• Adaptación de la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en estudiantes universitarios peruanos

      Guzmán-Yacaman1, Jaime Enrique; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2018-06)
      El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en validar la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en una muestra peruana de universitarios de un programa nacional de becas. El proceso de adaptación consideró la doble traducción a partir de la versión original, la comparación lingüística con la adaptación chilena y mexicana, así como la revisión por jueces. Asimismo, se aplicó una prueba piloto. Los participantes fueron 332 becarios universitarios. Los resultados del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio confirmaron el modelo bifactorial de la EPGE-13. Asimismo, se obtuvieron evidencias de validez divergente y convergente utilizando el SPANAS. La confiabilidad estimada de los puntajes generados por el instrumento fueron α=.79 para el factor de eustrés y α= .77 para el factor de distrés. Los resultados demográficos indicaron mayor presencia de estrés percibido en mujeres que en hombres. No se observaron diferencias entre el estrés y el lugar de procedencia.
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    • Apoyo organizacional percibido y compromiso organizacional en una empresa privada de Lima, Perú

      Flores M., Jessica; Ingrid, Gómez V. (Ajayu, 2018-03)
      En la presenta investigación se busca determinar la correlación entre las variables Apoyo Organizacional Percibido y Compromiso Organizacional en una institución privada de Lima. Se utilizó una muestra representativa de 135 teleoperadores de una empresa dedicada a un call center. La muestra estuvo conformada por un 56% de mujeres y un 44% de hombres, la edad promedio de ambos sexos fue de 24 años, el 73% ha nacido en Lima, el 26% en provincia y el 1% en el extranjero. Asimismo, en esta investigación se empleó la escala de Apoyo Organizacional Percibido de Eisenberger (1986) y la escala de Compromiso Organizacional de Meyer y Allen (1991). En esta investigación se concluyó que efectivamente el apoyo organizacional percibido y el compromiso organizacional presentan una relación positiva. La permanencia de un colaborador en la empresa dependerá de la percepción positiva de apoyo organizacional y la conformidad con el trabajo. Asimismo, si la persona tiene una percepción negativa de apoyo organizacional es muy probable que se sienta disconforme con su trabajo y por ende, abandone su puesto de trabajo.
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    • Assessment of Fear of COVID-19 in Older Adults: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel; Ventura-León, José; Gallegos, Miguel; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Vilca, Lindsey W. (Springer, 2021-01-01)
      There is no information in Peru on the prevalence of mental health problems associated with COVID-19 in older adults. In this sense, the aim of the study was to gather evidence on the factor structure, criterion-related validity, and reliability of the Spanish version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in this population. The participants were 400 older adults (mean age = 68.04, SD = 6.41), who were administered the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Revised Mental Health Inventory-5, Patient Health Questionnaire-2 items, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale 2 items. Structural equation models were estimated, specifically confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), bifactor CFA, and structural models with latent variables (SEM). Internal consistency was estimated with composite reliability indexes (CRI) and omega coefficients. A bifactor model with both a general factor underlying all items plus a specific factor underlying items 1, 2, 4, and 5 representing the emotional response to COVID better represents the factor structure of the scale. This structure had adequate fit and good reliability, and additionally fear of COVID had a large effect on mental health. In general, women had more fear than men, having more information on COVID was associated to more fear, while having family or friends affected by COVID did not related to fear of the virus. The Spanish version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale presents evidence of validity and reliability to assess fear of COVID-19 in the Peruvian older adult population.
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    • Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers’ and Siblings’ Psychological Need Satisfaction

      Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (SAGE Publications, 2015-09-23)
      Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother–child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers’ psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics.
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    • Contemporary Perspective on Addictive Behaviors: Underpinning Mechanisms, Assessment, and Treatment

      Cimino, Silvia; Almenara, Carlos A.; Cerniglia, Luca; Desousa, Avinash; Maremmani, Angelo G. I. (Hindawi, 2018-06)
      Carta al editor
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    • Control Psicológico Parental y Problemas Internalizados y Externalizados en Adolescentes de Lima Metropolitana [Article]

