Recent Submissions

  • Development of a racing video game using the smartphone as a steering wheel

    Quino, Jorge A.; Crispin, Adolfo G.; Barrientos, Alfredo; Cuadros, Miguel E. (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS, 2022-01-01)
    Uno de los géneros más populares de videojuegos han sido los de carreras. Aquí hay una fuerte demanda por controladores con diseño de timón que hacen de la experiencia de juego más inmersiva y entretenida. No obstante, estos controladores suelen ser caros y no todos los jugadores pueden adquirirlos. En el afán de encontrar una alternativa más accesible que ofrezca la misma inmersión a los jugadores de este género se implementó SmartDrive, un videojuego de carreras para Android programado en Unity 3D. SmartDrive utiliza dos smartphones Android 5.0 o superior conectados vía un hotspot WiFi, uno se usa como pantalla del juego y otro como un timón gracias a sus sensores de movimiento. La validación contó con 30 participantes que jugaron y brindaron sus valoraciones mediante una encuesta. Los resultados finales destacaron la aceptación de SmartDrive en los participantes al ofrecer una experiencia inmersiva con una mecánica de juego novedosa e intuitiva, e implementada con recursos más económicos. Este estudio mostró el potencial de SmartDrive como una alternativa accesible y sin perder el grado de entretenimiento.
    Acceso abierto
  • Assessment System for Physical Abuse in adolescents caused by Domestic Violence

    Caytuiro, Yesenia Cruzado; Navarro Mantari, Kerling A.; Durango, Daniel Wilfredo Burga (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    Research shows that around 300 million children in the world live in situations of violence in their homes. In addition, it is mentioned that the attention to these cases is not adequate in terms of attention time and treatment [1]. This paper presents a web application which obtains statistics in real time that allows specialists to show cases of physical abuse and thus be able to intervene quickly. We present a system based on Amazon Web Services (AWS) made with MySql database and the RDS service. Compared to the traditional method, a survey carried out on paper and with a data processing time. This comparison showed that the average data capture rate is lower than with the traditional method since the data is uploaded to the network instantly without the need to digitize the responses and it can also be used anywhere with internet access.
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  • Web Solution Based on QR Code for the Traceability of the Wood Transformation Process

    Amaya, Edgar Diaz; Rojas, Omar Troncos; Guerrero, Mario Paiva (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    The information's management on the traceability of wood in Peru is complicated by multiple causes. In this article we present our project, which seeks to propose a technological model that allows greater efficiency in the management of timber information so that sawmills in Peru can improve their administration. Our proposed model allows us to appreciate a possible improvement in the time it takes to obtain information on the traceability of wood compared to the traditional way in which work continues in Peru. Also, in the investigation a prototype application of traceable information was developed. The main contribution of the research consists in the design of a technological model that serves as a reference to develop a technological solution for the traceability of wood in Peru.
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  • HydroTi: An Irrigation System for Urban Green Areas using IoT

    Carrillo-Pasiche, Piero; Miranda-Gutarra, Anthony; Ugarte, Willy (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    Irrigation systems and their performance to efficiently accomplish their function have gained notoriety in recent years. Therefore, those systems are not capable of approaching many factors as water-saving and irrigation automation. Here we present a new irrigation system based on the IoT, analyzing the most important factors that involve an efficient irrigation process taking into consideration water usage and saving this resource. Thus, we developed a prototype using Arduino Uno which is connected to sensors that can lead a web application named HydroTi to determine when to irrigate and how much water to use. This function was enabled by Adafruit IO, a web service useful for IoT projects. To validate the effectiveness of this solution, we compared different irrigation types to determine that the automatic irrigation mode of HydroTi is better w.r.t. water consumption in Metropolitan Lima, Peru urban areas.
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  • Reference Model for the Development of a Learning Management System with an Integrated Voice Assistant for the Optimization of the Teaching Process of a Foreign Language for People with Visual Impairment

    Begazo, Mayber Javier Celis; Durango, Daniel Wilfredo Burga (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    Visually impaired people experience different accessibility barriers when they want to learn a second language through virtual classes. In addition to this, Screen Readers often have a high learning curve, plus they are not optimized for reading different languages at the same time. For this reason, it was decided to design the model of a Learning Management System (LMS) with a minimalist and accessible design and with an integrated voice assistant. As a result, it was obtained that the proposed solution was more efficient and effective in providing support to the process of teaching foreign languages in contrast to the methodology currently used.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • System to evaluate the medical teleconsultation service in public health centers in Peru

