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  • Factorial validity and invariance analysis of the five items version of Mindful Awareness Attention Scale in older adults

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Ventura- León, José; Carranza Esteban, Renzo Felipe; Oblitas Guadalupe, Luís A.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; García Cadena, Cirilo H.; Cabrera-Orosco, Isabel (Routledge, 2020-01-01)
    Objective: Mindfulness or the full attention state is a factor that contributes to the successful process of aging. This study aims to evaluate the evidence of validity, on the basis of the internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, reliability and factorial invariance across gender, for the five items Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) within a sample of older adults. Methods: The participants were 323 Peruvian older adults, consisting of 160 women and 163 men, whose average ages were 68.58 (S.D = 7.23) and 68.91 years (S.D = 7.12), respectively. In addition to the MAAS-5, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 were administered. Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicates that the one-factor structure of the MAAS-5 presents adequate fit for the total sample (χ2 = 11.24, df = 5, χ2/df = 2.25, CFI =.99, RMSEA =.06 [90%CI:.01,.11]; and SRMR =.025), as well as for the sub-samples of men and women. This one-factor solution presents adequate internal consistency (ω = 80 [95%CI:.76 -.82]) and it is invariant across gender. Regarding convergent validity, high scores in the MAAS are associated with a greater satisfaction with life (r =.88, p<.01 [95%CI:.85,.95]) and less depression (r = −.56, p<.01 [95%CI: −.48, −.77]) in older adults. Conclusions: The preliminary results back the use of the MAAS-5 as a self-report measure of mindfulness that has an adequate unifactorial structure that is reliable and invariant across gender for measuring the full attention state in elderly Peruvians.
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  • Vinegar and weight loss in women of eighteenth-century France: a lesson from the past

    Almenara, Carlos A.; Aimé, Annie; Maïano, Christophe (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2020-06-01)
    This short note reports the eighteenth-century account of Mademoiselle Lapaneterie, a French woman who started drinking vinegar to lose weight and died one month later. The case, which was first published by Pierre Desault in 1733, has not yet been reported by present-day behavioural scholars. Similar reports about cases in 1776 are also presented, confirming that some women were using vinegar for weight loss. Those cases can be conceived as a lesson from the past for contemporary policies against the deceptive marketing of potentially hazardous weight-loss products.
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  • Does the Spanish version of the SWLS measure the same in Spain and Peru?

    Sancho, Patricia; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Tomás, José M.; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Elsevier B.V., 2019-07)
    Aim Satisfaction with life is a measure of protection in older adults. There lies the importance of providing quality instruments. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invariance of the life satisfaction scale (SWLS) in two samples of older adults in Spain and Peru. Method The participants were 857 older adults in Spain (mean age = 68.23 years, SD = 5.93) and 336 older adults in Peru (average age = 72.42, SD = 7.07). All multi-group confirmatory factor analyzes were estimated in Mplus 8.0. Results The results indicate the presence of a strict invariance of the one-dimensional structure of the SWLS in samples of older adults in Spain and Peru, which allows for meaningful comparisons of latent means and covariances. Comparison of latent means showed small differences in the construct between the cultural groups. Conclusions The SWLS is a valid instrument for intercultural comparisons between Spanish and Peruvian population. The measurement invariance assessment contributes to a better understanding of life satisfaction in populations from different cultural contexts.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Time Perspective and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Examination Among Young Adult Students

    Kvasková, Lucia; Almenara, Carlos A. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2019-05)
    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between Zimbardo time perspectives (TPs) and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE). In total, 1,753 young adults participated in the longitudinal study. For the present study, we selected only participants who were students and provided information on TPs, CDMSE, and sociodemographic characteristics (n = 492, M = 22.97 years, SD = 1.32, 82.9% women). The results of multilevel modeling showed that future orientation and present-hedonistic TPs were positively related to CDMSE, whereas present-fatalistic and past-negative TPs were negatively related to CDMSE. These findings indicate that besides the beneficial effect of widely studied future TP, the negative role of past-negative and present-fatalistic TPs should be considered in connection with the career development of emerging adults.
    Acceso abierto
  • Muscle dysmorphia symptomatology and related factors

