specifically confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), bifactor CFA, and structural models with latent variables (SEM). Internal consistency was estimated with composite reliability indexes (CRI) and omega coefficients. A bifactor model with both a general factor underlying all items plus a specific factor underlying items 1, 2, 4, and 5 representing the emotional response to COVID better represents the factor structure of the scale. This structure had adequate fit and good reliability, and additionally fear of COVID had a large effect on mental health. In general, women had more fear than men, having more information on COVID was associated to more fear, while having family or friends affected by COVID did not related to fear of the virus. The Spanish version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale presents evidence of validity and reliability to assess fear of COVID-19 in the Peruvian older adult population.
      Acceso abierto
    • Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers’ and Siblings’ Psychological Need Satisfaction

      Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (SAGE Publications, 2015-09-23)
      Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother–child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers’ psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics.
      Acceso abierto
    • Basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting: a study with brazilian professional players of League of Legends

      Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Junior, Marcelo Villas Boas; de Freitas Corrêa, Mariana; Souza, Vânia Hernandez; de Paula Moura, Larissa; de Oliveira, Rosemeire; Bossio, Mario Reyes; Brandão, Maria Regina Ferreira (MDPI, 2022-02-01)
      Recently, the skill to play games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of “eSports” (electronic sports). Despite the popularity of eSports, little is known about its professional players from a psychological perspective. Given the importance of the coach-created environment in the athletes’ motivational processes, this study aimed to investigate the key psychological dimensions of the coach-created climate in 75 Brazilian professional players of League of Legends (LoL) considering the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Achievement Goal Theory (AGT). Fourteen hypotheses were tested, of which seven were confirmed. The empowering climate was a predictor of basic psychological-needs satisfaction and indirectly influenced autonomous motivation. The need satisfaction had a significant impact on both autonomous motivation and on lack of motivation, which, in turn, explained 56% of the variance in well-being and the intention to keep playing eSports. The disempowering climate was a predictor of psychological-needs thwarting but had no significant impact on autonomous motivation or lack of motivation. The results obtained support SDT and AGT in the context of eSports and were similar to those conducted with athletes from traditional sports, indicating that the empower-ing-and-disempowering-coaching-climates conceptualization applies not only to traditional sports athletes but also to professional eSports players.
      Acceso abierto
    • Body dissatisfaction in university women: new psychometric evidence from the 14-item Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-14)

      Izquierdo-Cárdenas, S.; Caycho-Rodríguez, T.; Barboza-Palomino, M.; Reyes-Bossio, M. (Universidad de Murcia Servicio de Publicaciones, 2021-01-01)
      In recent years, young university students have experienced a greater concern for the body aspect that is related to having a slim figure. In this sense, it is important to have tools to measure the dissatisfaction they may have with their body appearance. The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-14). Specifically, to evaluate the internal structure of the BSQ-14, the internal consistency of the model, the evidence of discriminant validity based on the correlations of the average score of the BSQ-14 with a measure of mindfulness and the invariance of the BSQ-14 model, considering the variable of performance of physical activities. For hundred two young university students from Metropolitan Lima participated, with an average age of 20.05 years (SD = 18.18). A test battery including the BSQ-14 and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MASS-5) was administered. The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the BSQ-14 presented a good fit (x2 = 571,420; CFI = 0.962; SRMR = 0.051) and adequate reliability by the internal consistency method (ω = 0.962). Likewise, the BSQ-14 showed negative correlations with Mindfulness and body satisfaction. The BSQ-14 was shown to be invariant among university women who do or do not exercise. It is concluded that the study provides results that support the use of the BSQ-14 to measure body dissatisfaction with evidence of validity and reliability in a sample of young university students. of Metropolitan Lima.
      Acceso abierto
    • Burden syndrome and coping strategies in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients

      Reyna-García, Paola Daniela; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Rojas-Jara, Claudio (Universidad Compultense Madrid, 2021-11-02)
      Objective: Pediatric cancer caregivers will encounter circumstances that will challenge their personal resources to face the diverse demands of care. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the relationship between burden syndrome and coping strategies in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. Method: 93 main caregivers of pediatric cancer patients participated (69.9% women, 30.1% men, mean age = 37.20 years, SD = 11.32), selected in a non-probabilistic way. The Caregiver Burden Scale and the COPE-28 Questionnaire were applied. Correlational and comparative statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The results indicate the presence of significant and inverse correlations that vary between r =-.25 and r =-.56. However, no significant association was found between the dimensions of caregiver burden and substance use. On the other hand, those caregivers who use poorly adaptive strategies are more likely to generate overload in relation to their role, influencing their personal, family and social life. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between overload syndrome and coping strategies. In addition, significant differences in overload are identified according to the place of origin and the hours dedicated to care.
      Acceso abierto
    • Contemporary Perspective on Addictive Behaviors: Underpinning Mechanisms, Assessment, and Treatment

      Cimino, Silvia; Almenara, Carlos A.; Cerniglia, Luca; Desousa, Avinash; Maremmani, Angelo G. I. (Hindawi, 2018-06)
      Carta al editor
      Acceso abierto
    • Control Psicológico Parental y Problemas Internalizados y Externalizados en Adolescentes de Lima Metropolitana [Article]

      Solis Calcina, G.L.; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; [email protected] (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2019-01)
      The paper presents the results of a study of the relation between parental psychological control and the internalized and externalized problems of a group of 170 adolescents (58.2 % males), between the ages of 13 and 17, from a private school in Lima, Peru. The Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DapCS-S) and the Youth Self Report (ySR) inventory were used. Findings showed a positive and significant correlation between Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (apC) and Dependency-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (DpC) and the internalized and externalized problems. Results also showed that the maternal DpC and the paternal apC explain significantly the adolescents’ internalized problems. On the other hand, the maternal and paternal DpC explain significantly the adolescents’ criminal conduct.
      Acceso abierto
    • Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: New psychometric evidence for the Spanish version based on CFA and IRT models in a Peruvian sample

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; White, Michael; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Peña-Calero, Brian Norman; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo (Routledge, 2021-01-01)
      The aim of the study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), using Item Response Theory (IRT) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The participants were 790 Peruvians, selected through a convenience sampling, where the majority were women. The CFA models indicated that the one-dimensional structure better represents the data, is reliable and invariant between men and women. Likewise, IRT findings indicate that CAS is more informative for high levels of COVID-19 anxiety. The CAS in Spanish has adequate psychometric properties to be used as a short measure of COVID-19 anxiety.
      Acceso abierto
    • COVID-19 stressors and health behaviors: A multilevel longitudinal study across 86 countries

      Keng, Shian Ling; Stanton, Michael V.; Haskins, Lee Ann B.; Almenara, Carlos A.; Ickovics, Jeannette; Jones, Antwan; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Lemay, Edward P.; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Berisha Kida, Edona; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanovic, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane G.; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Maj, Marta; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta M.; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin (Elsevier Inc., 2022-06-01)
      Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few studies operationalized pandemic-related stressors to enable the investigation of the impact of different types of stressors on health outcomes. This study examined the association between perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and economic burden of COVID-19 with health-promoting and health-damaging behaviors using data from the PsyCorona Study: an international, longitudinal online study of psychological and behavioral correlates of COVID-19. Analyses utilized data from 7,402 participants from 86 countries across three waves of assessment between May 16 and June 13, 2020. Participants completed self-report measures of COVID-19 infection risk, COVID-19-related economic burden, physical exercise, diet quality, cigarette smoking, sleep quality, and binge drinking. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that across three time points, perceived economic burden was associated with reduced diet quality and sleep quality, as well as increased smoking. Diet quality and sleep quality were lowest among respondents who perceived high COVID-19 infection risk combined with high economic burden. Neither binge drinking nor exercise were associated with perceived COVID-19 infection risk, economic burden, or their interaction. Findings point to the value of developing interventions to address COVID-related stressors, which have an impact on health behaviors that, in turn, may influence vulnerability to COVID-19 and other health outcomes.
      Acceso abierto
    • Cross-cultural validation of the new version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in twelve Latin American countries