    Guzman, Diego Arrospide; Verastegui, Melisa Camila Bravo; Durango, Daniel Wilfredo Burga (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    The investigation of the existing information has shown that there is a high waiting time for the scheduling and especially the attention of medical appointments. This paper presents THANI, a medical teleconsultation system aimed at the public sector, which aims to reduce long waiting times for medical appointments through a web platform that integrates all the benefits of telehealth. This system allows waiting times to be reduced by improving and redesigning the traditional flow that takes place in public health centers in Peru, which have proven to be inefficient and generate user dissatisfaction. We apply satisfaction surveys to the main users of the system: patients. This evaluation showed a considerable improvement in terms of medical appointment times, improving the experience of patients and medical providers of health services by reducing the time of attending medical appointments from 80 minutes on average to 30 minutes, which implies a saving of approximately 50 minutes.
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  • Management Model under the BPM Approach and DT Tools to Increase the Level of Sales in a Peruvian Nanostore

    Quiroz-Flores, Juan Carlos; Valverde-Huaman, Carla Brenda; Romero-Vega, Martin Alvaro (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022-01-01)
    Retail trade is one of the main economic activities most develop d in the MYPES of Peru; this sector faces the rapid growth of its competitors, which are convenience stores and discount stores, due to the model of modern business that they handle, affect the nanostores. According to the above, nanostores must acquire new ways to grow and outperform their competitors. Therefore, they must adapt to recent technological advances and apply more appropriate strategies for their growth. This study aims to redesign the commercial process of these businesses through the BPM methodology and DT tools to generate higher sales since they are currently at 40. 36% caused by poor management in their business process. After applying the model through the implementation method, sales increased by 69.55%, thus generating a more significant profit.
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  • Anxiety and mental health in the face of COVID-19

    Medina Gamero, Aldo; Regalado Chamorro, Mónica; Orozco Sibille, Fiorella (Elsevier Espana S.L.U, 2022-10-01)
    En estos últimos años el mundo estuvo en una situación crítica generada por la pandemia de la COVID-19, la cual afectó en muchos aspectos a la sociedad, tanto en lo económico como en la salud física, paralelamente trajo consigo la pérdida de vidas humanas, repercutiendo negativamente en la población en general1. A raíz de los primeros casos de SARS-CoV-2 detectados en el mundo, los distintos gobiernos optaron por medidas de prevención para contrarrestar la expansión de este virus, sin embargo, lo que no se pudo prever fue el efecto que tuvo en la salud mental. Como sabemos, la enfermedad provocó diferentes cambios en la sociedad, causando incertidumbre en las personas, por ende, el bienestar emocional se vio afectado2. En la población adolescente, la afectación emocional principal se debió a problemas familiares, baja autoestima, la muerte de un pariente, por disfunción familiar o por la pobreza en la que viven., Asimismo, el aislamiento social influyó en la salud mental de estos jóvenes3. Los problemas como el estrés postraumático, los trastornos afectivos y la atención con ansiedad, afectan tanto a los varones como a las mujeres. En algunos casos los hombres externalizan su estrés con actos de violencia, mientras que las adolescentes lo reprimen. En consecuencia, se deben de brindar alternativas o medidas que ayuden a afrontar el estrés producido por la cuarentena. En ese sentido, es válido seguir las siguientes recomendaciones: primero, un cambio en la alimentación a base de proteínas y carbohidratos, asimismo, actividades deportivas y ejercicios de relajación como la RMP de Jacobson; segundo, la comunicación con familiares cercanos que permitan tener una sostenibilidad emocional, con ayuda profesional y las escuelas de padres; tercero, las entidades educativas y universitarias deben realizar investigaciones que permitan identificar los problemas de ansiedad y de salud mental en los adolescentes mediante instrumentos como el MINI-KID, la escala orientada al DSM del Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), entre otros; finalmente, el uso de las TIC para el tratamiento de la ansiedad con la finalidad de reemplazar a los medios de comunicación tradicionales (televisión y radio)4,5. En conclusión, se infiere que en situaciones de fallecimiento de un pariente, pobreza o problemas familiares, los jóvenes que reciben charlas y orientaciones logran mejorar su autorreconocimiento y, por ende, su autoestima. Por lo tanto, la salud mental está vinculada con el bienestar emocional, la satisfacción por la vida, y el poder resolver problemas.
    Acceso abierto
  • Poverty, Household Structure and Consumption of Foods Away from Home in Peru in 2019: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Huamán, Franklin; Xirinachs, Yanira; Rivera-Lozada, Oriana; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (MDPI, 2022-09-01)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the probability of buying food away from home according to the type of household using the logit model, as well as the sociodemographic characteristics of the heads of household, and how much income expenditure represents. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the National Household Survey (ENAHO) 2019 database. After joining the database, the household type variables were created. To calculate the probability with the “logit” model of purchase, the variables—family size, income, types of household, and total expenditure—were selected as a measure of the purchasing power of the family. A statistically significant association (p < 0.05) was found between the probability of consumption and the variables: age of household members, predominance, nuclear without children–married, nuclear with children–cohabitant, nuclear with children–widowed, nuclear with children–separated, extended, compounded, poor not extreme, and not poor. The bulk of families was represented by nuclear families (61.97%). The highest expenditure in the CFAH was for families defined as composite with a yearly average of USD 1652.89 (equivalent to PEN 5520.67). Observing the expenditure on food consumed outside the home through the composition of households can allow a better approach to offer educational measures. This information can be helpful to developers of educational issues.
    Acceso abierto
  • Brandalism and social protest: interactions and digital identities around vandal advertising