    Sanchez-Castro, Ana Elena; Cook-del Águilaa, Lorella; Yacila Huaman, Giuliana Angélica; Tejada Caminiti, Romina Arely; Reyes Bossio, Mario; Mayta-Tristán, Percy (RMTA, 2019-01)
    Muscle dysmorphia is an obsessive-compulsive disorder subcategorized as a body dysmorphic disorder. Studies in Latin America have assessed the prevalence of muscle dysmorphia in bodybuilders and gym users. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of muscle dysmorphia symptomatology (MDS) and associated factors in university male students in Lima, Peru. The participants (N = 618) had an average age of 21.0 years (DS = 2.3). We assessed MDS through the Muscular Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders through the Yale-Brown Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorders (BDD-YBOCS). We also tested participants on their food consumption and physical activity (PA) frequency. The prevalence of MDS was 1.3% (IC 95% = 0.4-2.2%) . associated with factors such as intense PA defined as more than five hours per week (PRa = 9.5; 95% CI = 1.1-84.4) and a hyperproteic diet (PRa = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6). Thirty-two percent of participants consumed protein supplements. Muscle dysmorphia is a disorder present in the general population. However, more research must be done to understand how this is an emerging problem in Latin America. Therefore, to influence its prevention and early identification among the university population, it is necessary to deepen the understanding.
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  • Inteligencia emocional en Estudiantes de Comunicación: Estudio Comparativo bajo el Modelo de Educación por Competencias

    Palomino Flores, Paola; Almenara, Carlos A (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplciadas, 2019-06-15)
    inteligencia emocional (IE) de estudiantes según el nivel de logro esperado de competencias. Participaron 313 estudiantes (M = 20.20 años, D.E. = 2.41; 61% mujeres) de ciencias de la comunicación de una universidad privada de Lima (Perú) que utiliza el Modelo de Educación por Competencias. La IE se midió con la Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). El nivel de logro de competencias agrupa a los estudiantes en: “logro inicial” (participantes de los primeros tres semestres académicos, 45.7% del total) y “logro superior” (cuarto a décimo semestre). Se encontró diferencias de género en IE, por lo que los análisis comparativos se realizaron separados por género. En los hombres no se encontró diferencias de IE entre grupos (logro inicial y logro superior). Por el contrario, las mujeres de logro inicial puntuaron más alto que el grupo de mujeres de logro superior en: evaluación emocional de los demás, uso de emociones y en el puntaje total de IE. Se sugiere la necesidad de incorporar la competencia de IE dentro del modelo educativo de esta institución académica, así como realizar estudios longitudinales.
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  • Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Niveles y Condiciones de Aprendizaje Organizacional (ENCAO) en trabajadores de una empresa privada peruana [Artículo]

    Suárez Mora, Gloria; Fazio Zegarra, Alessandra; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; (Universidad Católica de Colombia, 2019-02)
    El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas (evidencias de validez y confiabilidad) de la ENCAO en trabajadores de una empresa privada del sector de hidrocarburos en Lima Metropolitana. Para esto, se evaluó a una muestra de 384 participantes, 64 % mujeres y 36 % hombres, con edades entre los 19 y los 56 años (M = 29.57 años, DE = 7.33). Como evidencias de validez de la estructura interna del instrumento, se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC), donde se encontró una estructura de cuatro factores relacionados (formación y cultura organizacional, aprendizaje social, aprendizaje grupal y aprendizaje estratégico individual) con los 21 ítems de la escala, los cuales explicaron el 60.33 % de la varianza total y obtuvieron adecuados índices de bondad de ajuste (χ² = 371.66; χ²/gl = 2.03; CFI = .99; RMSEA = .041). Como fuente de validez externa se obtuvieron correlaciones moderadas (entre .31 y .46) con la variable satisfacción laboral. Los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach de los cuatro factores oscilaron entre .60 y .84. Se concluye que la ENCAO y sus puntuaciones derivadas son una medida válida y fiable para medir el aprendizaje organizacional en el sector laboral evaluado.
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  • Evidencias psicométricas de una versión breve de la Coping HumorScale en adultos mayores peruanosTomás

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Ventura-León, José; Arias Gallegos, Walter L; Domínguez-Vergara, Julio; Azabache-Alvarado, Karla; Reyes Bossio, Mario; (Elsevier B.V., 2018-02)
    Introducción: El humor tiene un papel importante en la promoción de un envejecimiento exitoso y saluda-ble. Sin embargo, su estudio científico es aún limitado, en parte debido a la ausencia de medidas validadaspara su uso en el ámbito latinoamericano. El objetivo del estudio fue traducir al espa˜nol y examinar lasevidencias de fiabilidad y validez basadas en la estructura interna, convergente y discriminante de laversión peruana de la Coping with Humor Scale-5 ítems.Materiales y métodos: Los participantes fueron 236 adultos mayores peruanos (78,4% mujeres y 21,6%hombres) con un promedio de edad de 72,8 años (DE = 6,90).
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  • Sociodemographic, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Correlates of Using Nutrition, Weight Loss, and Fitness Websites: An Online Survey

