Recent Submissions

  • Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with sars-cov-2 infection admitted to a peruvian hospital

    Rodríguez-Portilla, Ricardo; Llaque-Quiroz, Patricia; Guerra-Ríos, Claudia; Cieza-Yamunaqué, Liliana Paola; Coila-Paricahua, Edgar Juan; Baique-Sánchez, Pedro Michael; Pinedo-Torres, Isabel (Instituto Nacional de Salud, 2021-04-01)
    We carried out an observational, retrospective and descriptive study in order to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a Peruvian national referral hospital. We included patients from one month old to fourteen years old hospitalized between March and August 2020. A total of 125 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 18.4% (n = 23) had critical illness and 16.8% (n = 21) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). The absence of comorbidities and previous history of epidemiological contact were more frequent in patients with MIS-C. Patients in critical condition and patients with MIS-C had lower lymphocyte and platelet counts, and higher C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer values than patients who did not have said conditions. Six (4.8%) out of 125 children died, as well as 3 (13%) children from the group of patients in critical condition. None of the children with MIS-C died.
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  • Concordance between the Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tests for Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    Campos-Vasquez, F.; Valdez-Murrugarra, N.; Soto-Tarazona, A.; Camacho-Caballero, K.; Rodriguez-Cuba, M. A.; Parodi, J. F.; Runzer-Colmenares, F. M. (Pleiades journals, 2021-07-01)
    Abstract: Determine the level of concordance between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Short Portable Mental State Examination (SPMSQ), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screening test for cognitive impairment in older adults. A cross-sectional study based on an original cohort study. 1683 patients over 60 years-old were included between 2010 and 2015. Demographic information was collected and the MMSE, MoCA, and SPMSQ scores were obtained. Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages, while numerical ones as median and interquartile range. The agreement was measured and adjusted by the number of years of education by Cohen’s Kappa index (k) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The agreement was considered as good if k > 0.80. MMSE classified 43.32% of the patients as having cognitive impairment, MoCA 43.14%, and SPMSQ 24.84%. MMSE and MoCA showed an agreement (k) of 0.99 with a 95% CI of 0.99–1.00; MoCA and SPMSQ showed a k of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.38–0.46). Finally, MMSE and SPMSQ showed a k of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37–0.46). The results did not change when performing the analysis by education subgroups. There was a strong concordance between MoCA and MMSE tests. Nevertheless, the SPMSQ was discordant with the other tests.
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  • Sleep Quality and Perinatal Depression in Pregnant Women Treated in a Primary Care Centre in Lima, Peru

    Choquez-Millan, Luis; Soto, Alonso (Elsevier Doyma, 2021-01-01)
    Objective: The aim is to evaluate the association between sleep quality and perinatal depression in pregnant women between the 12th week of gestation and the 36th week of gestation in a maternity and child centre in Lima. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study in pregnant women cared for in a primary care centre between August and December 2019. The data were collected through a self-administered survey. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. The evaluation of perinatal depression was performed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). For the multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust variances was used to calculate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective confidence intervals. Results: The sample was composed of 200 participants. The median [IQR] age was 26 [22-32] years, and 111 (55.5%) pregnancies were unplanned. 52% presented a poor quality of sleep and the risk of perinatal depression was 31.5%. Poor quality of sleep was associated with a significantly higher frequency of perinatal depression (aPR = 4.8 for those with poor quality of sleep warranting medical attention, and aPR = 6.6 for those with poor quality of sleep warranting medical attention and treatment). Conclusions: There is a possible association between poor sleep quality and perinatal depression in pregnant women between weeks 12 and 36 of gestation. Operational research should be promoted to assess whether interventions to improve sleep quality could have a positive impact on reducing perinatal depression.
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  • Factors associated with home remedy use by adults who do not attend health care facilities: Evidence from peruvian population-based survey, 2019