    Guerra, José Miguel; Yalán-Dongo, Eduardo (Universidad de Chile, 2022-01-01)
    Brandalism or subvertising refers to the advertising discourse that adopts anti-consumerism positions to make a social critique. Considering the context of social protest during the pandemic, we investigated discourses forms of brandalism through the digital platform Facebook. Therefore, this article analyzes the interactions of political consumers in relation to the themes of brandalism of the Malditos Publicistas account on Facebook (@Malditospublicistas) in the context of the protests against the government of Manuel Merino during 2020, in Peru. Based on the case study from a sociosemiotic perspective, we identified thematic axes comprised in the ethical-political relationship of the brandalist discourse, as well as digital interactions that we categorized as "lurkers", "spectators", "activists", and "publishers". The results indicate a greater participation of lurkers and publishers reactive to ethical discourses than activists who favor the political agency of the discourse.
    Acceso abierto
  • An application of Six Sigma DMAIRC model: case study of a manufacturing organisation

    Sharma, Pallavi; Gupta, Anshu; Malik, S. C.; Jha, P. C.; Pinto, Mark Christhian Barrueta (Inderscience Publishers, 2022-01-01)
    Global competition extends several challenges to micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) organisations. There is an increasing need for these firms to adopt strategies for productivity improvement. Six Sigma is a data driven methodology supported by statistical, mathematical and managerial techniques for improving the bottom line effectively. In this paper, an application of DMAIRC model of Six Sigma is presented in context to a quality improvement initiative in an MSME organisation. DMAIRC is an effective alternative to linear DMAIC model, as it provides opportunity to review results and diagnose additional improvements. The additional improvements are checked for feasibility and implemented through additional improvement cycles. The study also demonstrates integration of the quality management techniques such as Pareto analysis, cause and effect analysis, current reality tree, design of experiments, and integrated AHP-TOPSIS in the DMAIRC model stages. The paper provides a roadmap for real life applications of Six Sigma methodology following the DMAIRC model.
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  • The expulsion of the different. Discipline, sanitation, and illness in “Lorenzita” by Manuel Atanasio Fuentes

    Leonardo-Loayza, Richard (Universidad Catolica Silva Henriquez, 2022-07-01)
    The article analyzes “Lorenzita” (1898) by Manuel Atanasio Fuentes, a text that can be considered as the first literary manifestation that addresses the issue of sexual dissidence in Peru. An attempt is made to show that this text shows the rejection of the leadership élites regarding the body of the homosexual, which is considered a sick and abject body. This position is related to the disciplining and sanitation practices that this élite develops against the identities that it is thought should not be included in the modernization projects of the Peruvian nation at the end of the 19th century.
  • FoMO, Facebook Addiction, and Loneliness as Determinants of Phubbing in University Students from Lima

    Correa-Rojas, Jossué; Grimaldo-Muchotrigo, Mirian; Espinoza, Eli Malvaceda (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 2022-01-01)
    Phubbing is a communication disturbance that consists in snubbing the company of another person by paying attention to one’s mobile phone. It is common in young people and has implications for the quality of social interaction. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), Facebook addiction, feelings of loneliness, age, and phubbing. Using convenience sampling, 209 students from a private university in Lima, Peru, were selected. Their ages ranged from 17 to 37 years, with a mean age of 21.28 years (SD = 3.42). Most were women (64.1%). The study adopted an explanatory design. The Phubbing Scale, the FoMO Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, and the Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale were administered. The data were analyzed through Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients and a linear regression model, which showed that FoMO and Facebook addiction have direct effects on phubbing; that age has indirect effects on its variance; and that loneliness does not significantly explain this behavior.
    Acceso abierto
  • What Drives Abdominal Obesity in Peru? A Multilevel Analysis Approach Using a Nationally Representative Survey