      Solis Calcina, G.L.; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; eduardo.manzanares@upc.pe (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2019-01)
      The paper presents the results of a study of the relation between parental psychological control and the internalized and externalized problems of a group of 170 adolescents (58.2 % males), between the ages of 13 and 17, from a private school in Lima, Peru. The Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DapCS-S) and the Youth Self Report (ySR) inventory were used. Findings showed a positive and significant correlation between Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (apC) and Dependency-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (DpC) and the internalized and externalized problems. Results also showed that the maternal DpC and the paternal apC explain significantly the adolescents’ internalized problems. On the other hand, the maternal and paternal DpC explain significantly the adolescents’ criminal conduct.
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    • Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: New psychometric evidence for the Spanish version based on CFA and IRT models in a Peruvian sample

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; White, Michael; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Peña-Calero, Brian Norman; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo (Routledge, 2021-01-01)
      The aim of the study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), using Item Response Theory (IRT) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The participants were 790 Peruvians, selected through a convenience sampling, where the majority were women. The CFA models indicated that the one-dimensional structure better represents the data, is reliable and invariant between men and women. Likewise, IRT findings indicate that CAS is more informative for high levels of COVID-19 anxiety. The CAS in Spanish has adequate psychometric properties to be used as a short measure of COVID-19 anxiety.
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    • Docentes universitarios: Una mirada desde la autoeficacia general y engagement laboral

      Lozano-Paz, Carmen Rosa; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-05-16)
      This research aims at understanding general self-efficacy and work engagement of professors of the Psychology Program of a private university in metropolitan Lima. To reach this objective, in-depth interviews with seven professors were conducted: three of them were women and four were men. Based on those interviews, it was possible to understand what personal factors have helped said professors to carry out their work as well as with what they are engaged. Finally, it was concluded that professors have self-efficacy, as they assess their skills and their environment to achieve their goals. Another finding was that they are engaged with their teaching work, and this is based on their interaction with their students, since they do more research and are up-to-date with current practices in their field.
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    • Does the Spanish version of the SWLS measure the same in Spain and Peru?

      Sancho, Patricia; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Tomás, José M.; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Elsevier B.V., 2019-07)
      Aim Satisfaction with life is a measure of protection in older adults. There lies the importance of providing quality instruments. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invariance of the life satisfaction scale (SWLS) in two samples of older adults in Spain and Peru. Method The participants were 857 older adults in Spain (mean age = 68.23 years, SD = 5.93) and 336 older adults in Peru (average age = 72.42, SD = 7.07). All multi-group confirmatory factor analyzes were estimated in Mplus 8.0. Results The results indicate the presence of a strict invariance of the one-dimensional structure of the SWLS in samples of older adults in Spain and Peru, which allows for meaningful comparisons of latent means and covariances. Comparison of latent means showed small differences in the construct between the cultural groups. Conclusions The SWLS is a valid instrument for intercultural comparisons between Spanish and Peruvian population. The measurement invariance assessment contributes to a better understanding of life satisfaction in populations from different cultural contexts.
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    • Economic Inequality Is Linked to Biased Self-Perception

      Loughnan, Steve; Kuppens, Peter; Allik, Jüri; Balazs, Katalin; De Lemus, Soledad; Dumont, Kitty; Gargurevich, Rafael; Hidegkuti, Istvan; Leidner, Bernhard; Matos, Lennia; Park, Joonha; Realo, Anu; Shi, Junqi; Sojo, Victor Eduardo; Yuk-yue Tong; Vaes, Jeroen; Verduyn, Philippe; Yeung, Victoria; Haslam, Nick; s.loughnan@kent.ac.uk (Association for Psychological Science, 2011-08-13)
      People’s self-perception biases often lead them to see themselves as better than the average person (a phenomenon known as self-enhancement). This bias varies across cultures, and variations are typically explained using cultural variables, such as individualism versus collectivism. We propose that socioeconomic differences among societies—specifically, relative levels of economic inequality—play an important but unrecognized role in how people evaluate themselves. Evidence for selfenhancement was found in 15 diverse nations, but the magnitude of the bias varied. Greater self-enhancement was found in societies with more income inequality, and income inequality predicted cross-cultural differences in self-enhancement better than did individualism/collectivism. These results indicate that macrosocial differences in the distribution of economic goods are linked to microsocial processes of perceiving the self.
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    • Espiritualidad e Inteligencia Emocional en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho

      Vílchez Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Miguel-Rojas, Josselyn; Vílchez-Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica – IPOPS, 2018-05)
      Esta investigación pretende hallar la correlación existente entre Inteligencia Emocional (IE) y Espiritualidad en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho. Se optó por un método cuantitativo, de diseño transaccional de tipo correlacional. Para ello se contó con una muestra de 195 estudiantes universitarios de dos universidades privadas ayacuchanas, de los cuales el 41% son varones y el 59% son mujeres, con un rango de edad entre 18 a 38 años (m = 20.43). Se aplicó el Cuestionario del Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 para y el Cuestionario de Espiritualidad; ambos adaptados a la población peruana. Se analizaron las correlaciones de las dimensiones de ambas variables; obteniendo correlaciones positivas entre todas las dimensiones de IE con las dimensiones de Espiritualidad. Asimismo, los análisis realizados evidencian que se encuentra diferencias significativas en la valoración explícita de la espiritualidad según sexo; específicamente las mujeres puntúan más en este aspecto. También se puede destacar que la dimensión de autoconciencia del cuestionario de Espiritualidad presenta las correlaciones más fuertes con las dimensiones de Inteligencia Emocional.
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    • Estudio comparativo del acuerdo y consistencia intercalificadores en el test gestáltico visomotor de Bender 2.a edición

      Merino Soto, César; Calderón De la Cruz, Gustavo; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; sikayax@yahoo.com.ar (Elsevier B.V., 2016-09)
      El estudio tiene por objetivo contrastar la efectividad de calificadores sin entrenamiento específico en el test gestáltico visomotor de Bender, 2.a edición (Bender-II), usando un método para calificar el grado de exactitud de los dibujos reproducidos propio de este instrumento (sistema de calificación global). Algunos estudios previos han demostrado buenos niveles de confiabilidad intercalificador, pero no se verificó el efecto de la falta de entrenamiento específico. En el estudio participaron 75 niños divididos en dos grupos (34 y 41) de edad y cuatro calificadores (dos estudiantes y dos egresados, todos de psicología). Después de aplicar el test individualmente, los calificadores recibieron la instrucción de puntuar los dibujos usando únicamente el manual como guía, sin interactuar entre ellos. Se hicieron comparaciones intragrupo e intergrupos. Aunque los resultados indicaron algunas diferencias moderadas entre los grupos, principalmente se hallaron niveles altos de acuerdo y consistencia; y comparado con los estudios previos, las diferencias generalmente no fueron sustanciales. Se concluye que el puntaje visomotor del Bender-II puede alcanzar buenos niveles de confiabilidad.
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    • Evidencias psicométricas de una versión breve de la Coping HumorScale en adultos mayores peruanosTomás

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Arias Gallegos, Walter L; Domínguez-Vergara, Julio; Azabache-Alvarado, Karla; Reyes Bossio, Mario; tomas.caycho@upn.pe (Elsevier B.V., 2018-02)
      Introducción: El humor tiene un papel importante en la promoción de un envejecimiento exitoso y saluda-ble. Sin embargo, su estudio científico es aún limitado, en parte debido a la ausencia de medidas validadaspara su uso en el ámbito latinoamericano. El objetivo del estudio fue traducir al espa˜nol y examinar lasevidencias de fiabilidad y validez basadas en la estructura interna, convergente y discriminante de laversión peruana de la Coping with Humor Scale-5 ítems.Materiales y métodos: Los participantes fueron 236 adultos mayores peruanos (78,4% mujeres y 21,6%hombres) con un promedio de edad de 72,8 años (DE = 6,90).
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    • Experiencia Emocional Subjetiva en Deportistas Extremos: Estudio Cualitativo Emotional Subjective Experience in Extreme Sports Participants: A Qualitative Study Experiência Emocional Subjetiva em Atletas Extremos: Um Estudo Qualitativo

