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  • CNC Simulation and Control System for the Industrial Cutting of Fabric in the Manufacture of Peruvian T-Shirts

    Rivera, Alvin; Amau, Diego; Perea, Carlos (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023-01-01)
    This research focuses on the development of a simulation and control system for Computer Numerical Control (CNC) designed specifically for small and medium-sized companies in the Peruvian textile industry. The goal is to create a CNC system that optimizes production processes without the need for expensive equipment. This system simulation allows generating cutting paths for multiple fabric pieces belonging to a post, thus optimizing production time and ensuring the safety of the operator. Additionally, the aim is to provide a technological solution for the artisans fabric cutting area. The project is carried out using MATLAB software to simulate different parameters and obtain results of cutting speed and time performed by the CNC machine, based on the size and shape of the piece (in this case, a t-shirt). It has been established that the optimal cutting speed and time for the design presented in this article should be less than 1 cm/s to achieve proper trajectory precision. Otherwise, the pieces may take on a different shape. In summary, this study focuses on developing a CNC simulation and control system accessible to small and medium-sized textile companies in Peru, in order to improve production efficiency and ensure precision in fabric cutting, all through the use of technological tools and MATLAB simulation.
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  • Design of a Cryogenic Duplex Pressure-Swirl Atomizer through CFDs for the Cold Conservation of Marine Products

    Ayala, Eduardo; Rivera, Diego; Ronceros, Julio; Vinces, Nikolai; Ronceros, Gustavo (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023-10-01)
    The following article proposes the design of a bi-centrifugal atomizer that allows the interaction of sprays from two fluids (water and liquid nitrogen). The liquid nitrogen (LN2) is below −195.8 °C, a temperature low enough for the nitrogen, upon contact with the atomized water, to cause heat loss and bring it to its freezing point. The objective is to convert the water droplets present in the spray into ice. Upon falling, the ice particles can be dispersed, covering the largest possible area of the seafood products intended for cold preservation. All these phenomena related to the interaction of two fluids and heat exchange are due to the bi-centrifugal atomizer, which positions the two centrifugal atomizers concentrically, resulting in the inevitable collision of the two sprays. Each of these atomizers will be designed using a mathematical model and CFDs tools. The latter will provide a better study of the flow behavior of both fluids inside and outside the bi-centrifugal atomizer. Hence, the objective revolves around confirming the validity of the mathematical model through a comparison with numerical simulation data. This comparison establishes a strong correlation (with a maximum variance of 1.94% for the water atomizer and 10% for the LN2 atomizer), thereby ensuring precise manufacturing specifications for the atomizers. It is important to highlight that, in order to achieve the enhanced resolution and comprehension of the fluid both inside and outside the duplex atomizer, two types of meshes were utilized, ensuring the utilization of the optimal option. Similarly, the aforementioned meshes were generated using two distinct software platforms, namely ANSYS Meshing (tetrahedral mesh) and ANSYS ICEM (hexahedral mesh), to facilitate a comparative analysis of the mesh quality obtained. This comprehension facilitated the observation of water temperature during its interaction with liquid nitrogen, ultimately ensuring the freezing of water droplets at the atomizer’s outlet. This objective aligns seamlessly with the primary goal of this study, which revolves around the preservation of seafood products through cold techniques. This particular attribute holds potential for various applications, including cooling processes for food products.
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  • Study of Internal Flow in Open-End and Closed Pressure-Swirl Atomizers with Variation of Geometrical Parameters

    Ronceros, Julio; Raymundo, Carlos; Ayala, Eduardo; Rivera, Diego; Vinces, Leonardo; Ronceros, Gustavo; Zapata, Gianpierre (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023-11-01)
    This study delves into the examination of internal flow characteristics within closed (with nozzles) and open-end pressure-swirl atomizers (lacking nozzles). The number of inlet channels “n” and the opening parameter “C” were manipulated in this study, as they play a pivotal role in understanding various atomizer attributes, such as uniformity of the air-core diameter, the discharge coefficient, spray angle, and more, all of which hold significance in the design of bipropellant atomizers for liquid rocket engines (LREs). To validate our findings, six distinct hexahedral meshes were generated using Ansys ICEM software 2023. Subsequently, we employed Ansys Fluent, considering the RNG k-ε turbulence model and the VOF (volume-of-fluid) multiphase model to identify the liquid–gas interface, to aid in analyzing the uniformity of the air core, which is directly linked to the even distribution of mass, the mixing ratio of propellants, combustion efficiency, and stability. The results indicate that the uniformity of the air core is not solely contingent on an increase in parameter “n” but is also influenced by an increase in the parameter “C”. It is worth noting that the key dimensions of these six atomizers were determined using a mathematical model based on Abramovich and Kliachko theories.
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  • Evaluation through 2D Modelling of Scour around Piers with Collars in the CÁCeres Bridge in Piura, Peru