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Olazo-Cardenas, Kamyla M.; Visconti-Lopez, Fabriccio J.; Barrenechea-Pulache, Antonio (NLM (Medline), 2022-08-19)
    Abdominal obesity (AO) is a serious public health threat due to its increasing prevalence and effect on the development of various non-communicable diseases. A multilevel analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) using the Latin American Diabetes Association (ALAD in Spanish) cut-off points was carried out to evaluate the individual and contextual factors associated with AO in Peru. A total of 30,585 individuals 18 years and older were included in the analysis. The prevalence of AO among Peruvians in 2019 was 56.5%. Individuals of older age (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 3.95-5.45), women (aOR 2.74; 95% CI: 2.33-3.23), individuals with a higher wealth index (aOR 2.81; 95% CI: 2.40-3.30) and having only secondary education (aOR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.21-1.75) showed increased odds of presenting AO compared to their peers. At a contextual level, only the Human Development Index (aOR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.17-2.16) was associated with the development of AO. A high Human Development Index is the contextual factor most associated with AO. It is necessary to formulate and implement new public health policies focused on these associated factors in order to reduce the prevalence of OA and prevent the excessive burden of associated noncommunicable diseases.
    Acceso abierto
  • Stress and Anxiety Reduction Effects of a Reiki Program During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Employees in Lima, Peru

    Gálvez Escudero, Denisse; Reyes-Bossio, Mario (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2022-09-01)
    Evidence has been found of how the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased stress and anxiety indicators. Against this background, the present research aims to determine the effect of a distance Reiki intervention program on stress and anxiety during the period of isolation due to COVID-19 among people working in the city of Lima, Peru. The related hypothesis was that distance Reiki would generate a reduction in stress and anxiety levels. It was a quasiexperimental design with pre- and posttests, with nonprobabilistic purposive sampling. In total, 28 employees participated (12 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group). As part of the method, the following instruments were used: the EPGE, IDARE, and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). There was a large decrease in the distress parameter (Cohen's d = 1.006), as well as in the state anxiety parameter (d = 1.678) and a large increase in eustress (d = 0.921). Similarly, there was an overall reduction in the trait anxiety parameter (d = 0.373) in all cases as compared with the control group. Coronavirus anxiety showed no major impact. These results provide initial evidence on the effects of distance Reiki among Peruvians and provide the basis for promoting this cost-effective therapy, generating a practical and social contribution.
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  • The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and experiencing discrimination at a Peruvian public hospital among outpatients

    Carbajal, Claudia; Rodriguez, Talib; Falconi, Diego Proano (Public Library of Science, 2022-08-01)
    Aim To evaluate the association between outpatient's perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and experiencing discrimination at a Peruvian public hospital. Material and methods Cross-sectional study in a Peruvian public hospital, where 207 outpatients (18-30 years old) were surveyed. We asked participants about self-reported experiences of discrimination in the last six months at a Peruvian public hospital using a question from the Peruvian National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2017. We also measured the perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics with the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). Additionally, we evaluated age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, and reason for being discriminated against. Association was assessed with Poisson regression using a robust estimator of variance and reporting prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals in crude and adjusted models. Results About two out of every five participants having experienced discrimination at a Peruvian public hospital in the last six months. On our adjusted estimates, we found discrimination to be positively associated with two components of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, which were social impact (PR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and the psychological impact (PR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10). Conversely, dental self-confidence (PR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93- 0.98) was negatively associated with discrimination. Conclusions The perceived psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics is associated with experiencing discrimination among outpatients from a Peruvian public hospital. We advocate for structural changes to address discrimination in healthcare spaces by corresponding governmental authorities.
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  • Learning of Pharmacogenetics in human medicine students through PBL and ICTs

    Medina, Maritza Placencia; Valencia, Javier Silva; Bustamante, Carlos García; Valerio, Julián Villarreal; Álvarez, Rosa Pando; Casavilca, Michan Malca; Contreras-Pizarro, Carlos Heber (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia., 2022-01-01)
    Objective: To describe the learning achievement after training in pharmacogenetics based on PBL and ICT and its persistence four years later in human medicine students of a public university in Peru. Materials and Methods: 160 students who received training on the pharmacogenetics of warfarin applying PBL and ICT were evaluated. The instrument was based on a clinical problem applied immediately after training and 4 years later. Results: Results of the first evaluation indicated a good analytical resolution of the problem with argumentation in the genetic conditions of the patient. The evaluation after four years showed that 89% of the students continued at higher levels of learning. Conclusion: It was shown that the use of a meaningful learning methodology with PBL and ICT can make knowledge last and serve in the future for decision-making in the selection of medication.
    Acceso abierto
  • Near-hanging Injury in a Pediatric Patient