      Guedeat, Cajina; Bossio, Reyes (Universidad de Murcia Servicio de Publicaciones, 2021-01-01)
      Participants in extreme sports have usually been studied from a risk perspective. The present study seeks to move away from this preconception and aims to study the emotional subjective experience. A qualitative methodology with phenomenological-hermeneutic design was used taking as a tool conversational systems. The informants were 8 extreme athletes belonging to the same group. Extreme sports included were: Mountain climbing, rappelling, bungee jumping, and mountaineering. The results indicate that fear is a generator of freedom, it can be useful, it is rewarding and it is also a promoter of personal transformations. This research gives theoretical value to the reason for involvement in extreme sports.
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    • Factorial validity and invariance analysis of the five items version of Mindful Awareness Attention Scale in older adults

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Ventura- León, José; Carranza Esteban, Renzo Felipe; Oblitas Guadalupe, Luís A.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; García Cadena, Cirilo H.; Cabrera-Orosco, Isabel (Routledge, 2020-01-01)
      Objective: Mindfulness or the full attention state is a factor that contributes to the successful process of aging. This study aims to evaluate the evidence of validity, on the basis of the internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, reliability and factorial invariance across gender, for the five items Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) within a sample of older adults. Methods: The participants were 323 Peruvian older adults, consisting of 160 women and 163 men, whose average ages were 68.58 (S.D = 7.23) and 68.91 years (S.D = 7.12), respectively. In addition to the MAAS-5, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 were administered. Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicates that the one-factor structure of the MAAS-5 presents adequate fit for the total sample (χ2 = 11.24, df = 5, χ2/df = 2.25, CFI =.99, RMSEA =.06 [90%CI:.01,.11]; and SRMR =.025), as well as for the sub-samples of men and women. This one-factor solution presents adequate internal consistency (ω = 80 [95%CI:.76 -.82]) and it is invariant across gender. Regarding convergent validity, high scores in the MAAS are associated with a greater satisfaction with life (r =.88, p<.01 [95%CI:.85,.95]) and less depression (r = −.56, p<.01 [95%CI: −.48, −.77]) in older adults. Conclusions: The preliminary results back the use of the MAAS-5 as a self-report measure of mindfulness that has an adequate unifactorial structure that is reliable and invariant across gender for measuring the full attention state in elderly Peruvians.
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    • How geography influences complex cognitive ability

      Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (Elsevier B.V., 2015-05-20)
      Evolutionary explanations for geography's influence on complex cognitive ability (CCA) imply virtually immutable components of between-nation IQ differences. Their weight vis-à-vis the weight of situational components was evaluated through an analysis of a 194-country data set. Additive effects of absolute latitude (AL) and longitudinal distance from Homo sapiens' cradle (LDC) explain Northeastern Asian higher, Sub-Saharan African lower CCAs. AL exerts cognitive influence directly and through socioeconomic development and evolutionary genetics whereas LDC does through evolutionary genetics; however, this occurs differently in Africa-Near East- Europe and elsewhere. The findings are understood assuming supremacy of contemporary UVB radiation → hormonal and climatic → socioeconomic mediators of the AL–CCA linkage whose effects are moderated by heterogeneous genetic and cultural adaptations to radiation and climate. Geography's cognitive effects are dynamic and public-policy actions may modify them.
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    • Inteligencia emocional en Estudiantes de Comunicación: Estudio Comparativo bajo el Modelo de Educación por Competencias

