Now showing items 1-20 of 118

    • Network Analysis of Posttraumatic Growth Dimensions: A Cross-Sectional Study in People Who Experienced the Death of a Loved One from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American Countries

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Baños-Chaparro, Jonatan; Ventura-León, José; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Gallegos, Miguel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Palacios Segura, Diego Alejandro; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Petzold-Rodriguez, Olimpia; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Florez León, Ana María Eduviges; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Schulmeyer, Marion K.; Barria-Asenjo, Nicol A.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther; Ayala-Colqui, Jesús (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
      The present study aimed to apply a network analysis model to provide an exploratory empirical conceptualization of dynamic networks of posttraumatic growth (PTG) symptoms in 7,434 people who experienced the death of a loved one from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American countries. The Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory: Short Form of Eight Items was used. A non-regularized network with partial correlation coefficients was estimated through the ggmModSelect algorithm. The network architecture was analyzed for each country through its local properties and global properties. The results indicated that the networks differed significantly between countries. The core dimensions in the networks were relating to others, personal strength, and life value and opportunities, which were more related dimensions that reinforce the emergence of PTG in all countries. The findings may be useful to motivate researchers and mental health professionals to consider the importance of the individual dimensions of PTG in groups of people who experienced the death of a loved one from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American countries, as well as their interrelationships.
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    • Assessment of Obsessive Thoughts About COVID-19 in 7 Latin American Countries: Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Obsession With COVID-19 Scale

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Rivera-Calcina, Renzo; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Oré-Kovacs, Nicol; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Gallegos, Miguel; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Palacios Segura, Diego Alejandro; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Petzold-Rodriguez, Olimpia; Calderón, Raymundo; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Eduviges Florez León, Ana María; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Noe-Grijalva, Martin; Shulmeyer, Marion K.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther; Lee, Sherman A. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
      The present study aimed to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) among seven Latin American countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Although the OCS has been used in several countries and languages, there is a need for approaches that better integrate the cross-cultural equivalence of the scale. A total of 3185 people participated in the study. The results indicated the presence of a unidimensional structure and good reliability indices for the OCS in each country. The alignment method indicated that the OCS is an invariant measure of COVID-19 obsession among the populations of seven Latin American countries. The findings based on IRT analysis indicated that all OCS items had adequate discrimination and difficulty parameters. The findings contribute to the understanding of the internal structure of the scale in different countries at the same time, something that has been pending evaluation.
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    • Psychometric Properties of the Coach-Created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C) in a Brazilian Sample of Athletes: An ESEM Approach

      Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Duda, Joan L.; Balaguer, Isabel; Rosado, Antônio; Corrêa, Mariana; Anunciação, Luis; Tutte, Veronica; Júnior, Marcelo Villas Boas; Bossio, Mário Reyes; Brandão, Regina (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023-03-01)
      The objectives of this study were to assess the psychometric properties of the Coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C) by testing four different hypotheses. A procedure of translation and adaptation of the instrument between different languages and cultures was carried out. A total of 350 national level Brazilian athletes (aged between 15 and 17 years; mean = 17.0, SD = 1.7) completed the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) were performed. Consistent with previous work on the EDMCQ-C, all solutions failed to achieve suitable levels of fit for a hierarchical model represented by five climate dimensions (autonomy-supportive, controlling, task-involving, ego-involving, and socially-supportive) and two global dimensions (empowering and disempowering). The 2-ESEM solution provided a satisfactory fit for the first-order model with two global factors supported. The 2-ESEM version of the questionnaire showed adequate predictive and discriminant validity, good internal consistency, and invariance across gender. Such results suggest that the EDMCQ-C is a promising scale to assess Brazilian athletes’ perception of the over-arching empowering and disempowering features of the coach-created motivational climate.
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    • COVID-19 Bereavement in Ten Latin American Countries: Measurement Invariance of the Pandemic Grief Scale and Its Relation to Suicidal Ideation