    Peralta-Vera, F. Guadalupe; Castillo-Céspedes, Enzo; Galup-Leyva, Mariajose; Rucoba-Ames, Joaquín; Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Benites-Zapata, Vicente A. (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2021-11-01)
    We estimated home remedy use (HRU) prevalence and associated factors in adults who present symptoms, disease, or accidents using the National Household Survey 2019. The estimation was performed in a population that did not access a health care facility. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study in adults over 18 years of age. The dependent variable was HRU (Yes/No) as the main reason for not going to health care facilities. We collected these variables: age, sex, education, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, chronic diseases or disability, and health insurance. The HRU prevalence was associated with older participants, who lived in the highlands or the jungle, belonged to Quechua or Aymara ethnic groups, and had comprehensive health insurance. In contrast, there was a lower HRU prevalence for those enrolled in private insurance. The HRU was associated with various socio-demographic factors in adults with any symptoms, illness, or accidents not attending health centers.
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  • Is Vitamin A Supplementation Associated With Anemia in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Peru: Secondary Analysis of the “Demographic Health Survey” 2015-2018?

    Ribaudo, Isabella; Aramburú-Duclos, Camila B.; Blitchtein, Dora (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021-01-01)
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects 12% of Peruvians under 5 years of age. Recent studies have shown an association with hematopoiesis and iron metabolism. In Peru, 3-quarters of a million children have anemia. We aimed to identify an association between Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and anemia in children under 5 years of age. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study from the Peruvian Demographic Survey and Family Health (DHS) was conducted. The primary outcome, anemia, was measured through hemoglobin concentration and adjusted by altitude. The DHS interviewer ensured the participant’s VAS in the last 6 months through a structural healthcare card. The association was statistically significant using crude regression but disappeared when adjusted per socioeconomic level and gender. VAS was not significantly associated with a lower prevalence of anemia. Further studies are required to help identify the association between VAS and anemia.
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  • The Elipse® swallowable intragastric balloon: First experience in Peru

    Piskulich-Negrillo, Erick; Torres-Pesantes, Luciana; Rodriguez-Sagastegui, Julio O.; Salinas-Sedo, Gustavo; Toro-Huamanchumo, Carlos J. (Medical Body of the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo National Hospital, 2021-06-30)
    Carta al editor
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  • Politicization of COVID-19 health-protective behaviors in the United States: Longitudinal and cross-national evidence

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Lemay, Edward P.; Schiavone, William M.; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjolica; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanksi, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Jaya Lemsmana, Cokorda Bagus; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Olivas Osuna, Jose Javier; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav; Zheng, Bang; Zick, Andreas (Public Library of Science, 2021-10-01)
    During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow recommendations. Accordingly, we predicted that—as a result of politicization of the pandemic—politically conservative Americans would be less likely to enact recommended health-protective behaviors. In two longitudinal studies of U.S. residents, political conservatism was inversely associated with perceived health risk and adoption of health-protective behaviors over time. The effects of political orientation on health-protective behaviors were mediated by perceived risk of infection, perceived severity of infection, and perceived effectiveness of the health-protective behaviors. In a global cross-national analysis, effects were stronger in the U.S. (N = 10,923) than in an international sample (total N = 51,986), highlighting the increased and overt politicization of health behaviors in the U.S.
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  • Buckling analysis of laminated composite beams by using an improved first order formulation

    Ayala, Shammely; Vallejos, Augusto; Arciniega, Roman (Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2021-01-01)
    In this work, a finite element model based on an improved first-order formulation (IFSDT) is developed to analyze buckling phenomenon in laminated composite beams. The formulation has five independent variables and takes into account thickness stretching. Threedimensional constitutive equations are employed to define the material properties. The Trefftz criterion is used for the stability analysis. The finite element model is derived from the principle of virtual work with high-order Lagrange polynomials to interpolate the field variables and to prevent shear locking. Numerical results are compared and validated with those available in literature. Furthermore, a parametric study is presented.
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  • Data Visualization Techniques for Monitoring Real-Time Information of Cold Chain

