Now showing items 21-40 of 121


      Cárcamo-La Torre, F.; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Didactic Asociation Andalucia, 2022-09-01)
      The present study aims to identify the influence of the Taekwondo program "Pateando Alto" on empathy in fourth and fifth grade children in a private school in San Miguel. The program consisted of eight sessions of one hour and 30 minutes duration. The sample was made up of 53 fourth and fifth grade students (M = 9.60 years, DE = .566). Empathy was measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Carrazco et al., 2011), before and after the application of the program. The participants were divided into an experimental group and two control groups, according to their availability. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the empathy scores of the experimental group before and after the application of the program, however, the effect size fluctuated between low and medium, evidencing an effect on empathy. The implication of this research is that it can be used as a basis for later programs that can work on the factors that make up empathy in greater depth and with the joint participation of parents and teachers..
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    • Psychometric Properties of the Proactive Personality Scale in schoolteachers in Lima (Peru)

      Bojorquez-Paucar, Josselyn María; Cáceres-Julcahuanca, Laura Miluska; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel (Universidad CES, 2022-09-16)
      The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Proactive Personality Scale in a sample of teachers from schools in Lima (Peru). Participants were 302 teachers of both sexes (72.20% women) selected through a non-probabilistic sampling of intentional type, whose ages were in the range from 24 to 65 (M = 43.04, DE = 10.75) and who taught at the educational levels of primary and secondary education (75.83% in secondary education). In addition to the Proactive Personality Scale, the Teachers Self Efficacy Scale was applied to assess convergent validity. The results indicate that the Proactive Personality Scale was adjusted to a unifactorial structure (CFI = .949, TLI = .934, RMSEA = .076 y SRMR = .044), there are statistically significant correlations (p <.001) and with a mean effect size (rs> .10) with most of the dimensions of self-efficacy feeling and adequate internal consistency (.89). The Proactive Personality Scale has evidence of validity based on internal structure, convergent validity, and adequate reliability to measure proactive personality in schoolteachers.
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    • Gender Differences of University Students in the Online Teaching Quality and Psychological Profile during the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Nomie-Sato, Simone; Condes Moreno, Emilia; Villanueva, Adriana Rico; Chiarella, Pascual; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose Francisco; Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier (MDPI, 2022-11-01)
      With the arrival of COVID-19, educational systems have had to adapt to the social and health situation immediately. This led to the appearance of the asynchronous teaching model. Throughout the pandemic, at the educational level, we can distinguish three phases, eminently online, hybrid, and finally, face-to-face. However, the perception of educational quality in these three educational moments, taking into account the psychometric profile and gender, has not been studied. Thus, 1093 university students from Ibero-American countries were analyzed. Through a questionnaire, demographic, academic, and psychological variables were analyzed at three moments during the evolution of the pandemic. Data suggest that, during the lockdown phase, while teaching was eminently online, students presented higher levels of stress and higher difficulty of learning; class attendance, convenience, preferred method of learning, grading score, and motivation were lower, compared to other phases of teaching (hybrid and face-to-face). During this period, females presented higher stress levels than males, as well as higher levels of anxiety and loneliness, without gender differences among the other studied variables. During the hybrid and face-to-face phases, male students presented higher values in the results of difficulty learning and demanding activities. No differences were seen regarding motivation, synchronous class attendance, learning level, grades, convenience, or preferred learning method. The results from the present study suggest that, despite the effect of the pandemic on mental health, asynchronous education is postulated as an effective teaching–learning alternative. Yet, a special focus should be given to female students.
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    • Relationship between resilience, optimism, and burnout in Pan-American athletes

