• Association between obesity and postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac operations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Hernández, Adrian V.; Kaw, Roop; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Bina, Pouya; P. A. Ioannidis, John; Bueno, Hector; Boersma, Eric; Gillinov, Marc (Elsevier B.V., 2014-07-03)
      In a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Eighteen observational studies that excluded patients with preoperative AF were selected until December 2011 (n=36,147). Obese patients had a modest higher risk of POAF in comparison to non-obese (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.04-1.21, p=0.002). The association between obesity and POAF did not vary substantially by type of cardiac surgery, study design or year of publication. POAF was significantly associated with higher risk of stroke, respiratory failure, and operative mortality.
      Acceso abierto
    • Factors predicting incremental administration of antihypertensive boluses during deep brain stimulator placement for Parkinson’s disease

      Rajan, Shobana; Deogaonkar, Milind; Kaw, Roop; Nada, Eman MS; Hernández, Adrian V.; Ebrahim, Zeyd; Avitsian, Rafi (Elsevier B.V., 2014-11-28)
      Hypertension is common in deep brain stimulator (DBS) placement predisposing to intracranial hemorrhage. This retrospective review evaluates factors predicting incremental antihypertensive use intraoperatively. Medical records of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS procedure between 2008–2011 were reviewed after Institutional Review Board approval. Anesthesia medication, preoperative levodopa dose, age, preoperative use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes mellitus, anxiety, motor part of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score and PD duration were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done between each patient characteristic and the number of antihypertensive boluses. From the 136 patients included 60 were hypertensive, of whom 32 were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), told to hold on the morning of surgery. Antihypertensive medications were given to 130 patients intraoperatively. Age (relative risk [RR] 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.02; p = 0.005), high Joint National Committee (JNC) class (p < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (RR 1.4; 95%CI 1.2–17; p < 0.0001) and duration of PD >10 years (RR 1.2; 95%CI 1.1–1.3; p = 0.001) were independent predictors for antihypertensive use. No difference was noted in the mean dose of levodopa (p = 0.1) and levodopa equivalent dose (p = 0.4) between the low (I/II) and high severity (III/IV) JNC groups. Addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol did not influence antihypertensive boluses required (p = 0.38). Intraoperative hypertension during DBS surgery is associated with higher age group, hypertensive, diabetic patients and longer duration of PD. Withholding ACEI or ARB is an independent predictor of hypertension requiring more aggressive therapy. Levodopa withdrawal and choice of anesthetic agent is not associated with higher intraoperative antihypertensive medications.
      Acceso abierto
    • Inferior vena cava filters and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: a meta-analysis

      Kaw, Roop; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Overby, D.Wayne; Deshpande, Abhishek; Craig I. Coleman Pharm; John P.A. Ioannidis; Hernández, Adrian V. (Elsevier B.V., 2014-06-09)
      Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) accounts for almost 40% of perioperative deaths after bariatric surgery. Placement of prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filter before bariatric surgery to improve outcomes has shown varied results. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate postoperative outcomes associated with the preoperative placement of IVC filters in these patients. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by three investigators independently in PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and Scopus until February 28, 2013. Our search was restricted to studies in adult patients undergoing bariatric surgery with and without IVC filters. Primary outcomes were postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and postoperative mortality. Meta-analysis used random effects models to account for heterogeneity, and Sidik-Jonkman method to account for scarcity of outcomes and studies. Associations are shown as Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results: Seven observational studies were identified (n=102,767), with weighted average incidences of DVT (0.9%), PE (1.6%), and mortality (1.0%) for a follow-up ranging from 3 weeks to 3 months. Use of IVC filters was associated with an approximately 3-fold higher risk of DVT and death that was nominally significant for the former outcome, but not the latter (RR 2.81, 95%CI 1.33-5.97, p=0.007; and RR 3.27, 95% CI 0.78-13.64, p=0.1, respectively); there was no difference in the risk of PE (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.31-3.77, p=0.9). Moderate to high heterogeneity of effects was noted across studies. Conclusions: Placement of IVC filter before bariatric surgery is associated with higher risk of postoperative DVT and mortality. A similar risk of PE in patients with and without IVC filter placement cannot exclude a benefit, given the potential large imbalance in risk at baseline. Randomized trials are needed before IVC placement can be recommended.
      Acceso abierto