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  • Docentes universitarios: Una mirada desde la autoeficacia general y engagement laboral

    Lozano-Paz, Carmen Rosa; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-05-16)
    This research aims at understanding general self-efficacy and work engagement of professors of the Psychology Program of a private university in metropolitan Lima. To reach this objective, in-depth interviews with seven professors were conducted: three of them were women and four were men. Based on those interviews, it was possible to understand what personal factors have helped said professors to carry out their work as well as with what they are engaged. Finally, it was concluded that professors have self-efficacy, as they assess their skills and their environment to achieve their goals. Another finding was that they are engaged with their teaching work, and this is based on their interaction with their students, since they do more research and are up-to-date with current practices in their field.
  • Trajectories of aggressive and depressive symptoms in male and female overweight children: Do they share a common path or do they follow different routes?

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Erriu, Michela; Jezek, Stanislav; Almenara, Carlos A.; Tambelli, Renata (PLoS ONE, 2018-01-05)
    The prevalence of childhood overweight is a major social and public health issue, and primary assessment should focus on early and middle childhood, because weight gain in these phases constitutes a strong predictor of subsequent negative outcomes. Studies on community samples have shown that growth curves may follow linear or non-linear trajectories from early to middle childhood, and can differ based on sex. Overweight children may exhibit a combination of physiological and psychosocial issues, and several studies have demonstrated an association between overweight and internalizing/externalizing behavior. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on depressive and aggressive symptoms in children with high BMI. This study adopted a growth curve modeling over three phases to: (1) describe BMI trajectories in two groups of children aged 2±8 (overweight and normal weight) from a community sample; (2) describe the developmental trajectories of children's aggressive and depressive symptoms from 2 to 8 years of age. Results indicate higher BMI in 2-year-old girls, with males catching up with them by age 8. While overweight females' BMIs were consistently high, males' increased at 5 and 8 years. The mean scores for aggressive symptoms at T1 (2 years of age) were the same in all subjects, but a significant deviation occurred from T1 to T2 in both samples, in divergent directions. With regards to children's depressive symptoms, the two groups had different starting points, with normal weight children scoring lower than overweight youths. Overweight females showed lower depressive scores than overweight males at T1, but they surpassed boys before T2, and showed more maladaptive symptoms at T3. This study solicits professionals working in pediatric settings to consider overweight children's psychopathological risk, and to be aware that even when children's BMI does not increase from 2 to 8 years, their psychopathological symptoms may grow in intensity.
  • Weight stigmatization and disordered eating in obese women: The mediating effects of self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation

    Almenara, Carlos A.; Aimé, A.; Maïano, C.; Ejova, A.; Guèvremont, G.; Bournival, C.; Ricard, M.-M.; g.guevremont@muula.ca (Elsevier Masson SAS, 2017-05)
    Objective The aim of this study is to examine whether self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation are significant mediators in the association between weight-related self-devaluation and disordered eating. Method A sample of obese Canadian women (N = 111, M age = 40.9, SD = 10.2) completed the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (FNAES), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Results Self-esteem mediated the relationship between weight-related self-devaluation and restraint and weight concerns, whereas fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship with weight, shape and eating concerns. Conclusion Since, for obese women, self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation are likely to maintain disordered eating, they should be more frequently taken into consideration by researchers, health professionals and public policy stakeholders.
  • The effect of belief in weight controllability on anti-fat attitudes: An experimental manipulation

    Ksinan, A.J.; Almenara, Carlos A.; Vaculik, M.; vaculik@fss.muni.cz (2017-05)
    Introduction Anti-fat attitudes reflect a type of discrimination on the basis of body weight and are one of the last accepted types of social stigma. Objective To evaluate the effect of exposure to priming messages about the causes of obesity on attitudes toward fat people. Method Participants (n = 580, M age = 22.19, 64.1% female) were randomly assigned to one of three possible conditions and then provided responses on three AFA subscales: Dislike, Fear of fat, and Willpower. Results Priming participants with messages confirming/challenging the weight controllability belief was associated with higher/lower levels on Willpower respectively compared to the control group. Unexpectedly, participants in both confirming and challenging groups showed significantly higher scores on Fear of fat. No differences were found on scores indicating Dislike. Conclusion The current findings emphasize the effect of exposure to information about the causes of obesity on weight controllability beliefs.
  • Jerarquía de valores entre estudiantes de secundaria de colegio religioso y colegio laico de Lima

    Raiza García Anchorena; Grimaldo, Mirian; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; pcpsemam@upc.edu.pe (Universidad de San Martín de Porres, 2016-12)
    The purpose of this research was to compare the hierarchy of values among high school students, according to type of school (religious and secular) and sex. The sample was composed by 250 high school students (60.4% male, 52% religious school). The ages are in the range of 14 to 17 years (M = 15.47, SD = 0.63). The instrument used was the Portrait Value Questionnaire by Schwartz (2001), whose analysis of structure and internal consistency was satisfactory. To compare the hierarchy of values between the groups, top down correlations (rtd >) were used. According to the results, greater association (similarity) was found between the hierarchy of values depending on the type of school (rtd = .82) and, to a lesser degree by sex (rtd = .69). The comparative results show greater Benevolence, Self-Direction, Stimulation among women and Achievement among men. The implications of the comparative results are discussed.
  • Propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Atitudes sobre o Amor (LAS) em universitários peruanos