      Tutte-Vallarino, Veronica; Malán-Ernst, Estefanía; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Peinado-Portero, Ana; de Álvaro, Julio Imbernón; Ortín Montero, Francisco José; Garcés de Los Fayos Ruiz, Enrique J. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-11-14)
      Aim: A series of knowledge has been developed on burnout syndrome in the sports context that has allowed to generate a solid theoretical structure that requires new contributions to delve into those aspects that have been less addressed, as is the case of optimism and resilience when it comes to linking them to the syndrome in top-performance athletes. For this purpose, the Burnout Inventory for Athletes (IBD-r), the Resilience Scale adapted to Spanish, and the Life Orientation Scale-Revised (LOT-R) for optimism were used. Methods: From this perspective, the study was approached with 121 Uruguayan athletes who participated in the last Pan-American Games, assuming practically all the subjects who have this level of sport (142) considering gender and type of sport. Results: The results indicate that 67% of the sample presents burnout symptoms for the emotional exhaustion dimension, and moderate resilience and optimism. Although there are no significant differences attributable to gender or type of sport, this contribution allows us to continue focusing on future work and further analysis. The type of sport presented statistically significant differences in relation to the personal competence dimension and the type of sport. Conclusion: Resilience and optimism obtained a clear influence on the occurrence of burnout, in a statistically negative sense, showing themselves as interesting prevention strategies for future lines of research, where it is essential to design interventions that teach emotional skills to manage adversity and prevent burnout. Copyright
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    • Cross-cultural validity of the five items Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) in Peru and Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Zapparigli, Emilio Lafferrnaderie; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Castaman, Luis Alberto Olavarria; Pino, Giovana Lourdes Hernandez; Sanchez, Raymundo Calderon; Barbosa-Granados, Sergio (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-12-01)
      The Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) is a brief measure of the general tendency to be attentive and aware of experiences in the present moment during daily life. The MAAS-5 has been used in different countries; however, an assessment of its cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) has not been conducted. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the MAAS-5 in university students from two countries: Peru and Mexico. A total of 1144 university students from Peru (N = 822) and Mexico (N = 322) responded online to the Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Measurement invariance tests the hypothesis that the model behind a set of scores is comparable between groups. The results showed that the unidimensional structure of the MAAS-5 is the same between Peruvian and Mexican university students. Therefore, it is suggested that university students from both countries conceptualize the mindfulness in a similar way. As a result, the MAAS-5 can be used to compare differences between countries. No significant differences were observed in the MAAS-5 score between Peruvian and Mexican university students. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the psychometric properties of the MAAS-5 by presenting MI results in two Latin American countries. Implications of the findings are discussed, which will facilitate a more solid and reliable use of the MAAS-5 in future cross-cultural studies.
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    • Psychometric properties of the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) among a French–Canadian adult sample

      Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Almenara, Carlos A.; Gagnon, Cynthia; Barrada, Juan Ramón (pringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-12-01)
      Background: Psychometric properties of the Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) have been examined in several languages (Arabic, English, Portuguese, Spanish, and Turkish), but not in French. Purpose: The objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the TOS among a French-Canadian adult sample. Methods: Participants were 296 French-speaking Canadian adults (M = 34.2 years, SD = 11.9, 85.1% women). They completed the TOS alongside with several other measures (e.g., alcoholic consumption, cigarette smoking, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, frequency of physical activities, intuitive eating, vegetarian diet, and negative affect). Results: The results supported the a priori two-factor representation (orthorexia nervosa and healthy orthorexia) of the French version of the TOS and provided further support for the superiority of an exploratory structural equation modeling approach, relative to a confirmatory factor analytic approach. Furthermore, the results supported no differential item functioning as a function of respondents’ characteristics (age, body mass index, diagnosis of eating disorders, frequency of physical activities, gender, and vegetarian diet). Latent mean differences were found in healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa factors as a function of respondents’ characteristics. Finally, significant correlations were found between TOS factors and convergent measures (alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, intuitive eating, and negative affect). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that the French version of the TOS has satisfactory psychometric properties (i.e., factor validity and reliability, no differential item functioning, and convergent validity). Level of evidence: V, cross-sectional study.
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    • Mental health in adolescents: Internet, social networks and psychopathology

      Regalado Chamorro, Mónica; Medina Gamero, Aldo; Tello Cabello, Raquel (Elsevier Espana S.L.U, 2022-12-01)
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    • Psychometric evidence of a new short version in Spanish of the COVID-19 impact scale: A study based on confirmatory factor analysis, graded response model, multigroup analysis, and path analysis