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen (Springer, 2022-01-01)
      The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) was recently developed to assess dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19. Although different studies reported that the CAS is psychometrically sound, it is unclear whether it is invariant across countries. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the CAS in twelve Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay). A total of 5196 people participated, with a mean age of 34.06 (SD = 26.54). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the measurement invariance of the CAS across countries and gender. Additionally, the graded response model (GRM) was used to provide a global representation of the representativeness of the scale with respect to the COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety construct. The unidimensional structure of the five-item CAS was not confirmed in all countries. Therefore, it was suggested that a four-item model of the CAS (CAS-4) provides a better fit across the twelve countries and reliable scores. Multigroup CFA showed that the CAS-4 exhibits scalar invariance across all twelve countries and all genders. In addition, the CAS-4 items are more informative at average and high levels of COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety than at lower levels. According to the results, the CAS-4 is an instrument with strong cross-cultural validity and is suitable for cross-cultural comparisons of COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety symptoms in the general population of the twelve Latin American countries evaluated.
      Acceso abierto
    • Determinants of Eye Care Service Utilization among Peruvian Adults: Evidence from a Nationwide Household Survey

      Barrenechea-Pulache, Antonio; Portocarrero-Bonifaz, Andres; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Portocarrero-Ramos, Carlos; Moscoso-Carrasco, Jenny (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021-01-01)
      Purpose: This study analyzes the factors associated with eye care service utilization among Peruvians 50 years of age and older, measured as self-reporting of having undergone examination of visual acuity during the last 12 months. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for its acronym in Spanish) database was carried out. We estimated the weighted proportion of adults 50 years of age and older that reported having undergone a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months and the frequency according to the variables of interest. Crude (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of eye care service utilization were constructed using generalized linear models. Results: Approximately 28.8% of Peruvians 50 years of age and older underwent a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months. Having a higher education (aPR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33–2.40), health insurance such as EsSalud (aPR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28–1.87), a previous diagnosis of cataracts (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.67–2.09) and being part of the richest wealth quintile (aPR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.74–3.20) were associated with greater utilization of eye care services, while living in the jungle was associated with a lower likelihood of utilization of these services. Conclusion: The unequal distribution of health resources within the territory and socioeconomic gaps among the population could explain our findings. Further efforts are needed to fulfill the eye health needs of the Peruvian population.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Docentes universitarios: Una mirada desde la autoeficacia general y engagement laboral

      Lozano-Paz, Carmen Rosa; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-05-16)
      This research aims at understanding general self-efficacy and work engagement of professors of the Psychology Program of a private university in metropolitan Lima. To reach this objective, in-depth interviews with seven professors were conducted: three of them were women and four were men. Based on those interviews, it was possible to understand what personal factors have helped said professors to carry out their work as well as with what they are engaged. Finally, it was concluded that professors have self-efficacy, as they assess their skills and their environment to achieve their goals. Another finding was that they are engaged with their teaching work, and this is based on their interaction with their students, since they do more research and are up-to-date with current practices in their field.
      Acceso abierto
    • Does the Spanish version of the SWLS measure the same in Spain and Peru?

      Sancho, Patricia; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Tomás, José M.; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Elsevier B.V., 2019-07)
      Aim Satisfaction with life is a measure of protection in older adults. There lies the importance of providing quality instruments. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invariance of the life satisfaction scale (SWLS) in two samples of older adults in Spain and Peru. Method The participants were 857 older adults in Spain (mean age = 68.23 years, SD = 5.93) and 336 older adults in Peru (average age = 72.42, SD = 7.07). All multi-group confirmatory factor analyzes were estimated in Mplus 8.0. Results The results indicate the presence of a strict invariance of the one-dimensional structure of the SWLS in samples of older adults in Spain and Peru, which allows for meaningful comparisons of latent means and covariances. Comparison of latent means showed small differences in the construct between the cultural groups. Conclusions The SWLS is a valid instrument for intercultural comparisons between Spanish and Peruvian population. The measurement invariance assessment contributes to a better understanding of life satisfaction in populations from different cultural contexts.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Economic Inequality Is Linked to Biased Self-Perception