    Almenara, Carlos A; Machackova, Hana; Smahel, David; (JMIR Publications, 2019-04-04)
    BACKGROUND: Nutrition, diet, and fitness are among the most searched health topics by internet users. Besides that, health-related internet users are diverse in their motivations and individual characteristics. However, little is known about the individual characteristics associated with the usage of nutrition, weight loss, and fitness websites. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the individual factors associated with the usage of nutrition, weight loss, and fitness websites. METHODS: An invitation to an online survey was published on 65 websites and discussion forums. In total, we employed data from 623 participants (aged 13 to 39 years, mean 24.11 [SD 5.26]). The measures included frequency of usage of nutrition, weight loss and fitness websites, excessive exercise, eating disorder symptomatology, internalization of the beauty ideal, weight status, and perceived online social support. Participants' data were used as predictors in a base linear regression model. RESULTS: The final model had an acceptable fit (χ210 =14.1; P=.17; root mean square error of approximation=0.03; comparative fit index=0.99; Tucker-Lewis index=0.99). Positive associations were found between usage of (1) nutrition websites and being female, higher levels of excessive exercise, and perceived online social support; (2) weight loss websites and excessive exercise, internalization, being female, eating disorder symptomatology, and being overweight or obese; and (3) fitness websites and levels of excessive exercise, internalization, and frequency of internet use. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted the importance of individual differences in the usage of health-related websites.
    Acceso abierto
  • Control Psicológico Parental y Problemas Internalizados y Externalizados en Adolescentes de Lima Metropolitana [Article]

    Solis Calcina, G.L.; Manzanares Medina, Eduardo; (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2019-01)
    The paper presents the results of a study of the relation between parental psychological control and the internalized and externalized problems of a group of 170 adolescents (58.2 % males), between the ages of 13 and 17, from a private school in Lima, Peru. The Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DapCS-S) and the Youth Self Report (ySR) inventory were used. Findings showed a positive and significant correlation between Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (apC) and Dependency-Oriented Parental Psychological Control (DpC) and the internalized and externalized problems. Results also showed that the maternal DpC and the paternal apC explain significantly the adolescents’ internalized problems. On the other hand, the maternal and paternal DpC explain significantly the adolescents’ criminal conduct.
    Acceso abierto
  • Programa basado e mindfulness para la reducción de la ansiedad precompetitniva en deportistas de artes marciales [Artículo]

    Trujillo-Torrealva, Daniel; Reyes Bossio, Mario; (Federación Española de Asociaciones Docentes de Educación Física, 2019-01)
    El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el efecto de un programa de intervención con componente mindfulness para la reducción de la ansiedad precompetitiva, el cual fue adaptado de programas que han demostrado su eficacia. La intervención estuvo compuesta por 12 sesiones de 1 hora de duración. Participaron en el estudio 33 deportistas de artes marciales (M = 18.97 años, DE = 1.64; 69.7% hombres). La ansiedad precompetitiva fue evaluada con la versión revisada del Inventario de Ansiedad Estado Competitiva -2 (CSAI-2R; Cox, Martens y Rusell, 2003), antes y después del periodo de la intervención. De acuerdo al grado de participación en la intervención, la muestra fue dividida en 2 grupos: Grupo Control (GC, n = 16) y Grupo Experimental (GE, n = 17). Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias significativas con tamaños del efecto grandes en la medida post test del GE, revelando una disminución en los niveles de ansiedad somática y cognitiva, y un aumento en los niveles de autoconfianza. Mientras, en el GC, no se obtuvo diferencias significativas y los tamaños del efecto fueron irrelevantes
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  • Suicide risk assessment: examining transitions in suicidal behaviors among pregnant women in Perú