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Gallegos, Miguel; Esteban, Renzo Carranza; Noe-Grijalva, Martin (Modestum LTD, 2022-12-01)
      The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the psychometric evidence of the Spanish version of the COVID-19 impact scale in the general population of Peru, to measure psychological stress responses produced by the COVID-19 pandemic, including emotional responses and difficulty in performing activities of daily living. Participants were 601 Peruvians, who responded to an online survey consisting of questions designed to collect sociodemographic data, the CIS and the fear of COVID-19 scale. The forward and backward translation method was used to translate the English version into Spanish. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response model was used to estimate the discrimination (a) and difficulty (b) parameters of the items. Multi-group CFA was used to assess measurement invariance. Regarding validity based on the validity in relation to other variables, an explanatory model was proposed using the SEM path method. The unidimensional structure of the 10-item CIS was not confirmed. Therefore, it was suggested that a six-item model of the CIS (CIS-6) provides a better fit and reliable score. The multigroup CFA showed that the CIS-6 does not exhibit measurement invariance between males and females. In addition, the CIS-6 items present adequate discrimination and difficulty indices. A higher presence of the latent trait (in this case, perception of the impact of COVID-19) is required to answer the higher response categories. The findings would help to assess those individuals more prone to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and to have evidence for the development of interventions aimed at decreasing the impact.
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    • The Monkeypox Fear Scale: development and initial validation in a Peruvian sample

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Gallegos, Miguel; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Noe-Grijalva, Martin; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Águeda (BioMed Central Ltd, 2022-12-01)
      Background: Fear is one of the basic emotions generated during periods of infectious diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale that assesses monkeypox fear, the Monkeypox Fear Scale (MFS). Methods: A total of 451 Peruvians participated (61% women and 39% men), with a mean age of 28.31 years (SD = 9.72). based on procedures from classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) procedures were used. Results: The results showed that MFS has a two-factor structure related to emotional and physiological fear factors (χ2 = 41.87; df = 12; p <.001; CFI =.99; TLI =.99; RMSEA =.074 [IC90%.051–.100]). In addition, the physiological and emotional factors showed good reliability. Measurement invariance analysis showed that the factor structure of the MFS is strictly invariant between male and female groups. Finally, the discrimination and difficulty parameters of the items show adequacy. In addition, the scale seems to be more accurate in measuring high levels of fear of monkeypox. Conclusion: The MFS has adequate psychometric evidence to assess fear of monkeypox in the Peruvian population. These findings may guide future studies related to the consequences of monkeypox on mental health.
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    • Cultural Differences between University Students in Online Learning Quality and Psychological Profile during COVID-19

      Sato, Simone Nomie; Condes Moreno, Emilia; Rico Villanueva, Adriana; Orquera Miranda, Paulo; Chiarella, Pascual; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose Francisco; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier (MDPI, 2022-12-01)
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational systems had to adapt to the social and health situation immediately. This led to the appearance of the asynchronous teaching model. Throughout the pandemic at an educational level, we can distinguish three phases, eminently online, hybrid, and face-to-face. However, the perception of educational quality in these three educational moments, considering the psychometric profile and cultural differences comparing Ibero-American countries, has not been studied. The study aims to analyze the psychological profile, and perception of quality in the teaching–learning processes at the university stage, during the three processes of educational transition during COVID-19: online, hybrid, and face-to-face. Thus, 1093 university students from Ibero-American countries were studied. Through a questionnaire, demographic, academic, and psychological variables were analyzed during three phases of the pandemic. Data suggest that Latin American students had higher levels of trait anxiety and stress perception, as well as higher levels of loneliness, during the online teaching phase (lockdown), but higher grades and higher levels of motivation compared to Europeans. Indeed, Latin Americans showed greater convenience, and preference for online learning methods. However, during the face-to-face teaching phase, European students presented greater motivation and grades, showing a greater preference for this method of learning than Latin American students. Factors such as resilience, a more unfavorable and pronounced pandemic evolution, and greater social inequities, may explain the present results. Furthermore, the present study suggests that despite the effect of the pandemic on mental health, online education is postulated as an effective teaching–learning alternative. Indeed, online teaching models have come to stay, not as a substitute, but as a tool, an essential focus of attention on these models should be conducted in European countries, while the governments of Latin American countries ensure that the infrastructures and resources are equitable to be able to correctly implement this teaching model.
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    • Effects of psychological interventions on high sports performance: A systematic review

      Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Corcuera-Bustamante, Santiago; Veliz-Salinas, Giancarlo; Villas Boas Junior, Marcelo; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Brocca-Alvarado, Paul; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Casas-Apayco, Leslie; Tutte-Vallarino, Veronica; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Brandão, Regina (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-12-20)
      Introduction: Intervention programs in sports psychology aid to modify the thoughts and behaviors of athletes in order to improve their performance in sports settings. For high-performance athletes, these interventions are very relevant, given that they constantly face pressure towards obtaining sporting achievements. Methods: This systematic review aims to analyze the scientific articles between 2010 and 2020 that evaluated the effect of psychological interventions on high-performance athletes. In the search procedure, nine studies were selected, the most studied variables were psychological skills, psychological flexibility, and stress. Results: The 44% of the interventions were designed by the research authors themselves, while the remaining 56% were replicated programs, which already had scientific evidence. Discussion: Psychological interventions have a positive impact on sports performance. This review allows sports institutions and professionals to have more knowledge and resources at their disposal to implement these types of programs in their sports planning.
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    • A Psychometric Analysis of the Spanish Version of the Grief Impairment Scale: A Screening Tool of Biopsychosocial Grief-Related Functional Impairment in a Salvadoran Sample

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Lee, Sherman A.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Flores-Monterrosa, Angélica Nohemy; Tejada Rodríguez, Jennyfer Carolina; Chacón-Andrade, Edgardo René; Marroquín-Carpio, Wendy Carolina; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Torales, Julio (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
      The objective of this study was to translate and psychometrically evaluate a Spanish version of the Grief Impairment Scale (GIS) using a sample of bereaved adults from El Salvador (N = 579). The results confirm the unidimensional structure of the GIS, and solid reliability, item characteristics, and criterion-related validity, where the GIS scale significantly and positively predicts depression. However, this instrument only showed evidence of configural and metric invariance between different sex groups. Overall, these results support the Spanish version of the GIS as a psychometrically sound screening tool for health professionals and researchers to use in their clinical work.
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    • Does the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Measure Coronaphobia the Same Way for Mourners With and Without Dysfunctional Grief?

      Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Marroquín-Carpio, Wendy Carolina; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Lee, Sherman A.; Tejada Rodríguez, Jennyfer Carolina; Flores-Monterrosa, Angélica Nohemy; Valencia, Pablo D.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Torales, Julio; Reyes-Bossio, Mario (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
      Deaths from COVID-19 have exceeded 6.5 million people globally. Although many people are mourning the loss of loved ones to this deadly disease, little is known about the validity of measuring coronavirus-related anxiety with this particular group of people. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine if the coronavirus anxiety scale (CAS) measures the coronaphobia construct the same way for mourners with and without dysfunctional levels of grief. The results indicated that the four-item version of the CAS has acceptable fit indices and is partially invariant between people with dysfunctional and non-dysfunctional grief. Moreover, the CAS demonstrated adequate criterion validity and reliability with this group of bereaved adults. In conclusion, the CAS can be used to measure anxiety due to COVID-19 in people who are going through dysfunctional and non-dysfunctional grieving processes.
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    • Anxiety in teachers in the COVID-19 context of two universities in the Ica region

      Jurado-Enríquez, Elizabeth; VARGAS-PRADO, KELLY; JURADO-RETAMOSO, PATRICIA (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-03-03)
      University teachers are a fundamental part of the process of academic and personal training of future professionals. The methodology is quantitative, basic at a comparative level where the difference between the levels of anxiety in the teachers of both universities is analysed. It has a comparative descriptive design and its method was hypothetical deductive. The sample consisted of 57 teachers from two private universities in the Ica region in Peru, chosen by non-probabilistic sampling. The instrument was the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) composed of 21 items applied through a virtual, anonymous, confidential, and voluntary form. The results showed that 73.7% of teachers have no presence of anxiety, 21.1% have a mild level and 5.3% have a moderate level. It was found that there are no significant differences in anxiety between the teachers of these two universities; having obtained a p-value of 0.275. The conclusion the highest percentage of teachers of both universities do not show symptoms related to anxiety. Finally, future research is pending to continue comparing anxiety levels.
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    • Love, jealousy, satisfaction and violence in young couples: A network analysis