      Loughnan, Steve; Kuppens, Peter; Allik, Jüri; Balazs, Katalin; De Lemus, Soledad; Dumont, Kitty; Gargurevich, Rafael; Hidegkuti, Istvan; Leidner, Bernhard; Matos, Lennia; Park, Joonha; Realo, Anu; Shi, Junqi; Sojo, Victor Eduardo; Yuk-yue Tong; Vaes, Jeroen; Verduyn, Philippe; Yeung, Victoria; Haslam, Nick; [email protected] (Association for Psychological Science, 2011-08-13)
      People’s self-perception biases often lead them to see themselves as better than the average person (a phenomenon known as self-enhancement). This bias varies across cultures, and variations are typically explained using cultural variables, such as individualism versus collectivism. We propose that socioeconomic differences among societies—specifically, relative levels of economic inequality—play an important but unrecognized role in how people evaluate themselves. Evidence for selfenhancement was found in 15 diverse nations, but the magnitude of the bias varied. Greater self-enhancement was found in societies with more income inequality, and income inequality predicted cross-cultural differences in self-enhancement better than did individualism/collectivism. These results indicate that macrosocial differences in the distribution of economic goods are linked to microsocial processes of perceiving the self.
      Acceso abierto
    • Emergency Remote Education Satisfaction during COVID-19 at a Public University in Central Andes, Peru with Low Resources and Little Online Teaching Experience

      Castro-Bedriñana, Jorge; Chirinos-Peinado, Doris; Castro-Chirinos, Gianfranco (Edam, 2022-04-14)
      Emergency measures to continue university activities during COVID-19 have affected student performance and satisfaction, especially in regions with scarce resources and little experience in virtual education. Online education is a new process for most universities in the interior of Peru, where digital transformation was null or incipient, affecting the learning effectiveness. The current research is based on a survey conducted in February 2021 in order to evaluate students’ perception about the quality of emergency remote learning measures introduced during the pandemic in 2020. The survey was distributed through the institutional emails of students and the responses were collected anonymously, following a systematic sampling. A total of 1029 respondents representing 38 professional careers of public referent university of the Central Andes of Peru participated in this survey. The survey focused on 28 criteria linked to the didactic, technological and psycho-affective dimensions. It aimed to collect scientific evidence to propose improvements in this pedagogical transition process. Associations between the variables studied were determined with χ2 tests and Spearman correlations, and to determine the regression coefficients and Odds Ratios of the variables associated with the highest degree of satisfaction with the emergency virtual classes, logistic regression was used. Thirty percent of students showed dissatisfaction, perceiving problems in the design of class materials, feedback, e-learning support, development of practical and laboratory activities, and teaching performance; 25% were satisfied and 45% had a neutral perception. About 30% felt frustrated with their virtual classes. The highest OR for a higher degree of satisfaction fell on the impact of courses for professional training, student care services, support for online learning, and feedback mechanisms. To improve the quality of virtual learning in the post-pandemic period, the study recommends to transform the face-to-face model to a virtual or blended model, taking advantage of the variety of information, and communication to improve the quality of higher education.
      Acceso restringido temporalmente
    • Espiritualidad e Inteligencia Emocional en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho

      Vílchez Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Miguel-Rojas, Josselyn; Vílchez-Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica – IPOPS, 2018-05)
      Esta investigación pretende hallar la correlación existente entre Inteligencia Emocional (IE) y Espiritualidad en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho. Se optó por un método cuantitativo, de diseño transaccional de tipo correlacional. Para ello se contó con una muestra de 195 estudiantes universitarios de dos universidades privadas ayacuchanas, de los cuales el 41% son varones y el 59% son mujeres, con un rango de edad entre 18 a 38 años (m = 20.43). Se aplicó el Cuestionario del Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 para y el Cuestionario de Espiritualidad; ambos adaptados a la población peruana. Se analizaron las correlaciones de las dimensiones de ambas variables; obteniendo correlaciones positivas entre todas las dimensiones de IE con las dimensiones de Espiritualidad. Asimismo, los análisis realizados evidencian que se encuentra diferencias significativas en la valoración explícita de la espiritualidad según sexo; específicamente las mujeres puntúan más en este aspecto. También se puede destacar que la dimensión de autoconciencia del cuestionario de Espiritualidad presenta las correlaciones más fuertes con las dimensiones de Inteligencia Emocional.
      Acceso abierto