• Accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review

      Lloyd, Aaron; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Thota, Priyaleela; Pant, Chaitanya; Rolston, David D.K; Hernández, Adrian V.; Benítes-Zapata, Vicente A.; Fraser, Thomas G.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Deshpande, Abhishek (Elsevier B.V., 2015-02-24)
      Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) are currently used as standalone diagnostic test for C. difficile infection (CDI). We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for the diagnosis of CDI. We searched 5 databases to identify studies that compared LAMP with culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay or anaerobic toxigenic culture (TC) of C. difficile. We used the random-effects model to calculate pooled sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The search of the databases yielded 16 studies (6,979 samples) that met inclusion criteria. When TC was used as the gold standard (6,572 samples), bivariate analysis yielded a mean sensitivity of 0.95 (95%CI, 0.93-0.97; I2 = 67.4) and a mean specificity of 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.00; I2 = 97.0). LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting CDI. The results should however be interpreted only in the presence of clinical suspicion and symptoms of CDI.
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    • Association between Insulin Resistance and Breast Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Hernández, Adrian V.; Guarnizo, Mirella; Miranda, Yony; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Deshpande, Abhishek; Paico, Socorro; Lenti, Hosten; Ganoza, Silvia; Montalvo, Laritza; Thota, Priyaleela; Lazaro, Herbert (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-06-09)
      Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between components defining insulin resistance and breast cancer in women. Study Design: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus) for observational studies evaluating components defining insulin resistance in women with and without breast cancer. A meta-analysis of the association between insulin resistance components and breast cancer was performed using random effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies (n = 33,405) were selected. Fasting insulin levels were not different between women with and without breast cancer (standardized mean difference, SMD 20.03, 95%CI 20.32 to 0.27; p = 0.9). Similarly, non-fasting/ fasting C-peptide levels were not different between the two groups (mean difference, MD 0.07, 20.21 to 0.34; p = 0.6). Using individual odds ratios (ORs) adjusted at least for age, there was no higher risk of breast cancer when upper quartiles were compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) of fasting insulin levels (OR Q2 vs. Q1 0.96, 0.71 to 1.28; OR Q3 vs. Q1 1.22, 0.91 to 1.64; OR Q4 vs. Q1 0.98, 0.70 to 1.38). Likewise, there were no differences for quartiles of non-fasting/fasting C-peptide levels (OR Q2 vs. Q1 1.12, 0.91 to 1.37; OR Q3 vs. Q1 1.20, 0.91 to 1.59; OR Q4 vs. Q1 1.40, 1.03 to 1.92). Homeostatic model assessment (HOMAIR) levels in breast cancer patients were significantly higher than in people without breast cancer (MD 0.22, 0.13 to 0.31, p, 0.00001). Conclusions: Higher levels of fasting insulin or non-fasting/fasting C-peptide are not associated with breast cancer in women. HOMA-IR levels are slightly higher in women with breast cancer.
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    • Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

      Pasupuleti, Vinay; Escobedo, Angel Arturo; Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernández, Adrian V. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-05-03)
      Background: Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n = 3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p = 0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2= 72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p = 0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p = 0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p = 0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2= 57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions: Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI.
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