    Levey, Elizabeth J.; Rondón, Marta B.; Sanchez, Sixto; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Williams, Michelle A.; Gelaye, Bizu; (Springer-Verlag Wien, 2018-07)
    The goals of this research were to characterize suicidal behavior among a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women and identify risk factors for transitions between behaviors. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview suicide questionnaire was employed to assess suicidal behavior. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to study the cumulative age-of-onset distribution. The hazard function was calculated to assess the risk of onset of each suicidal behavior. Among 2062 participants, suicidal behaviors were endorsed by 22.6% of participants; 22.4% reported a lifetime history of suicidal ideation, 7.2% reported a history of planning, and 6.0% reported attempting suicide. Childhood abuse was most strongly associated with suicidal behavior, accounting for a 2.57-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation, nearly 3-fold increased odds of suicide planning, and 2.43-fold increased odds of suicide attempt. This study identified the highest prevalence of suicidal behavior in a population of pregnant women outside the USA. Diverse populations of pregnant women and their patterns of suicidal behavior transition must be further studied. The association between trauma and suicidal behavior indicates the importance of trauma-informed care for pregnant women.
  • Apoyo organizacional percibido y compromiso organizacional en una empresa privada de Lima, Perú

    Flores M., Jessica; Ingrid, Gómez V. (Ajayu, 2018-03)
    En la presenta investigación se busca determinar la correlación entre las variables Apoyo Organizacional Percibido y Compromiso Organizacional en una institución privada de Lima. Se utilizó una muestra representativa de 135 teleoperadores de una empresa dedicada a un call center. La muestra estuvo conformada por un 56% de mujeres y un 44% de hombres, la edad promedio de ambos sexos fue de 24 años, el 73% ha nacido en Lima, el 26% en provincia y el 1% en el extranjero. Asimismo, en esta investigación se empleó la escala de Apoyo Organizacional Percibido de Eisenberger (1986) y la escala de Compromiso Organizacional de Meyer y Allen (1991). En esta investigación se concluyó que efectivamente el apoyo organizacional percibido y el compromiso organizacional presentan una relación positiva. La permanencia de un colaborador en la empresa dependerá de la percepción positiva de apoyo organizacional y la conformidad con el trabajo. Asimismo, si la persona tiene una percepción negativa de apoyo organizacional es muy probable que se sienta disconforme con su trabajo y por ende, abandone su puesto de trabajo.
    Acceso abierto
  • Contemporary Perspective on Addictive Behaviors: Underpinning Mechanisms, Assessment, and Treatment

    Cimino, Silvia; Almenara, Carlos A.; Cerniglia, Luca; Desousa, Avinash; Maremmani, Angelo G. I. (Hindawi, 2018-06)
    Carta al editor
    Acceso abierto
  • Espiritualidad e Inteligencia Emocional en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho

    Vílchez Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Miguel-Rojas, Josselyn; Vílchez-Quevedo, Edwin Jesús; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica – IPOPS, 2018-05)
    Esta investigación pretende hallar la correlación existente entre Inteligencia Emocional (IE) y Espiritualidad en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Ayacucho. Se optó por un método cuantitativo, de diseño transaccional de tipo correlacional. Para ello se contó con una muestra de 195 estudiantes universitarios de dos universidades privadas ayacuchanas, de los cuales el 41% son varones y el 59% son mujeres, con un rango de edad entre 18 a 38 años (m = 20.43). Se aplicó el Cuestionario del Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 para y el Cuestionario de Espiritualidad; ambos adaptados a la población peruana. Se analizaron las correlaciones de las dimensiones de ambas variables; obteniendo correlaciones positivas entre todas las dimensiones de IE con las dimensiones de Espiritualidad. Asimismo, los análisis realizados evidencian que se encuentra diferencias significativas en la valoración explícita de la espiritualidad según sexo; específicamente las mujeres puntúan más en este aspecto. También se puede destacar que la dimensión de autoconciencia del cuestionario de Espiritualidad presenta las correlaciones más fuertes con las dimensiones de Inteligencia Emocional.
    Acceso abierto
  • Adaptación de la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en estudiantes universitarios peruanos

    Guzmán-Yacaman1, Jaime Enrique; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2018-06)
    El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en validar la Escala de Percepción Global de Estrés en una muestra peruana de universitarios de un programa nacional de becas. El proceso de adaptación consideró la doble traducción a partir de la versión original, la comparación lingüística con la adaptación chilena y mexicana, así como la revisión por jueces. Asimismo, se aplicó una prueba piloto. Los participantes fueron 332 becarios universitarios. Los resultados del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio confirmaron el modelo bifactorial de la EPGE-13. Asimismo, se obtuvieron evidencias de validez divergente y convergente utilizando el SPANAS. La confiabilidad estimada de los puntajes generados por el instrumento fueron α=.79 para el factor de eustrés y α= .77 para el factor de distrés. Los resultados demográficos indicaron mayor presencia de estrés percibido en mujeres que en hombres. No se observaron diferencias entre el estrés y el lugar de procedencia.
    Acceso abierto
  • Docentes universitarios: Una mirada desde la autoeficacia general y engagement laboral