      Ventura-León, José; Lino-Cruz, Cristopher (Public Library of Science, 2023-05-01)
      In recent years, couples have been affected by health measures related to COVID-19, a circumstance that forces us to examine couple interactions in terms of crucial variables of their functioning. In this sense, the present study aimed to examine the association between love, jealousy, satisfaction, and violence in young couples through network analysis. A total of 834 young people and adults between 18 and 38 years of age (Mean = 20.97, SD = 2.39) participated; 646 women (77.50%) and 188 men (22.50%), who completed the Sternberg’s love scale (STLS-R), Brief Jealousy Scale (BJS), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) and Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST-2). A partial unregularized network was estimated using the ggmModSelect function. The Bridge Strength index was calculated because the aim was to identify the bridge nodes between the variables under study. The results reveal that two nodes of the love variable, Commitment, and Intimacy, had a direct and moderate relationship with the Satisfaction node. The latter is the central node in the network. However, in the male group, the most intense associations are in Satisfaction-Intimacy, Violence-Passion, Jealousy-Commitment. It is concluded that there are relevant connections between the nodes of the network, which invite further research on couple relationships after the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    • Relationship Between Fear of COVID-19, Conspiracy Beliefs About Vaccines and Intention to Vaccinate Against COVID-19: A Cross-National Indirect Effect Model in 13 Latin American Countries

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Valencia, Pablo D.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Ventura-León, José; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Gallegos, Miguel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Palacios Segura, Diego Alejandro; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Petzold-Rodriguez, Olimpia; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Florez León, Ana María Eduviges; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Shulmeyer, Marion K.; Barria-Asenjo, Nicol A.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
      The present study explored the predictive capacity of fear of COVID-19 on the intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and the influence in this relationship of conspiracy beliefs as a possible mediating psychological variable, in 13 Latin American countries. A total of 5779 people recruited through non-probabilistic convenience sampling participated. To collect information, we used the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Vaccine conspiracy beliefs Scale-COVID-19 and a single item of intention to vaccinate. A full a priori Structural Equation Model was used; whereas, cross-country invariance was performed from increasingly restricted structural models. The results indicated that, fear of COVID-19 positively predicts intention to vaccinate and the presence of conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines. The latter negatively predicted intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. Besides, conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines had an indirect effect on the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the 13 countries assessed. Finally, the cross-national similarities of the mediational model among the 13 participating countries are strongly supported. The study is the first to test a cross-national mediational model across variables in a large number of Latin American countries. However, further studies with other countries in other regions of the world are needed.
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    • Trust in government regarding COVID-19 and its associations with preventive health behaviour and prosocial behaviour during the pandemic: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

      Han, Qing; Zheng, Bang; Cristea, Mioara; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Leander, N. Pontus; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum Abdul; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanovic, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Grzymala-Moszczynska, Joanna; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanovic, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lemay, Edward P.; Lesmana, Bagus J.; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton P.; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulic, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; Zúñiga, Claudia; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas H.; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien A.; Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Van Veen, Kees; van Dellen, Michelle R.; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan (Cambridge University Press, 2023-01-26)
      Background The effective implementation of government policies and measures for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires compliance from the public. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of trust in government regarding COVID-19 control with the adoption of recommended health behaviours and prosocial behaviours, and potential determinants of trust in government during the pandemic. Methods This study analysed data from the PsyCorona Survey, an international project on COVID-19 that included 23 733 participants from 23 countries (representative in age and gender distributions by country) at baseline survey and 7785 participants who also completed follow-up surveys. Specification curve analysis was used to examine concurrent associations between trust in government and self-reported behaviours. We further used structural equation model to explore potential determinants of trust in government. Multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between baseline trust and longitudinal behavioural changes. Results Higher trust in government regarding COVID-19 control was significantly associated with higher adoption of health behaviours (handwashing, avoiding crowded space, self-quarantine) and prosocial behaviours in specification curve analyses (median standardised β = 0.173 and 0.229, p < 0.001). Government perceived as well organised, disseminating clear messages and knowledge on COVID-19, and perceived fairness were positively associated with trust in government (standardised β = 0.358, 0.230, 0.056, and 0.249, p < 0.01). Higher trust at baseline survey was significantly associated with lower rate of decline in health behaviours over time (p for interaction = 0.001). Conclusions These results highlighted the importance of trust in government in the control of COVID-19
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    • Reasons for the use of masks in open areas after the Peruvian government announced that it will no longer be mandatory in the context of COVID-19 in 2022