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Lee, Sherman A.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Rivera, Marlon Elías Lobos; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Gallegos, Walter L.Arias (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-12-01)
      The present study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) in ten Latin American countries. A total of 2,321 people who had lost a family member or other loved one due to COVID-19 participated, with a mean age of 34.22 years old (SD = 11.99). In addition to the PGS, a single item of suicidal ideation was applied. The unidimensional model of the PGS had adequate fit in most countries and good reliability estimates. There was evidence of measurement invariance by country and gender. Also, a one-point increase in the PGS was associated with an almost twofold increase in the odds of suicidal ideation. Scores greater than or equal to 4 on the PGS are proposed as a cut off to identify individuals with suicidal ideation. Strong evidence of the cross-cultural validity of the PGS is provided.
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    • Test of Invariance of the Anomie Brief Scale with the Alignment Method in 12 Latin American Countries

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Venturaleón, José; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Reyesbossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Yupanquilorenzo, Daniel E.; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moretaherrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Gallegos, Walter L.Arias; Petzold, Olimpia; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Arkangel Monge Blanco, J.; González, Pedronel; Smithcastroa, Vanessa; Rivera, Wendy Yamilet Matute; Ferrufinoborja, Daniela; Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Muñoz-Del-carpiotoia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; León, Ana María Eduviges Florez; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Schulmeyer, Marion K. (2023-01-01)
      The Social Anomie Brief Scale (SAS10) is a self-report measure of social anomie against new social standards implemented during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the invariance of the cross-cultural measurement of the SAS10 in a sample of 12 Latin American countries. Additionally, the difficulty and discrimination characteristics of the items were evaluated using the IRT and social anomie was compared between the participating countries. A total of 4,911 people from 12 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) selected by non-probabilistic snowball sampling participated. The results indicated that the original two-factor model of the SAS10 shows estimation problems and low fit indices in several countries. However, a model of two related dimensions (behavioral and affective) of nine items (SAS-9) presented adequate fit indices in all countries. This model presents adequate estimation of reliability and approximate cross-cultural measurement invariance. Peru was the country with the highest score in the behavioral dimension of social anomie; while Venezuela and Bolivia presented the highest scores in the affective dimension. Mexico was one of the countries with the lowest anomie scores. The results of the IRT would indicate that the characteristics of the SAS-9 items were appropriate. It is concluded that the SAS-9 has shown good psychometric properties when evaluated in 12 Latin American countries and can be used in future studies that compare social anomie cross-culturally.
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    • Adaptation of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) in Spanish

      Copez-Lonzoy, Anthony; Vallejos-Flores, Miguel; Capa-Luque, Walter; Salas-Blas, Edwin; Montero Doig, Ana María; Dias, Paulo C.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos (Elsevier B.V., 2023-11-01)
      The impact of social networks on people's daily lives is worrisome, particularly in adolescents and young people, who seem to exceed the limits of normal use. Constant excessive use can lead to pathological behaviors linked to social media addiction (SMA). Our objectives were to 1) adapt the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) to Spanish and 2) evaluate its psychometric properties in a young population. The BSMAS was adapted to Spanish, involving experts on social media addiction and people from the target population during the adaptation process. For the psychometric evaluation, 650 Peruvian college students responded to the Spanish version (53.5 % women aged 18 to 40, M = 21.5 SD = 2.7). The one-dimensional measurement model proposed for the original BSMAS was confirmed for our version (X2(9) = 23.9315, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.990, SRMR = 0.032, RMSEA = 0.061). The reliability was good (α = 0.863; 95 % CI: 0.848–0.870; ω = 0.864; 95 % CI: 0.846–0.844), and the measurement invariance was confirmed for sex and age by fitting models. The concurrent validity with external social media addiction and mental health indicators was also confirmed. This study provides new and relevant information on the BSMAS validity and allows its application to Spanish-speaker college students from Peru and similar countries.
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    • Cross-cultural invariance of the Spanish version of the COVID-19 Assessment Scorecard to measure the perception of government actions against COVID-19 in Latin America