    Rivas Tucto, Jerson; Castillo Talexio, Nora; Shiguihara Juárez, Pedro (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021-01-01)
    Real-time monitoring of temperature is a critical factor in ensuring the integrity of food during the cold chain. In this work, we compare techniques related to real-time data visualization to contribute to more efficient monitoring of the cold chain. Three real-time data display attributes were evaluated, and we constructed a dataset based on the Frisbee database (CDD). In this paper, we proposed graphics containing different line and area techniques to be evaluated for a specialist. The proposed graphs contained the line and area techniques that, when performing the experiment, obtained a higher success rate compared to the auto-charting technique. However, it was evidenced that elements such as color facilitate the detection of anomalies and trends in temperature change due to its high percentage of effectiveness in the results.
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  • Códigos Emergentes de "Dadvertising": Representaciones Paternas con Enfoque Equitativo

    Morales Vivanco, Verónica; Gallardo-Echenique, Eliana Esther (Universidad de Sevilla, 2022-01)
    Este estudio analizó los códigos de dadvertising asociados a la equidad de género. El dadvertising es un tipo de publicidad paternal que promueve representaciones cercanas y multifacéticas de los hombres en su rol de padres dentro del hogar. Al ser una tendencia emergente, no hay suficientes estudios enfocados en construir mensajes publicitarios empáticos e inclusivos dirigido a los padres. Se adoptó una metodología cualitativa para analizar el spot “Más tiempo para crecer” de la marca bancaria Interbank. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 15 padres de familia de 25 a 39 años de edad. Como resultado, los códigos de dadvertising asociados a la equidad de género en el spot son: protección, satisfacción, compañerismo, empoderamiento emocional, valores de equidad, expresión emocional y equilibrio trabajo-familia. Estos códigos contribuyen a la construcción de un discurso publicitario alejado de estereotipos tradicionales, para generar una identificación y actitud positiva de marca con los padres de familia.
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  • Global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health: Results of an international survey

    Etti, Melanie; Alger, Jackeline; Salas, Sofia P.; Saggers, Robin; Ramdin, Tanusha; Endler, Margit; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Alfven, Tobias; Ahmed, Yusuf; Callejas, Allison; Eskenazi, Deborah; Khalil, Asma; Le Doare, Kirsty (Public Library of Science, 2021-09-01)
    Background The World Health Organization's "Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus"outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID- 19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. Method This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH WG. Analysis of questionnaire data was undertaken to identify key similarities and differences among respondents according to questionnaire language, location and specialty. Following elimination of the seven lowest ranking priorities, the questionnaire was recirculated to the original pool of respondents. Thematic analysis of final questionnaire data was undertaken by the MNCH WG from which four priority research themes emerged. Results Questionnaire 1 was completed by 225 respondents from 29 countries. Questionnaire 2 was returned by 49 respondents. The four priority research themes which emerged from the analysis were 1) access to healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the direct and 3) indirect effects of COVID-19 on pregnant and breastfeeding women and children and 4) the transmission of COVID-19 and protection from infection. Conclusion The results of these questionnaires indicated a high level of concordance among continents and specialties regarding priority research themes. This prioritized list of research uncertainties, developed to specifically highlight the most urgent clinical needs as perceived by healthcare professionals and researchers, could help funding organizations and researchers to answer the most pressing questions for clinicians and public health professionals during the pandemic. It is hoped that these identified priority research themes can help focus the discussion regarding the allocation of limited resources to enhance COVID-19 research in MNCH globally.
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  • Prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and metaanalysis