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Oré-Kovacs, Nicole; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Llerena-Espezúa, Ximena; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Torales, Julio (Faculty of Medical Sciences, Santa Rosa del Aguaray Branch, National University of Asuncion, 2023-05-05)
      Introduction: In Peru, a high proportion of fully immunized people against COVID-19 has been achieved, which has mitigated the severity of the disease. Thus, under the recommendation of experts, the Peruvian government issued Supreme Decree 118-2022-PCM, which indicated that the use of masks is optional in open and ventilated enclosed spaces as of October 1, 2022. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out the reasons why people continued to wear masks even though it was not mandatory in outdoor environments. Methods: A total of 335 people participated, with an average age of 26.11 years (73.1% women). A data collection form was prepared where sociodemographic and health information was requested; in addition, the question "Why do you continue to wear mask despite it being optional in open and closed ventilated spaces?" was included. The data obtained from the last open question of the instrument was analyzed by means of a discursive textual analysis (DTA) and an exploratory analysis through IRAMUTEQ. Results: Results indicate that people continue to wear masks, despite the lifting of the restrictions, to avoid contagion of COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases. In addition, the prevention of possible infection and transmission of the virus also focused on the family and vulnerable people. Discussion: It is concluded that the practice of wearing masks may be influenced by individual perceptions of risk and interpretations of responsibility and solidarity towards others.
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    • Pandemic grief in El Salvador: factors that predict dysfunctional grief due to a COVID-19 death among Salvadoran adults

      Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Flores-Monterrosa, Angélica Nohemy; Tejada-Rodríguez, Jennifer Carolina; Chacón-Andrade, Edgardo René; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Lee, Sherman A.; Valencia, Pablo D.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Gallegos, Miguel (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023-12-01)
      Thousands of people have died of COVID-19 in El Salvador. However, little is known about the mental health of those who are mourning the loss of a loved one to COVID-19. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the dysfunctional grief associated with COVID-19 death among Salvadoran adults. A sample of 435 Salvadorans (M = 29 years; SD = 8.75) who lost a family member or loved one to COVID-19 completed a digital survey using the Google Forms platform, during April 2 and 28, 2022. The results revealed that 35.1% reported clinically elevated symptoms of dysfunctional grief and among those mourners, and 25.1% also exhibited clinical levels of coronavirus anxiety. A binary logistic regression revealed that predictor variables such as COVID-19 anxiety (p =.003), depression (p =.021), and COVID-19 obsession (p =.032) were significant (χ2 = 84.31; Nagelkerke R2 =.242) and predict a 24.2% chance of dysfunctional bereavement.
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    • Is the meaning of subjective well-being similar in Latin American countries? A cross-cultural measurement invariance study of the WHO-5 well-being index during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Valencia, Pablo D.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Franco Ferrari, Ilka; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen (BioMed Central Ltd, 2023-12-01)
      Background: There is an urgent need to assess changes in well-being on a multinational scale during the COVID-19 pandemic, thus culturally valid scales must be available. Methods: With this in mind, this study examined the invariance of the WHO well-being index (WHO-5) among a sample of 5183 people from 12 Latin Americans countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay). Results: The results of the present study indicate that the WHO-5 is strictly invariant across samples from different Latin American countries. Furthermore, the results of the IRT analysis indicate that all items of the WHO-5 were highly discriminative and that the difficulty required to respond to each of the five items is ascending. Additionally, the results indicated the presence of moderate and small size differences in subjective well-being among most countries. Conclusion: The WHO-5 is useful for assessing subjective well-being in 12 Latin American countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, since the differences between scores can be attributed to differences in well-being and not in other characteristics of the scale.
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