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Ventura-León, José; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos Rivera, Marlon Elías; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Petzold, Olimpia; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Florez León, Ana María Eduviges; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Barria-Asenjo, Nicol A.; Schulmeyer, Marion K.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023-12-01)
      Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the measurement invariance of a general measure of the perception of governmental responses to COVID-|19 (COVID-SCORE-10) in the general population of 13 Latin American countries. Methods: A total of 5780 individuals from 13 Latin American and Caribbean countries selected by non-probabilistic snowball sampling participated. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the alignment method was used to evaluate invariance. Additionally, a graded response model was used for the assessment of item characteristics. Results: The results indicate that there is approximate measurement invariance of the COVID-SCORE-10 among the participating countries. Furthermore, IRT results suggest that the COVID-SCORE-10 measures with good psychometric ability a broad spectrum of the construct assessed, especially around average levels. Comparison of COVID-SCORE-10 scores indicated that participants from Cuba, Uruguay and El Salvador had the most positive perceptions of government actions to address the pandemic. Thus, the underlying construct of perception of government actions was equivalent in all countries. Conclusion: The results show the importance of initially establishing the fundamental measurement properties and MI before inferring the cross-cultural universality of the construct to be measured.
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    • Maintenance in relationships, satisfaction, jealousy, and violence in young couples: a network analysis

      Ventura-León, José; Lino-Cruz, Cristopher; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomas; Córdova-Robles, Christian (BioMed Central Ltd, 2023-12-01)
      Background: The study explores the associations among Relationship Maintenance, Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Violence in young Peruvian couples, particularly in a post-pandemic context, using a network analysis. Methods: Eight hundred thirty-two participants aged 18–30 (M = 20.94, SD = 2.29), with 645 females (77.50%) and 187 males (22.50%), were involved. The study aimed to discern relationships among network nodes, emphasizing the link between Relationship Maintenance dimensions and Jealousy and Violence. The research also sought the central node in the network and examined gender-specific node connections, using the SMOTE algorithm for gender data balance. Results: Findings revealed a direct connection between Complementarity and Jealousy, implying intense shared interests can lead to unhealthy dependence. An inverse relationship was seen between Companionship and Violence. Satisfaction was pivotal, showcasing its importance in romantic relationship success. Additionally, the study shows men prioritize Companionship and Sharing, possibly due to cultural norms, while women focus on the Companionship-Complementarity bond, indicating mutual support. Conclusions: The research emphasizes the critical role of maintenance variables in determining Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Violence in relationships. The pandemic's influence on romantic dynamics is evident, emphasizing the importance of Satisfaction. Future studies should focus on gender equity and further explore these relationships.
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    • Intention to receive the monkeypox vaccine and its psychological and sociodemographic predictors: a cross-sectional survey in the general population of Peru

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Ventura-León, José; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Gallegos, Miguel; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Noe-Grijalva, Martin; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; del Carpio Toia, Águeda Muñoz; Torales, Julio; Barria-Asenjo, Nicol A. (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023-12-01)
      Objective: The objective of this study was to identify predictors of intention to be vaccinated against Monkeypox (Mpox) in a sample of Peruvian citizens. Methods: A set of sociodemographic and psychological predictors were used, such as sex, sexual orientation, educational level, previous diagnosis of COVID-19, marital status, complete vaccination against COVID-19, employment status, living with vulnerable people, presence of chronic disease, area of residence, perceived usefulness of COVID-19 vaccines, fear of Mpox, conspiracy beliefs about Mpox, among others. A total of 472 Peruvian adults participated, selected by non-probabilistic snowball convenience sampling. A sociodemographic survey, the Mpox Fear Scale, was used. Conspiracy Beliefs about Mpox was assessed using three questions created specifically for this study. For inferential purposes, simple ordinal regressions ("crude models") were performed between each factor and the outcome. Results: Regarding their intention to be vaccinated against Mpox, more than 60% expressed clear approval. Being non-heterosexual, having greater emotional fear of Mpox, and perceiving some potential for this disease to become the next pandemic were related to greater intention to vaccinate. On the other hand, being older, having low perceived usefulness of COVID-19 vaccines, and having higher conspiracy beliefs about Mpox were associated with lower intention to vaccinate. Conclusion: The study provides initial information for future research seeking to better analyze Mpox vaccination intention. In addition, cross-sectional data are provided that can be used to develop public health policies that target subgroups with low prevalence of intention to vaccinate against Mpox.
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    • Relationship Maintenance Scale in Young Couples: Validity Evidence and Reliability of a Short Scale in Peru