    Lozano-Paz, Carmen Rosa; Reyes Bossio, Mario (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2017-05-16)
    This research aims at understanding general self-efficacy and work engagement of professors of the Psychology Program of a private university in metropolitan Lima. To reach this objective, in-depth interviews with seven professors were conducted: three of them were women and four were men. Based on those interviews, it was possible to understand what personal factors have helped said professors to carry out their work as well as with what they are engaged. Finally, it was concluded that professors have self-efficacy, as they assess their skills and their environment to achieve their goals. Another finding was that they are engaged with their teaching work, and this is based on their interaction with their students, since they do more research and are up-to-date with current practices in their field.
    Acceso abierto
  • Trajectories of aggressive and depressive symptoms in male and female overweight children: Do they share a common path or do they follow different routes?

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Erriu, Michela; Jezek, Stanislav; Almenara, Carlos A.; Tambelli, Renata (PLoS ONE, 2018-01-05)
    The prevalence of childhood overweight is a major social and public health issue, and primary assessment should focus on early and middle childhood, because weight gain in these phases constitutes a strong predictor of subsequent negative outcomes. Studies on community samples have shown that growth curves may follow linear or non-linear trajectories from early to middle childhood, and can differ based on sex. Overweight children may exhibit a combination of physiological and psychosocial issues, and several studies have demonstrated an association between overweight and internalizing/externalizing behavior. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on depressive and aggressive symptoms in children with high BMI. This study adopted a growth curve modeling over three phases to: (1) describe BMI trajectories in two groups of children aged 2±8 (overweight and normal weight) from a community sample; (2) describe the developmental trajectories of children's aggressive and depressive symptoms from 2 to 8 years of age. Results indicate higher BMI in 2-year-old girls, with males catching up with them by age 8. While overweight females' BMIs were consistently high, males' increased at 5 and 8 years. The mean scores for aggressive symptoms at T1 (2 years of age) were the same in all subjects, but a significant deviation occurred from T1 to T2 in both samples, in divergent directions. With regards to children's depressive symptoms, the two groups had different starting points, with normal weight children scoring lower than overweight youths. Overweight females showed lower depressive scores than overweight males at T1, but they surpassed boys before T2, and showed more maladaptive symptoms at T3. This study solicits professionals working in pediatric settings to consider overweight children's psychopathological risk, and to be aware that even when children's BMI does not increase from 2 to 8 years, their psychopathological symptoms may grow in intensity.
    Acceso abierto
  • Weight stigmatization and disordered eating in obese women: The mediating effects of self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation

    Almenara, Carlos A.; Aimé, A.; Maïano, C.; Ejova, A.; Guèvremont, G.; Bournival, C.; Ricard, M.-M.; (Elsevier Masson SAS, 2017-05)
    Objective The aim of this study is to examine whether self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation are significant mediators in the association between weight-related self-devaluation and disordered eating. Method A sample of obese Canadian women (N = 111, M age = 40.9, SD = 10.2) completed the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (FNAES), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Results Self-esteem mediated the relationship between weight-related self-devaluation and restraint and weight concerns, whereas fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship with weight, shape and eating concerns. Conclusion Since, for obese women, self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation are likely to maintain disordered eating, they should be more frequently taken into consideration by researchers, health professionals and public policy stakeholders.
  • The effect of belief in weight controllability on anti-fat attitudes: An experimental manipulation

    Ksinan, A.J.; Almenara, Carlos A.; Vaculik, M.; (2017-05)
    Introduction Anti-fat attitudes reflect a type of discrimination on the basis of body weight and are one of the last accepted types of social stigma. Objective To evaluate the effect of exposure to priming messages about the causes of obesity on attitudes toward fat people. Method Participants (n = 580, M age = 22.19, 64.1% female) were randomly assigned to one of three possible conditions and then provided responses on three AFA subscales: Dislike, Fear of fat, and Willpower. Results Priming participants with messages confirming/challenging the weight controllability belief was associated with higher/lower levels on Willpower respectively compared to the control group. Unexpectedly, participants in both confirming and challenging groups showed significantly higher scores on Fear of fat. No differences were found on scores indicating Dislike. Conclusion The current findings emphasize the effect of exposure to information about the causes of obesity on weight controllability beliefs.

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