      Palomino Flores, Paola; Almenara, Carlos A (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplciadas, 2019-06-15)
      inteligencia emocional (IE) de estudiantes según el nivel de logro esperado de competencias. Participaron 313 estudiantes (M = 20.20 años, D.E. = 2.41; 61% mujeres) de ciencias de la comunicación de una universidad privada de Lima (Perú) que utiliza el Modelo de Educación por Competencias. La IE se midió con la Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). El nivel de logro de competencias agrupa a los estudiantes en: “logro inicial” (participantes de los primeros tres semestres académicos, 45.7% del total) y “logro superior” (cuarto a décimo semestre). Se encontró diferencias de género en IE, por lo que los análisis comparativos se realizaron separados por género. En los hombres no se encontró diferencias de IE entre grupos (logro inicial y logro superior). Por el contrario, las mujeres de logro inicial puntuaron más alto que el grupo de mujeres de logro superior en: evaluación emocional de los demás, uso de emociones y en el puntaje total de IE. Se sugiere la necesidad de incorporar la competencia de IE dentro del modelo educativo de esta institución académica, así como realizar estudios longitudinales.
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    • Jerarquía de valores entre estudiantes de secundaria de colegio religioso y colegio laico de Lima

      Raiza García Anchorena; Grimaldo, Mirian; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; pcpsemam@upc.edu.pe (Universidad de San Martín de Porres, 2016-12-25)
      The purpose of this research was to compare the hierarchy of values among high school students, according to type of school (religious and secular) and sex. The sample was composed by 250 high school students (60.4% male, 52% religious school). The ages are in the range of 14 to 17 years (M = 15.47, SD = 0.63). The instrument used was the Portrait Value Questionnaire by Schwartz (2001), whose analysis of structure and internal consistency was satisfactory. To compare the hierarchy of values between the groups, top down correlations (rtd >) were used. According to the results, greater association (similarity) was found between the hierarchy of values depending on the type of school (rtd = .82) and, to a lesser degree by sex (rtd = .69). The comparative results show greater Benevolence, Self-Direction, Stimulation among women and Achievement among men. The implications of the comparative results are discussed.
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    • Muscle dysmorphia symptomatology and related factors

      Sanchez-Castro, Ana Elena; Cook-del Águilaa, Lorella; Yacila Huaman, Giuliana Angélica; Tejada Caminiti, Romina Arely; Reyes Bossio, Mario; Mayta-Tristán, Percy (RMTA, 2019-01)
      Muscle dysmorphia is an obsessive-compulsive disorder subcategorized as a body dysmorphic disorder. Studies in Latin America have assessed the prevalence of muscle dysmorphia in bodybuilders and gym users. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of muscle dysmorphia symptomatology (MDS) and associated factors in university male students in Lima, Peru. The participants (N = 618) had an average age of 21.0 years (DS = 2.3). We assessed MDS through the Muscular Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders through the Yale-Brown Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorders (BDD-YBOCS). We also tested participants on their food consumption and physical activity (PA) frequency. The prevalence of MDS was 1.3% (IC 95% = 0.4-2.2%) . associated with factors such as intense PA defined as more than five hours per week (PRa = 9.5; 95% CI = 1.1-84.4) and a hyperproteic diet (PRa = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6). Thirty-two percent of participants consumed protein supplements. Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder present in the general population. However, more research must be done to understand how this is an emerging problem in Latin America. Therefore, to influence its prevention and early identification among the university population, it is necessary to deepen the understanding.
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    • Obsession with Covid-19 in Peruvian police and armed forces: Validation of the obsession with Covid-19 Scale in Spanish using SEM and IRT models

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Heredia-Mongrut, José; Gallegos, Miguel; Portillo, Nelson; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel (Routledge, 2021-01-01)
      The study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) in 214 police and members of the armed forces (M age = 29.33 years, SD = 11.28). The one-dimensionality and satisfactory reliability of OCS were confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis, Item Response Theory analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and McDonald’s omega. The scale is useful for identifying individuals with low levels of persistent and disturbing thoughts about COVID-19. COVID-19 obsession was associated with COVID-19 fear, anxiety, and depression. The OCS is suitable for investigating the psychological impact of COVID-19 on members of the police and armed forces.
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