    Paula C. Lascurain Wais; Lavandera Liria, María Claudia; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; eduardo.manzanares@upc.edu.pe (Universidad Catolica de Colombia, 2017-05)
    El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la validez de constructo y la fiabilidad de la Escala de Actitudes sobre el Amor (Love Attitudes Scale [LAS]) de Hendrick & Hendrick (1986). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 381 estudiantes universitarios de Lima, Perú, (61.7 % mujeres) de entre 17 y 25 años de edad. Aparte del LAS, se aplicó el I-PANAS-SF adaptado por Gargurevich (2010), el cual evalúa el afecto positivo y negativo. Como resultados, el análisis factorial exploratorio del LAS arrojó una solución de seis factores (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Manía y Ágape) que explicaron el 47.87 % de la varianza total. Las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones de los estilos Eros y Pragma y el afecto positivo fueron positivas y significativas; mientras que los estilos Manía y Ludus tuvieron correlaciones positivas y significativas con el afecto negativo. Utilizando el método de consistencia interna, la fiabilidad de los seis factores encontrados fue de .62 a .85; mientras que con el método testretest, los coeficientes de estabilidad fueron de .44 a .77. Estos resultados permiten concluir que el LAS y sus puntuaciones son una medida válida y fiable para medir las actitudes hacia el amor en la población de universitarios de Lima, Perú.
  • Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Personality Vulnerability to Depression: A Study in Peruvian Late Adolescents

    Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (Springer International Publishing, 2015-08-20)
    This study examined associations between two domain-specific manifestations of perceived psychologically controlling parenting (i.e., dependency oriented and achievement-oriented), dimensions of personality vulnerability to depression (i.e., dependency and self-criticism), and depressive symptoms in Peruvian late adolescents (N = 292, 60 % female). Structural equation modeling showed that perceived dependency-oriented psychological control was related specifically to dependency and that perceived achievement-oriented psychological control was related specifically to self-criticism. Both dimensions of personality vulnerability played an intervening role in associations between the domains of psychologically controlling parenting and depressive symptoms. In addition, dependency-oriented psychological control interacted with perceived parental responsiveness in the prediction of depressive symptoms, such that responsiveness exacerbated effects of psychological control on depressive symptoms. Results were similar across maternal and paternal ratings of parenting. Findings are interpreted in light of the debate about the cross cultural generalization of the effects of psychologically controlling parenting.
  • How geography influences complex cognitive ability

    Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) (Elsevier B.V., 2015-05-20)
    Evolutionary explanations for geography's influence on complex cognitive ability (CCA) imply virtually immutable components of between-nation IQ differences. Their weight vis-à-vis the weight of situational components was evaluated through an analysis of a 194-country data set. Additive effects of absolute latitude (AL) and longitudinal distance from Homo sapiens' cradle (LDC) explain Northeastern Asian higher, Sub-Saharan African lower CCAs. AL exerts cognitive influence directly and through socioeconomic development and evolutionary genetics whereas LDC does through evolutionary genetics; however, this occurs differently in Africa-Near East- Europe and elsewhere. The findings are understood assuming supremacy of contemporary UVB radiation → hormonal and climatic → socioeconomic mediators of the AL–CCA linkage whose effects are moderated by heterogeneous genetic and cultural adaptations to radiation and climate. Geography's cognitive effects are dynamic and public-policy actions may modify them.
  • Economic Inequality Is Linked to Biased Self-Perception

    Loughnan, Steve; Kuppens, Peter; Allik, Jüri; Balazs, Katalin; De Lemus, Soledad; Dumont, Kitty; Gargurevich, Rafael; Hidegkuti, Istvan; Leidner, Bernhard; Matos, Lennia; Park, Joonha; Realo, Anu; Shi, Junqi; Sojo, Victor Eduardo; Yuk-yue Tong; Vaes, Jeroen; Verduyn, Philippe; Yeung, Victoria; Haslam, Nick; s.loughnan@kent.ac.uk (Association for Psychological Science, 2014-08-13)
    People’s self-perception biases often lead them to see themselves as better than the average person (a phenomenon known as self-enhancement). This bias varies across cultures, and variations are typically explained using cultural variables, such as individualism versus collectivism. We propose that socioeconomic differences among societies—specifically, relative levels of economic inequality—play an important but unrecognized role in how people evaluate themselves. Evidence for selfenhancement was found in 15 diverse nations, but the magnitude of the bias varied. Greater self-enhancement was found in societies with more income inequality, and income inequality predicted cross-cultural differences in self-enhancement better than did individualism/collectivism. These results indicate that macrosocial differences in the distribution of economic goods are linked to microsocial processes of perceiving the self.
  • Urban life stress in preadolescents: a longitudinal assessment in Lima

    Casuso, Liliana; Gargurevich, Rafael; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Van den Bergh, Omer; lcasuso@gmail.com (Escuela Profesional de Psicología de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación, Turismo y Psicología de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres, 2014-08-12)
    Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar longitudinalmente los eventos estresantes en preadolescentes de una zona urbana de Lima. Una muestra no clínica (N = 170, 9-11 años) proveniente de niveles socioeconómicos (SES) alto y bajo en la zona urbana de Lima, fue evaluada en cuatro momentos a lo largo de dos años. El análisis multinivel mostró que la intensidad de estrés percibido disminuyó durante los dos años. Los preadolescentes de SES bajo, mostraron más estrés sobre sí mismos y sobre sus familia en comparación con los de SES alto. Las niñas se estresaban más por sus familias y amigos que los niños. Finalmente se describen los estresantes más frecuentes encontrados en este grupo de preadolescentes limeños que viven en una zona urbana.