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  • Prevalence and predictors of intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in thirteen Latin American and Caribbean countries

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Rivera, Marlon Elías Lobos; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Intimayta-Escalante, Claudio (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    The presence of a significant number of people who do not intend to be vaccinated could negatively impact efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study sought to determine the prevalence of intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in thirteen countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A total of 5510 people from 13 LAC countries participated. Frequencies, percentages, bivariate analyses using chi-square tests, and Poisson regression analysis with robust variance were used. The countries with the highest prevalence of intention to be vaccinated were Brazil (96.94%), Cuba (89.59%), Chile (84.59%), and Mexico (78.33%). On the other hand, the countries with the lowest prevalence were El Salvador (54.01%), Paraguay (55.87%), and Uruguay (56.40%). Prevalence is also reported according to some sociodemographic and health variables. It was found that country, male sex, hours exposed to information about COVID-19, university education, living in an urban area, belief in the animal origin of the virus, perceived likelihood of contracting COVID-19, perceived severity of COVID-19, and concern about infecting others significantly predicted intention to be vaccinated in the 13 LAC countries. While most countries had a high prevalence of intention to be vaccinated, there are still subgroups that have levels of intention that may be insufficient to predict the presence of community immunity. In this sense, knowing the estimates of vaccination intention rates, as well as the associated sociodemographic and psychological factors, can be used to plan actions and interventions that will inform about the safety and benefits of vaccines, as well as strengthen trust in health authorities.
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  • Psychometric Evidence of the Scale of Risk of Addiction to Social Networks and Internet for Adolescents in Peruvian Students

    Gamboa-Melgar, Goldie; Peña-Fuertes, Yazmin; Manzanares-Medina, Eduardo (Aitana Research Group, 2022-01-01)
    The aim of the study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Adolescent- Risk of Addiction to Social Networks and Internet Scale (ERA-RSI) in Peruvian students. The sample was composed by 755 students (52.2% women), whose ages ranged from 13 to 24 years (M = 17, SD = 2.93) and attended private schools (62.2%) or universities (33.8%). The internal structure of the ERA-RSI, the invariance according to the level of instruction and sex, its relationship with other variables, and the reliability by internal consistency were analyzed. The results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicate a four-dimensional structure with adequate fit indices (χ2 / gl = 3.81, CFI = .91, TLI = .90, RMSEA = .061 [.058, .065], SRMR = .061) and which is invariant according to the level of instruction (school and university) and sex (men and women). In addition, good reliability is shown by internal consistency (ω = .74 to .83). For its part, convergent validity was performed with the Social Media Addiction Questionnaire (ARS) a positive, moderate to strong statistically significant correlation were found between the dimensions of both tests. In conclusion, the present adaptation of the ERA-RSI has, in general, adequate empirical evidence of validity and reliability and can be used in future research.
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  • Using functional analytic psychotherapy strategies for supporting latinas victims of interpersonal partner violence

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M.; Aguilar-Cacho, Renzo (Colegio Oficial de Psicologos, 2022-01-01)
    Interpersonal partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide public health problem. As a result of IPV, victims report high rates of physical and behavioral disabilities. Help-seeking behaviors are key to obtaining support on facing and managing IPV. Cultural practices such as machismo, marianismo, and familismo are related to keeping quiet and remaining in an abusive relationship in Latinas. Difficulties in sharing emotions, setting interpersonal boundaries, and communicating needs are also behavioral barriers to seeking help in this population. All these factors are associated with social disconnection which reduces victims’ chances of obtaining support in risky situations. Although several programs have been developed for helping victims of IPV, more evidence on adaptions to particular cultural and interpersonal struggles faced by Latinas’ victims is needed. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) proposes that therapeutic relationships based on intimacy can help victims of IPV to identify characteristics of those relationships that provide help when they need it. In this theoretical article, several FAP-based strategies aid therapists working with Latinas’ victims of IPV in strengthening clients’ interpersonal functioning and defeating cultural barriers when seeking help.
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  • Addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence in technical higher education students