    Yovera-Aldana, Marlon; Velasquez-Rimachi, Victor; Huerta-Rosario, Andrely; More-Yupanqui, M. D.; Osores-Flores, Mariela; Espinoza, Ricardo; Gil-Olivares, Fradis; Quispe-Nolazco, Cesar; Quea-Velez, Flor; Moran-Mariños, Christian; Pinedo-Torres, Isabel; Alva-Diaz, Carlos; Pacheco-Barrios, Kevin (Public Library of Science, 2021-05-01)
    Aims The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Materials and methods We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EMBASE and LILACS databases of published observational studies in LAC up to December 2020. Meta-analyses of proportions were performed using random-effects models using Stata Program 15.1. Heterogeneity was evaluated through sensitivity, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Evidence certainty was performed with the GRADE approach. Results Twenty-nine studies from eight countries were included. The estimated prevalence of DPN was 46.5% (95%CI: 38.0-55.0) with a significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98.2%; p<0.01). Only two studies reported incidence, and the pooled effect size was 13.7% (95%CI: 10.6-17.2). We found an increasing trend of cumulative DPN prevalence over time. The main sources of heterogeneity associated with higher prevalence were diagnosis criteria, higher A1c (%), and inadequate sample size. We judge the included evidence as very low certainty. Conclusion The overall prevalence of DPN is high in LAC with significant heterogeneity between and within countries that could be explained by population type and methodological aspects. Significant gaps (e.g., under-representation of most countries, lack of incidence studies, and heterogenous case definition) were identified. Standardized and population-based studies of DPN in LAC are needed.
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  • Themes of scientific production of the cuban journal of pharmacy indexed in scopus (1967-2020)

    Chung, Sun Ah; Olivera, Selma; Román, Brenda Rojas; Alanoca, Evelyn; Moscoso, Stephanie; Terceros, Bianca Limpias; Álvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: The Cuban Journal of Pharmacy celebrated this year its fifty-fourth anniversary, and during all these years it has successfully published more than 1110 works indexed in Scopus bibliographic database until 2020. Objective: Describe the scientific production from the thematic point of view of the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy indexed in Scopus. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out, based on the systematic review of scientific literature published by the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy, available in Scopus. Publications were grouped by thematic areas according to the authors' criteria, based on the keywords presented in the abstracts and the central theme of the article. The thematic areas defined were eight, with eight sub-themes. Conclusions: Since 1967, the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy has strived to promote the development of science and research in its home country, Cuba. However, because of the variety of its articles it is of great value to foreign researchers and students too. The studies presented have been characterized by the diversity of topics related to pharmacology, the use of Cuban medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes and the methodology for better drug’s production and laboratory procedures.
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  • Combination of stem cells and rehabilitation therapies for ischemic stroke

    Berlet, Reed; Anthony, Stefan; Brooks, Beverly; Wang, Zhen Jie; Sadanandan, Nadia; Shear, Alex; Cozene, Blaise; Gonzales-Portillo, Bella; Parsons, Blake; Salazar, Felipe Esparza; Lezama Toledo, Alma R.; Monroy, Germán Rivera; Gonzales-Portillo, Joaquín Vega; Borlongan, Cesario V. (MDPI, 2021-09-01)
    Stem cell transplantation with rehabilitation therapy presents an effective stroke treatment. Here, we discuss current breakthroughs in stem cell research along with rehabilitation strategies that may have a synergistic outcome when combined together after stroke. Indeed, stem cell transplantation offers a promising new approach and may add to current rehabilitation therapies. By reviewing the pathophysiology of stroke and the mechanisms by which stem cells and rehabilitation attenuate this inflammatory process, we hypothesize that a combined therapy will provide better functional outcomes for patients. Using current preclinical data, we explore the prominent types of stem cells, the existing theories for stem cell repair, rehabilitation treatments inside the brain, rehabilitation modalities outside the brain, and evidence pertaining to the benefits of combined therapy. In this review article, we assess the advantages and disadvantages of using stem cell transplantation with rehabilitation to mitigate the devastating effects of stroke.
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  • Determinants of Eye Care Service Utilization among Peruvian Adults: Evidence from a Nationwide Household Survey

    Barrenechea-Pulache, Antonio; Portocarrero-Bonifaz, Andres; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Portocarrero-Ramos, Carlos; Moscoso-Carrasco, Jenny (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021-01-01)
    Purpose: This study analyzes the factors associated with eye care service utilization among Peruvians 50 years of age and older, measured as self-reporting of having undergone examination of visual acuity during the last 12 months. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for its acronym in Spanish) database was carried out. We estimated the weighted proportion of adults 50 years of age and older that reported having undergone a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months and the frequency according to the variables of interest. Crude (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of eye care service utilization were constructed using generalized linear models. Results: Approximately 28.8% of Peruvians 50 years of age and older underwent a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months. Having a higher education (aPR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33–2.40), health insurance such as EsSalud (aPR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28–1.87), a previous diagnosis of cataracts (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.67–2.09) and being part of the richest wealth quintile (aPR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.74–3.20) were associated with greater utilization of eye care services, while living in the jungle was associated with a lower likelihood of utilization of these services. Conclusion: The unequal distribution of health resources within the territory and socioeconomic gaps among the population could explain our findings. Further efforts are needed to fulfill the eye health needs of the Peruvian population.
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  • Digital competence in teachers of health sciences in a private university in lima