      Ventura-León, José; Lino-Cruz, Cristopher; Carbajal‑León, Carlos; Peña-Calero, Brian Norman (Routledge CODEN JSMTB, 2023-01-01)
      Relationship maintenance has shifted from understudied to extensively researched in the past two decades due to its close association with satisfaction. This study aimed to validate the Relationship Maintenance Scale (EMP) in a sample of young adults in Lima. The sample included 899 participants aged 18–25 (Mean = 20.67, SD = 2.54); 690 females (76.80%) and 209 males (23.20%), all in relationships of at least three months (Mean = 22.05, SD = 19.95). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to determine the EMP’s structure, with Omega coefficient (ω) estimating reliability. Results indicated a four-factor structure for EMP, removing items 8, 9, 12, and 14, demonstrating good fit (SRMR =.043; CFI =.977; TLI =.971; RMSEA =.058). EMP showed acceptable reliability across factors: Companionship (ω =.78), Affectivity (ω =.83), Complementarity (ω =.77), and Shared interaction (ω =.70), with the latter being less stable. EMP correlated as expected with relationship satisfaction (r ≥.50). In conclusion, EMP is a valid and reliable instrument for future Spanish studies, with further research on psychometric properties recommended.
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    • Psychometric Analysis of a Brief measure of Emotional Intelligence (EQ-i-M20) in Teenagers from Lima

      Navarro-Loli, Jhonatan S.; Dominguez-Lara, Sergio; Alarcón-Parco, Danitsa; Bárrig-Jó, Patricia; Romero-Mezarina, Frida (AIDEP, 2023-01-01)
      The research aimed to assess if the EQ-i-M20 presents evidence of validity regarding its internal structure, measurement invariance between men and women, and acceptable reliability. The sample consisted of 788 adolescents between 11 and 18 years old from an educational institution in Lima (Peru). The internal structure was evaluated by the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), both the oblique model and the bifactor, the invariance of measurement with a multiple ESEM group, and its reliability using the α and ω. The results indicate that in men and women. the original factor structure of five oblique factors is replicated, that it has an acceptable degree of measurement invariance, and the reliability values are satisfactory. In conclusion, the EQ-i-M20 is an instrument with adequate psychometric properties.
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    • Ten Years of the Peruvian Society of the History of Psychology

      Gallegos, Walter L.Arias; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Oré-Kovacs, Nicole (American Psychological Association Original language, 2023-01-01)
      This article briefly reviews the development of the history of psychology as a specialized discipline in Peru, in order to learn about the emergence, organization and productivity of the Peruvian Society of the History of Psychology (SPHP), which was founded in 2012. Previously, by way of introduction, the advances in the institutionalization of the history of psychology in Latin America and the development of the historiography of psychology in Peru are described. Seminars, journals, and books edited by the SPHP are discussed, as well as new projects and the challenges that must be faced for a greater dissemination of the history of psychology in Peru.
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    • Relationship between competitive anxiety and resilience in high-performance water sports practitioners during COVID-19

      Córdova-Castillo, Rodrigo; Brandão, Regina; Tutte-Vallarino, Verónica; Reyes-Bossio, Mario (Colegio Oficial de la Psicologia de Madrid, 2023-12-01)
      The aim was to determine if there is a relationship between competitive anxiety and resilience in Peruvian high-performance water sports practitioners during COVID-19 confinement. The sample was made up of 84 athletes of both sexes (42 men and 42 women), between 18 and 43 years old, with an average age of 22.94. The type of sampling was non-probabilistic and intentional. The SAS-2 and ERCD instruments were used. The main results show that women have more Total Competitive Anxiety and Worries than men, while men obtain greater Total Resilience, Personal Competence and Self-Acceptance than women. Furthermore, Total Competitive Anxiety is negatively related to Total Resilience. It is concluded that resilience plays an important role in reducing competitive anxiety, which in turn is related to better performance and well-being in high-performance athletes. In addition, it is essential to pay attention to gender differences, since women may require greater training in resilience, stress-coping skills, and emotional management.
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    • COVID-19 anxiety, psychological well-being and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean: relationships and explanatory model