    Alarcón-Allaín, Giovanni Franklin; Salas-Blas, Edwin (Instituto de Investigacion de Drogodependencias, 2022-01-01)
    Introduction. Social networks are used by around 3,600 million people, they facilitate communication and promote human ties; but its inappropriate use could cause problems and extreme addiction. Objective: Relate addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence. Method: Correlational study, 279 students of technical-superior level participated; The Social Media Addiction Questionnaire (ARS) and the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (EI) were administered. Results: Obsession (ARS) negatively correlates with Use of one’s own emotions and Regulation of emotions; likewise, Lack of control and Excessive use (ARS) with the dimensions Valuation of one’s own emotions, Use of one’s own emotions and Regulation of emotions; but, no factor of the ARS correlates with Valuation of the Emotions of the others; Likewise, men and women do not differ in the ARS, those who have more hours of connection are more likely to show higher scores in network addiction; and, in terms of emotional intelligence, women value the emotions of others more. Conclusions: Addiction to social networks and emotional intelligence are negatively related in almost all their dimensions, but it is an association of low magnitudes.
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  • A study on online intervention for early childhood eating disorders during COVID-19

    Cimino, Silvia; Almenara, Carlos A.; Cerniglia, Luca (MDPI, 2022-03-01)
    Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother–child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients’ needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers’ depression, anxiety, and obsession–compulsion symptoms. This study showed that video-feedback web-based intervention might be employed successfully to yield considerable beneficial effects. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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  • COVID-19 stressors and health behaviors: A multilevel longitudinal study across 86 countries

    Keng, Shian Ling; Stanton, Michael V.; Haskins, Lee Ann B.; Almenara, Carlos A.; Ickovics, Jeannette; Jones, Antwan; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Lemay, Edward P.; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Berisha Kida, Edona; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanovic, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane G.; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Maj, Marta; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta M.; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin (Elsevier Inc., 2022-06-01)
    Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few studies operationalized pandemic-related stressors to enable the investigation of the impact of different types of stressors on health outcomes. This study examined the association between perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and economic burden of COVID-19 with health-promoting and health-damaging behaviors using data from the PsyCorona Study: an international, longitudinal online study of psychological and behavioral correlates of COVID-19. Analyses utilized data from 7,402 participants from 86 countries across three waves of assessment between May 16 and June 13, 2020. Participants completed self-report measures of COVID-19 infection risk, COVID-19-related economic burden, physical exercise, diet quality, cigarette smoking, sleep quality, and binge drinking. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that across three time points, perceived economic burden was associated with reduced diet quality and sleep quality, as well as increased smoking. Diet quality and sleep quality were lowest among respondents who perceived high COVID-19 infection risk combined with high economic burden. Neither binge drinking nor exercise were associated with perceived COVID-19 infection risk, economic burden, or their interaction. Findings point to the value of developing interventions to address COVID-related stressors, which have an impact on health behaviors that, in turn, may influence vulnerability to COVID-19 and other health outcomes.
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  • Predictors of adherence to public health behaviors for fighting COVID-19 derived from longitudinal data

    Schumpe, Birga M.; van Lissa, Caspar J.; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Ruggeri, Kai; Mierau, Jochen; Nisa, Claudia F.; Molinario, Erica; Gelfand, Michele J.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Agostini, Maximilian; Gützkow, Ben; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Kutlaca, Maja; Lemay, Edward P.; Reitsema, Anne Margit; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Berisha Kida, Edona; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sara; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane; Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Zeljka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton P.; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Olivas Osuna, Jose Javier; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas H.; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien A.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh (Nature Research, 2022-12-01)
    The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one’s community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey (N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19, conspiracy beliefs, social norms on distancing, tightness of culture, and community punishment predict various containment-related attitudes and behavior. Autoregressive analyses indicate that, at the personal level, personal hygiene behavior was predicted by personal infection risk perception. At social level, social distancing behaviors such as abstaining from face-to-face contact were predicted by perceived social norms. Support for behavioral mandates was predicted by confidence in the government and cultural tightness, whereas support for anti-lockdown protests was predicted by (lower) perceived clarity of communication about the virus. Results are discussed in light of policy implications and creating effective interventions. © 2022, The Author(s).
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  • Sociodemographic and psychological predictors of intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in elderly peruvians