    Trujillo, María de los Ángeles Sánchez; Flores, Eduar Antonio Rodríguez (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: This work responds to the need of developing digital skills in teachers, who can take advantage of the different potentialities of technological resources in order to achieve better learning in their students. Objective: To determine the differences between the dimensions of the digital competence of teachers of the School of Health Sciences of a private university in Lima, Peru, according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: A comparative descriptive design was used. It should also be noted that a total population composed of 40 teachers was considered, of which 34 agreed to collaborate in the research. The instrument used to collect information was an adaptation of the Teaching Digital Competence Questionnaire, prepared by Javier Tourón, Deborah Martín, Enrique Navarro, Silvia Pradas and Victoria Íñigo in 2018. In addition, a sociodemographic record was addressed to teachers. Subsequently, statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 25 software. Results: It was found that there were no significant differences between the dimensions of digital competence, according to the sociodemographic variables of sex, age, maximum level of study reached, and years of teaching experience. Even so, the differences evidenced in some of these variables could be subject of future studies. Conclusions: The dimension in which teachers have the greatest problems is security, while the one in which they have the least difficulties is problem solving.
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  • Safety and tolerability of a natural supplement containing glucosinolates, phytosterols and citrus flavonoids in adult women: a randomized phase I, placebo-controlled, multi-arm, double-blinded clinical trial

    Villar-López, Martha; Soto-Becerra, Percy; Curse Choque, Ruth; Al-kassab-Córdova, Ali; Bernuy-Barrera, Félix; Palomino, Henry; Rojas, Percy A.; Vera, Carmela; Lugo-Martínez, Gabriela; Mezones-Holguín, Edward (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021-01-01)
    Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of an oral herbal supplement containing glucosinolates, phytosterols, and citrus flavonoids (Warmi®, Lima Perú;) in otherwise healthy adult women. Methods: This was a phase-I, randomized parallel three arms, double-blinded, and a placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 55 participants aged 18-40 were randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive for three months: (1) an oral herbal supplement of 1650 mg/day; (2) an oral herbal supplement of 3300 mg/day; or (3) an oral placebo 3300 mg/day. The primary endpoints were oral safety and tolerability of the supplement. The secondary endpoint was its effect on vital functions, anthropometrics, and laboratory tests. We used an exploratory approach by covariance analysis (ANCOVA) adjusted for the variables’ baseline value for the secondary outcomes. Results: All women completed three months of follow-up, reporting no side effects. Our exploratory analysis revealed that treatment with the herbal supplement of 1650 mg/day was associated with increased glucose and uric acid levels. In comparison, the herbal supplement 3300 mg/day was associated with reduced breathing rate, increased basal temperature, and systolic blood pressure, both compared to the placebo group. However, despite significant differences, none of these was clinically significant. Conclusion: The oral herbal supplement had a favorable safety and tolerability profile in studied women. There is a need to study its potential as an option to treat menopausal symptoms.
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  • Clinical characteristics and molecular detection of bordetella pertussis in hospitalized children with a clinical diagnosis of whooping cough in Peru

    Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; del Valle-Vargas, Cristina; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Del Valle, Luis J.; Cieza-Mora, Erico; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bazán-Mayra, Jorge; Zavaleta-Gavidia, Victor; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Cornejo-Pacherres, Hernán; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2021-02-01)
    Background and Objectives: Pertussis is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. In Peru, actual public health programs indicate that vaccination against B. pertussis must be mandatory and generalized, be-sides all detected cases must be reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. pertussis among children under five years of age with a presumptive diagnosis of whopping cough in Cajamarca, a region located in northern Peru. Materials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study were children under 5 years old hospitalized as presumptive cases of pertussis during December 2017 to December 2018. The nasopharyngeal samples were analyzed by real-time PCR for the detection of B. pertussis. Results: B. pertussis was identified as PCR + in 42.3% of our sample (33/78). The clinical presentation that was observed most frequently includes paroxysmal coughing (97%), difficulty breathing (69.7%), cyanosis (72.7%) and post-tussive em-esis (60.6%). Additionally, pneumonia was the most observed complication (33.3%). Four of the patients with PCR+ for B. pertussis presented only lymphocytosis, five only leukocytosis, two patients with decreased leukocytosis and lymphocytes and only one patient with leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis. There was a percentage of 84.8% of unvaccinated children in the PCR+ group. Finally, the mother was the most frequent symptom carrier (18.2%). Conclusion: In conclusion, in the studied population there is a high rate of PCR+ cases for B. pertussis. Laboratory values may show leukopenia or lymphopenia in patients with pertussis. It is necessary to use appropriate laboratory diagnostic tests in all infants with respiratory symptoms for B. pertussis. Since, the clinical diagnosis overestimates the diagnosis of pertussis.
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  • Quality of life of older adults in Peruvian Social Security during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Tenorio-Mucha, Janeth; Romero-Albino, Zoila; Roncal-Vidal, Vasti; Cuba-Fuentes, María Sofía (Medical Body of the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo National Hospital, 2021-10-21)
    Objetive: To evaluate the quality of life of older adults who belong to the Seniors Centers (CAM) of the Social Security during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Data were collected through telephone calls to older adults aged 60 years and over in the CAM. Quality of life was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, which considers the dimensions of mobility, self-care, activities of daily living, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and an analog scale from 0 to 100. The presence of depression, anxiety, comorbidities and functional status were also measured. A bivariate analysis with nonparametric tests was performed to assess the association between covariates and the quality of life analog scale. In addition, a simple regression analysis was performed using generalized linear models of the Poisson family to evaluate variables associated with the presence of problems in the quality of life dimensions. Results: A total of 99 older adults participated, mostly women (84.9%) and with an average age of 73.1 years, 83.3% had a higher education level and 86.7% lived with their spouse. Older adults with obesity, lung disease, inability to manage their own money, feeling fatigued, and hearing problems reported a lower than average score (<78.9) on the analogous quality of life scale. Osteoarticular diseases and feeling fatigued increase the likelihood of having problems with mobility, performing daily activities, and pain/discomfort. Conclusions: Older adults quality of life is influenced by multiple factors that must be addressed to improve their physical and mental well-being.
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  • Predicting mortality in pulmonary tuberculosis: A systematic review of prognostic models

    Bert-Dulanto, Aimée; Alarcón-Braga, Esteban A.; Castillo-Soto, Ana; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo (Tuberculosis Association of India, 2021-01-01)
    Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a highly prevalent disease in low-income countries; clinical prediction tools allow healthcare personnel to catalog patients with a higher risk of death in order to prioritize medical attention. Methodology: We conducted a literature search on prognostic models aimed to predict mortality in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. We included prospective and retrospective studies where prognostic models predicting mortality were either developed or validated in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Three reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies using the PROBAST tool (Prediction model study Risk of Bias Assessment Tool). A narrative review of the characteristics of each model was conducted. Results: Six articles (n = 3553 patients) containing six prediction models were included in the review. Most studies (5 out of 6) were retrospective cohorts, only one study was a prospective case-control study. All the studies had a high risk of bias according to the PROBAST tool in the overall assessment. Regarding the applicability of the prediction models, three studies had a low concern of applicability, two high concern and one unclear concern. Five studies developed new prediction rules. In general, the presented models had a good discriminatory ability, with areas under the curve fluctuating between 0.65 up to 0.91. Conclusion: None of the prognostic models included in the review accurately predict mortality in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, due to great heterogeneity in the population and a high risk of bias.
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