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Valencia, Pablo D.; Ventura-León, José; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Rivera, Marlon Elías Lobos; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela (Springer, 2022-01-01)
      This study assesses the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and subjective well-being in terms of the mediating role of COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Additionally, the contribution of sociodemographic factors (sex and age) and risk perception on COVID-19 anxiety and its potential measurement invariance was tested in 5655 participants from 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. A mixture of both latent and observable variables were analyzed using a system of structural equations. The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Preventive COVID-19 Infection Behaviors Scale (PCIBS) and single-item measures were used to assess the perceived probability of death, perceived severity and concern about transmitting COVID-19. The results indicated that there is a significant and relevant direct effect of COVID-19 anxiety on participants' well-being. Furthermore, COVID-19 anxiety significantly predicted both preventive behavior (β =.29, p <.01) and well-being (β = –.32, p <.01). The effects of COVID anxiety and preventive behavior explained 9.8% of the variance in well-being (R-square =.098); whereas, 8.4% of the variance in preventive behavior was associated with COVID anxiety (R-square =.084). Likewise, perceived likelihood of death from COVID, perceived severity of COVID, and concerns about COVID transmission were positively related to anxiety. Age was negatively related to anxiety, with men being less anxious than women. The results are invariant by country, i.e., the broad relationships found in the combined sample are also present in each individual country. The findings indicate that, although the exact relationships between variables may vary between countries, there are enough similarities to provide useful information about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in each of the countries included in the study.
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    • Qualitative exploration of the experience of flow in ballet dancers who perform it as a hobby

      De Priego, Melisa Khoury Miguel (Colegio Oficial de la Psicologia de Madrid, 2023-01-01)
      There are numerous investigations on the psychological aspects related to the experience of flow in sport. However, the number of works on this subject in ballet dancers is scarce. This study, therefore, aims to explore the qualitative experience of flow in 10 ballet dancers who practice it as a hobby, from different schools in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. The study uses a descriptive phenomenological analysis, where through focused interviews it was possible to interview participants on different topics of interest based on their experience of flow. The results indicated that participants expressed themselves through the use of metaphors, emphasizing the internalisation of music when dancing, and giving importance to being in the “here and now” when they performed this activity. Emphasis is also placed on positive emotions and self-confidence when dancing, along with the influence of the environment to give the flow experience. Lastly, this experience manifests itself as unique and individual in each participant, where they describe it as a state that allows them to forget everything external, by concentrating solely on the dance.
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    • Construction and assessment of membership to a soccer barra brava. The voices of former members

      Olano-Ferreyra, María del Rosario; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 2023-01-01)
      In this paper, we describe the construction and assessment of membership to a football barra brava from the voices of a group of former members. We developed semi-structured interviews with seven former members of the barra brava Trinchera Norte (Peru), who attended the stadiums in the 1990s and played a leading role in the barra brava. The participants tell us that they built their membership from the interaction with a group of peers who shared an interest in a soccer team. In this group, behaviors that they assumed and that stand out today were developed and defined. Thus, they value camaraderie, resilience, pride and the fight for their goals and ideals as significant learning that they continue to apply in their lives. © 2023 Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.
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    • What Is the Support for Conspiracy Beliefs About COVID-19 Vaccines in Latin America? A Prospective Exploratory Study in 13 Countries

      Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michael; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos Rivera, Marlon Elías; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Pinto Tapia, Bismarck; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Petzold, Olimpia (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-05-06)
      Conspiracy theories about COVID-19 began to emerge immediately after the first news about the disease and threaten to prolong the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by limiting people’s willingness of receiving a life-saving vaccine. In this context, this study aimed to explore the variation of conspiracy beliefs regarding COVID-19 and the vaccine against it in 5779 people living in 13 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) according to sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, educational level and source of information about COVID-19. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic between September 15 and October 25, 2021. The Spanish-language COVID-19 Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (ECCV-COVID) and a sociodemographic survey were used. The results indicate that, in most countries, women, people with a lower educational level and those who receive information about the vaccine and COVID-19 from family/friends are more supportive of conspiracy ideas regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. In the case of age, the results vary by country. The analysis of the responses to each of the questions of the ECCV-COVID reveals that, in general, the countries evaluated are mostly in some degree of disagreement or indecision regarding conspiratorial beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines. The findings could help open further study which could support prevention and treatment efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    • INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRAM “PATEANDO ALTO” ON THE EMPATHY IN CHILDREN OF 4TH AND 5TH GRADE

      Cárcamo-La Torre, F.; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Didactic Asociation Andalucia, 2022-09-01)
      The present study aims to identify the influence of the Taekwondo program "Pateando Alto" on empathy in fourth and fifth grade children in a private school in San Miguel. The program consisted of eight sessions of one hour and 30 minutes duration. The sample was made up of 53 fourth and fifth grade students (M = 9.60 years, DE = .566). Empathy was measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Carrazco et al., 2011), before and after the application of the program. The participants were divided into an experimental group and two control groups, according to their availability. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the empathy scores of the experimental group before and after the application of the program, however, the effect size fluctuated between low and medium, evidencing an effect on empathy. The implication of this research is that it can be used as a basis for later programs that can work on the factors that make up empathy in greater depth and with the joint participation of parents and teachers..
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    • Psychometric Properties of the Proactive Personality Scale in schoolteachers in Lima (Peru)

      Bojorquez-Paucar, Josselyn María; Cáceres-Julcahuanca, Laura Miluska; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel (Universidad CES, 2022-09-16)
      The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Proactive Personality Scale in a sample of teachers from schools in Lima (Peru). Participants were 302 teachers of both sexes (72.20% women) selected through a non-probabilistic sampling of intentional type, whose ages were in the range from 24 to 65 (M = 43.04, DE = 10.75) and who taught at the educational levels of primary and secondary education (75.83% in secondary education). In addition to the Proactive Personality Scale, the Teachers Self Efficacy Scale was applied to assess convergent validity. The results indicate that the Proactive Personality Scale was adjusted to a unifactorial structure (CFI = .949, TLI = .934, RMSEA = .076 y SRMR = .044), there are statistically significant correlations (p <.001) and with a mean effect size (rs> .10) with most of the dimensions of self-efficacy feeling and adequate internal consistency (.89). The Proactive Personality Scale has evidence of validity based on internal structure, convergent validity, and adequate reliability to measure proactive personality in schoolteachers.
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    • Gender Differences of University Students in the Online Teaching Quality and Psychological Profile during the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Nomie-Sato, Simone; Condes Moreno, Emilia; Villanueva, Adriana Rico; Chiarella, Pascual; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose Francisco; Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier (MDPI, 2022-11-01)
      With the arrival of COVID-19, educational systems have had to adapt to the social and health situation immediately. This led to the appearance of the asynchronous teaching model. Throughout the pandemic, at the educational level, we can distinguish three phases, eminently online, hybrid, and finally, face-to-face. However, the perception of educational quality in these three educational moments, taking into account the psychometric profile and gender, has not been studied. Thus, 1093 university students from Ibero-American countries were analyzed. Through a questionnaire, demographic, academic, and psychological variables were analyzed at three moments during the evolution of the pandemic. Data suggest that, during the lockdown phase, while teaching was eminently online, students presented higher levels of stress and higher difficulty of learning; class attendance, convenience, preferred method of learning, grading score, and motivation were lower, compared to other phases of teaching (hybrid and face-to-face). During this period, females presented higher stress levels than males, as well as higher levels of anxiety and loneliness, without gender differences among the other studied variables. During the hybrid and face-to-face phases, male students presented higher values in the results of difficulty learning and demanding activities. No differences were seen regarding motivation, synchronous class attendance, learning level, grades, convenience, or preferred learning method. The results from the present study suggest that, despite the effect of the pandemic on mental health, asynchronous education is postulated as an effective teaching–learning alternative. Yet, a special focus should be given to female students.
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