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Tomás, José M.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Intimayta-Escalante, Claudio; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Esteban, Renzo Felipe Carranza; White, Michael (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-03-01)
    The implementation of a vaccine against COVID-19 is one of the most important health strategies to mitigate the spread of the disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and its predictors in older Peruvian adults. This is a cross-sectional study, where information was collected through an online survey regarding vaccination intention of the participants, as well as sociodemographic and psychological variables. A multiple regression analysis was applied to identify predictors of intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19. We evaluated 245 participants, who had a mean age of 72.74 years old (SD = 6.66). 65.5% of these older adults expressed a high likelihood of accepting vaccination, while 20.9% expressed a low likelihood of accepting vaccination, and 13.6% were hesitant. Eleven predictors were identified that explained 66.69% of the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. This identified place of residence, perceived likelihood of contracting COVID-19, severity of previous infection with COVID-19, fear of the disease, previous refusal of a vaccine, concerns about vaccine sales and speculation, and trust toward vaccines against COVID-19, as the main predictors. Our results show that confidence in vaccines and previous vaccine refusal are relevant predictors of intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older adults; these findings may be useful to guide the development of campaigns for the immunization of this vulnerable group in the current pandemic. © 2021, Associação Brasileira de Psicologia.
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  • Intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19: the role of prosociality and conspiracy beliefs across 20 countries

    Enea, Violeta; Eisenbeck, Nikolett; Carreno, David F.; Douglas, Karen M.; Sutton, Robbie M.; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Berisha Kida, Edona; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanovic, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Grzymala-Moszczynska, Joanna; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lemay, Edward P.; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav (Routledge, 2022-01-01)
    Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-sectional online survey was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, involving 6697 respondents across 20 countries. Results showed that 72.9% of participants reported positive intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas 16.8% were undecided, and 10.3% reported they would not be vaccinated. At the individual level, prosociality was a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, whereas generic beliefs in conspiracy theories and religiosity were negative predictors. Country-level determinants, including cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance, were not significant predictors of vaccination intentions. Altogether, this study identifies individual-level predictors that are common across multiple countries, provides further evidence on the importance of combating conspiracy theories, involving religious institutions in vaccination campaigns, and stimulating prosocial motives to encourage vaccine uptake.
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  • Basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting: a study with brazilian professional players of League of Legends

    Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Junior, Marcelo Villas Boas; de Freitas Corrêa, Mariana; Souza, Vânia Hernandez; de Paula Moura, Larissa; de Oliveira, Rosemeire; Bossio, Mario Reyes; Brandão, Maria Regina Ferreira (MDPI, 2022-02-01)
    Recently, the skill to play games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of “eSports” (electronic sports). Despite the popularity of eSports, little is known about its professional players from a psychological perspective. Given the importance of the coach-created environment in the athletes’ motivational processes, this study aimed to investigate the key psychological dimensions of the coach-created climate in 75 Brazilian professional players of League of Legends (LoL) considering the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Achievement Goal Theory (AGT). Fourteen hypotheses were tested, of which seven were confirmed. The empowering climate was a predictor of basic psychological-needs satisfaction and indirectly influenced autonomous motivation. The need satisfaction had a significant impact on both autonomous motivation and on lack of motivation, which, in turn, explained 56% of the variance in well-being and the intention to keep playing eSports. The disempowering climate was a predictor of psychological-needs thwarting but had no significant impact on autonomous motivation or lack of motivation. The results obtained support SDT and AGT in the context of eSports and were similar to those conducted with athletes from traditional sports, indicating that the empower-ing-and-disempowering-coaching-climates conceptualization applies not only to traditional sports athletes but also to professional eSports players.
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  • Measurement of coronaphobia in older adults: Validation of the Spanish version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Peña-Calero, Brian Norman; Barboza-Palomino, Miguel; White, Michael; Reyes-Bossio, Mario (Ediciones Doyma, S.L., 2022-01-01)
    Background and objective: The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) is an instrument that measures the severity of anxiety due to COVID-19 or coronaphobia. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults are the most vulnerable age group; therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CAS in this group. Materials and method: 274 Peruvian older adults participated (Mage = 67.86; SD = 6.34, 64.6% women). In addition to the CAS, the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), and 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-2) were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure of the CAS and Item Response Theory was used to analyze item characteristics. A sequence of hierarchical variance models was used to evaluate the measurement invariance of the CAS according to age. To assess reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α) and the omega coefficient (ω) were used. The correlations between the CAS score and the scores of the PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scales were calculated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: The results of the CFA indicated that the unidimensional model of the CAS fitted the data adequately and showed very good reliability (α and ω ≥ .83). Likewise, all items provided high information and adequate discrimination, which allowed for better detection of average and high levels of coronaphobia in the older adult population. However, the CAS did not show evidence of being strictly invariant between older adults aged 60–65 years and 66–86 years. The CAS showed significant correlations with anxiety (r = .72; [95%CI: .66, .87] p < .01) and depression (r = .53; [95%CI: .43, .76] p < .01). Conclusion: The CAS in Spanish shows evidence of validity based on internal structure, convergent and divergent validity, as well as an adequate reliability estimate to assess coronaphobia in older adults. The CAS can be used to detect average and high levels of coronaphobia in the older adult population.
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  • Cross-cultural validation of the new version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in twelve Latin American countries

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen (Springer, 2022-01-01)
    The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) was recently developed to assess dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19. Although different studies reported that the CAS is psychometrically sound, it is unclear whether it is invariant across countries. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the CAS in twelve Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay). A total of 5196 people participated, with a mean age of 34.06 (SD = 26.54). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the measurement invariance of the CAS across countries and gender. Additionally, the graded response model (GRM) was used to provide a global representation of the representativeness of the scale with respect to the COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety construct. The unidimensional structure of the five-item CAS was not confirmed in all countries. Therefore, it was suggested that a four-item model of the CAS (CAS-4) provides a better fit across the twelve countries and reliable scores. Multigroup CFA showed that the CAS-4 exhibits scalar invariance across all twelve countries and all genders. In addition, the CAS-4 items are more informative at average and high levels of COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety than at lower levels. According to the results, the CAS-4 is an instrument with strong cross-cultural validity and is suitable for cross-cultural comparisons of COVID-19 dysfunctional anxiety symptoms in the general population of the twelve Latin American countries evaluated.
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  • Body dissatisfaction in university women: new psychometric evidence from the 14-item Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-14)

    Izquierdo-Cárdenas, S.; Caycho-Rodríguez, T.; Barboza-Palomino, M.; Reyes-Bossio, M. (Universidad de Murcia Servicio de Publicaciones, 2021-01-01)
    In recent years, young university students have experienced a greater concern for the body aspect that is related to having a slim figure. In this sense, it is important to have tools to measure the dissatisfaction they may have with their body appearance. The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-14). Specifically, to evaluate the internal structure of the BSQ-14, the internal consistency of the model, the evidence of discriminant validity based on the correlations of the average score of the BSQ-14 with a measure of mindfulness and the invariance of the BSQ-14 model, considering the variable of performance of physical activities. For hundred two young university students from Metropolitan Lima participated, with an average age of 20.05 years (SD = 18.18). A test battery including the BSQ-14 and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MASS-5) was administered. The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the BSQ-14 presented a good fit (x2 = 571,420; CFI = 0.962; SRMR = 0.051) and adequate reliability by the internal consistency method (ω = 0.962). Likewise, the BSQ-14 showed negative correlations with Mindfulness and body satisfaction. The BSQ-14 was shown to be invariant among university women who do or do not exercise. It is concluded that the study provides results that support the use of the BSQ-14 to measure body dissatisfaction with evidence of validity and reliability in a sample of young university students. of Metropolitan Lima.
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  • Burden syndrome and coping strategies in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients

    Reyna-García, Paola Daniela; Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Rojas-Jara, Claudio (Universidad Compultense Madrid, 2021-11-02)
    Objective: Pediatric cancer caregivers will encounter circumstances that will challenge their personal resources to face the diverse demands of care. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the relationship between burden syndrome and coping strategies in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. Method: 93 main caregivers of pediatric cancer patients participated (69.9% women, 30.1% men, mean age = 37.20 years, SD = 11.32), selected in a non-probabilistic way. The Caregiver Burden Scale and the COPE-28 Questionnaire were applied. Correlational and comparative statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The results indicate the presence of significant and inverse correlations that vary between r =-.25 and r =-.56. However, no significant association was found between the dimensions of caregiver burden and substance use. On the other hand, those caregivers who use poorly adaptive strategies are more likely to generate overload in relation to their role, influencing their personal, family and social life. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between overload syndrome and coping strategies. In addition, significant differences in overload are identified according to the place of origin and the hours dedicated to care.
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  • Politicization of COVID-19 health-protective behaviors in the United States: Longitudinal and cross-national evidence

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Lemay, Edward P.; Schiavone, William M.; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjolica; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanksi, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Jaya Lemsmana, Cokorda Bagus; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Olivas Osuna, Jose Javier; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav; Zheng, Bang; Zick, Andreas (Public Library of Science, 2021-10-01)
    During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow recommendations. Accordingly, we predicted that—as a result of politicization of the pandemic—politically conservative Americans would be less likely to enact recommended health-protective behaviors. In two longitudinal studies of U.S. residents, political conservatism was inversely associated with perceived health risk and adoption of health-protective behaviors over time. The effects of political orientation on health-protective behaviors were mediated by perceived risk of infection, perceived severity of infection, and perceived effectiveness of the health-protective behaviors. In a global cross-national analysis, effects were stronger in the U.S. (N = 10,923) than in an international sample (total N = 51,986), highlighting the increased and overt politicization of health behaviors in the U.S.
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  • Determinants of Eye Care Service Utilization among Peruvian Adults: Evidence from a Nationwide Household Survey

    Barrenechea-Pulache, Antonio; Portocarrero-Bonifaz, Andres; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Portocarrero-Ramos, Carlos; Moscoso-Carrasco, Jenny (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021-01-01)
    Purpose: This study analyzes the factors associated with eye care service utilization among Peruvians 50 years of age and older, measured as self-reporting of having undergone examination of visual acuity during the last 12 months. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for its acronym in Spanish) database was carried out. We estimated the weighted proportion of adults 50 years of age and older that reported having undergone a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months and the frequency according to the variables of interest. Crude (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of eye care service utilization were constructed using generalized linear models. Results: Approximately 28.8% of Peruvians 50 years of age and older underwent a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months. Having a higher education (aPR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33–2.40), health insurance such as EsSalud (aPR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28–1.87), a previous diagnosis of cataracts (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.67–2.09) and being part of the richest wealth quintile (aPR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.74–3.20) were associated with greater utilization of eye care services, while living in the jungle was associated with a lower likelihood of utilization of these services. Conclusion: The unequal distribution of health resources within the territory and socioeconomic gaps among the population could explain our findings. Further efforts are needed to fulfill the eye health needs of the Peruvian population.
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  • ‘We are all in the same boat’: How societal discontent affects intention to help during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Resta, Elena; Mula, Silvana; Baldner, Conrad; Santo, Daniela Di; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum Abdul; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sara; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Zeljka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lemay, Edward P.; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton P.; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas H.; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien A.; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; van Dellen, Michelle R.; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav; Zheng, Bang (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2021-01-01)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a global health crisis. Consequently, many countries have adopted restrictive measures that caused a substantial change in society. Within this framework, it is reasonable to suppose that a sentiment of societal discontent, defined as generalized concern about the precarious state of society, has arisen. Literature shows that collectively experienced situations can motivate people to help each other. Since societal discontent is conceptualized as a collective phenomenon, we argue that it could influence intention to help others, particularly those who suffer from coronavirus. Thus, in the present study, we aimed (a) to explore the relationship between societal discontent and intention to help at the individual level and (b) to investigate a possible moderating effect of societal discontent at the country level on this relationship. To fulfil our purposes, we used data collected in 42 countries (N = 61,734) from the PsyCorona Survey, a cross-national longitudinal study. Results of multilevel analysis showed that, when societal discontent is experienced by the entire community, individuals dissatisfied with society are more prone to help others. Testing the model with longitudinal data (N = 3,817) confirmed our results. Implications for those findings are discussed in relation to crisis management. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
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  • Perceived Urban Environment Attributes and Device-Measured Physical Activity in Latin America: An 8-Nation Study