    Espinoza-Espinoza, Yudit; Morocho-Pinedo, Milene; Alarcon-Braga, Esteban; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri (Pakistan Pediatric Journal, 2022-06-01)
    Suicide is a public health problem. Suicide by hanging is seen in all ages, starting around the age of 10-12. "Hanging injuries" is the term used to refer to people who survive after hanging. We present the case of a pediatric patient who survived mechanical asphyxia by hanging. A 12-year-old female patient who recently attempted suicide by hanging herself was admitted to the nearest hospital presenting "near-hanging injuries." She received ventilatory support and sedation-analgesia in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), treating cerebral edema with mannitol. Upon discharge, she presented neurological and structural sequelae. Although suicide is one of the most common causes of death in the pediatric population, near-hanging injuries are rare in this setting. Patients with these injuries should be treated aggressively and early to avoid possible complications. In this case, the family's action and the late treatment influenced the lousy evolution of the patient.
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  • Association between Ancestry-Specific 6q25 Variants and Breast Cancer Subtypes in Peruvian Women

    Zavala, Valentina A.; Casavilca-Zambrano, Sandro; Navarro-Vásquez, Jeannie; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Valencia, Guillermo; Morante, Zaida; Calderón, Monica; Abugattas, Julio E.; Gómez, Henry; Fuentes, Hugo A.; Liendo-Picoaga, Ruddy; Cotrina, Jose M.; Monge, Claudia; Neciosup, Silvia P.; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.; Núñez-Marrero, Angel; Godoy, Lenin; Hechmer, Aaron; Olshen, Adam B.; Dutil, Julie; Ziv, Elad; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gelaye, Bizu; Vásquez, Jule; Gálvez-Nino, Marco; Enriquez-Vera, Daniel; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Fejerman, Laura (American Association for Cancer Research Inc., 2022-08-01)
    Background: Breast cancer incidence in the United States is lower in Hispanic/Latina (H/L) compared with African American/ Black or Non-Hispanic White women. An Indigenous American breast cancer-protective germline variant (rs140068132) has been reported near the estrogen receptor 1 gene. This study tests the association of rs140068132 and other polymorphisms in the 6q25 region with subtype-specific breast cancer risk in H/Ls of high Indigenous American ancestry. Methods: Genotypes were obtained for 5,094 Peruvian women with (1,755) and without (3,337) breast cancer. Associations between genotype and overall and subtype-specific risk for the protective variant were tested using logistic regression models and conditional analyses, including other risk-associated polymorphisms in the region. Results: We replicated the reported association between rs140068132 and breast cancer risk overall [odds ratio (OR), 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.59], as well as the lower odds of developing hormone receptor negative (HR-) versus HR+ disease (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97). Models, including HER2, showed further heterogeneity with reduced odds for HR+HER2+ (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92), HR-HER2+ (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.90) and HR-HER2- (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.05) compared with HR+HER2-. Inclusion of other risk-associated variants did not change these observations. Conclusions: The rs140068132 polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer in Peruvians and is more protective against HR- and HER2+ diseases independently of other breast cancer-associated variants in the 6q25 region. Impact: These results could inform functional analyses to understand the mechanism by which rs140068132-G reduces risk of breast cancer development in a subtype-specific manner. They also illustrate the importance of including diverse individuals in genetic studies.
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  • Hospitalizations and mortality of patients with heart failure in the COVID-19 era in Peru

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Visconti-Lopez, Fabriccio J.; Alburqueque-Cruz, Renato; Rojas-Roque, Carlos (Elsevier B.V., 2022-01-01)
    Objectives: The worldwide heart failure (HF) prevalence is 8.52 per 1000 inhabitants, with a global economic burden of 346.17 billion dollars. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the focus of medical care has changed to treating the morbidity and mortality of patients with COVID-19 and reducing medical procedures or visits to patients with HF, with the impact being greater in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We performed an interrupted time series analysis of HF to determine the changes in the trend of hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality of HF patients before and after the mandatory lockdown in Peru. Results: A total of 18,514 adults were included in the analysis. Monthly hospital admissions immediately decreased by 599 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 113 to 1085) and the difference in slope before and after the lockdown was 6.4 hospital admissions (95% CI: −4 to 18). In-hospital mortality increased by 18% (95% CI: −8%–43%) and the difference in slope before and after the lockdown was −0.3% (95% CI: −0.9%–0.25%). Conclusions: There was a reduction in hospitalizations and an increase in the in-hospital mortality of patients with HF before and after the mandatory lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru.
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