    Ferrari, Gerson; Werneck, André O.; Silva, Danilo R.; Kovalskys, Irina; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Y.; García, Martha Cecilia Yépez; Liria-Domínguez, Maria R.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Pratt, Michael; Marques, Adilson; Van Dyck, Delfien; Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Fisberg, Mauro (Elsevier Inc., 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: Attributes of the neighborhood-built environment are associated with self-reported physical activity, but only a few studies have concentrated on device-measured physical activity in Latin America. This study examines the associations of perceived neighborhood-built environment attributes, device-measured sedentary time, and light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in adults from 8 Latin American countries. Methods: Data from Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud adult study, an observational multicountry study (N=2,478), were analyzed in 2020. Data were collected between 2014 and 2015. Perceived neighborhood-built environment attributes were measured using the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey. Sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity data were collected using accelerometers. Results: No associations between perceived neighborhood-built environment attributes and sedentary time were found. Positive perceptions of walking/cycling facilities (β=6.50, 95% CI=2.12, 10.39) were associated with more light-intensity physical activity. Perceptions of better aesthetics (Argentina) and better walking/cycling facilities (Brazil and Ecuador) were positively associated with light-intensity physical activity. Land use mix–diversity (β=0.14, 95% CI=0.03, 0.25), walking/cycling facilities (β=0.16, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27), aesthetics (β=0.16, 95% CI=0.02, 0.30), and safety from traffic (β=0.18, 95% CI=0.05, 0.24) were positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Land use mix–diversity, street connectivity, and safety from traffic were positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in Venezuela. Conclusions: These findings have implications for policy recommendations, which can guide policies to promote physical activity in the region. Land use mix–diversity, walking/cycling facilities, aesthetics, and safety from traffic can maintain or increase the levels of light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Latin American adults.
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  • Self-Perception of Digital Competences among Peruvian Teachers

    Tomás-Rojas, Ambrosio; Freundt-Thurne, Úrsula; Gallardo-Echenique, Eliana; Bossio, Jorge (CEUR-WS, 2021-01-01)
    The study analyzes teachers’ self-perceived digital competence at a private university in Lima, Peru. A non-experimental comparative level design was used through non-parametric techniques. The DigCompEdu CheckIn tool of 25 items was applied with a Likert scale. The results indicate the need to (a) validate the questionnaire and have a measure of the construct with solid and stable psychometric properties; (b) compare these findings with those found in other MetaRed Peru institutions, as a point of contrast, to develop strategies that encourage teachers to continue their digital literacy; and (c) identify which interventions in informal settings help teachers develop their digital competence. © 2020 Copyright for this paper by its authors.
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  • Intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in Peruvian older adults

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela (Ediciones Doyma, S.L., 2021-07-01)
    Con los recientes acuerdos del gobierno peruano con los laboratorios Sinopharm, Pfizer y Astrazeneca para la adquisición de vacunas contra la COVID-19, surge la pregunta de si un número suficiente de personas estarían dispuestas a ser inmunizadas para controlar la pandemia y la manera de garantizar que la población esté adecuadamente informada sobre la vacuna1.
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