    Luliquis, Shamir; Vinces, Samuel; Mogrovejo, Rubén (EDP Sciences, 2023-09-06)
    This paper analyzes the results of the scour calculations around the group of piers of a bridge through two-dimensional modelling using the Iber software. The case under study is that of the Andrés Avelin o Cáceres Bridge, located in the Piura region, Peru, which has an approximate free span of 120 meters and has 10 pillars equally distributed on two decks. Currently, the referred bridge has pillars of rectangular section with narrowing towards the base, this type of geometry was considered as the first scenario for scour calculations; the pillars with the collars installed are part of the second scenario under study. Based on geotechnical, hydrological and hydraulic studies of the area, two-dimensional numerical modeling has been developed for each scenario in order to obtain the depths of scour. The following results were obtained: The installation of collars in the second scenario achieved a reduction of the scour depth by 29.51% on average, the observed reduction range was from 15.73% to 43.77%.
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  • Investigating Fishing Vessel Casualties in Peru: A Technical and Scientific Review to Support New Regulations

    Mantari, José; Ramirez, Jorge; Figueroa, Edgardo; Huerta, Joel; Cipriano, William; Amaya, David; Cuba, Lizbeth; Guedes Soares, Carlos (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023-12-01)
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  • Network Analysis of Posttraumatic Growth Dimensions: A Cross-Sectional Study in People Who Experienced the Death of a Loved One from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American Countries

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Baños-Chaparro, Jonatan; Ventura-León, José; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Gallegos, Miguel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Palacios Segura, Diego Alejandro; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Buschiazzo Figares, Andrés; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Petzold-Rodriguez, Olimpia; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Florez León, Ana María Eduviges; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Schulmeyer, Marion K.; Barria-Asenjo, Nicol A.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther; Ayala-Colqui, Jesús (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
    The present study aimed to apply a network analysis model to provide an exploratory empirical conceptualization of dynamic networks of posttraumatic growth (PTG) symptoms in 7,434 people who experienced the death of a loved one from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American countries. The Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory: Short Form of Eight Items was used. A non-regularized network with partial correlation coefficients was estimated through the ggmModSelect algorithm. The network architecture was analyzed for each country through its local properties and global properties. The results indicated that the networks differed significantly between countries. The core dimensions in the networks were relating to others, personal strength, and life value and opportunities, which were more related dimensions that reinforce the emergence of PTG in all countries. The findings may be useful to motivate researchers and mental health professionals to consider the importance of the individual dimensions of PTG in groups of people who experienced the death of a loved one from COVID-19 in 16 Latin American countries, as well as their interrelationships.
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  • Assessment of Obsessive Thoughts About COVID-19 in 7 Latin American Countries: Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Obsession With COVID-19 Scale

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Rivera-Calcina, Renzo; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Yupanqui-Lorenzo, Daniel E.; Arias Gallegos, Walter L.; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; Oré-Kovacs, Nicol; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Gallegos, Miguel; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Palacios Segura, Diego Alejandro; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Monge Blanco, J. Arkangel; González, Pedronel; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Petzold-Rodriguez, Olimpia; Calderón, Raymundo; Matute Rivera, Wendy Yamilet; Ferrufino-Borja, Daniela; Muñoz-del-Carpio-Toia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; Eduviges Florez León, Ana María; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Noe-Grijalva, Martin; Shulmeyer, Marion K.; Urrutia Rios, Hassell Tatiana; Lira Lira, Arelly Esther; Lee, Sherman A. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-01-01)
    The present study aimed to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) among seven Latin American countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Although the OCS has been used in several countries and languages, there is a need for approaches that better integrate the cross-cultural equivalence of the scale. A total of 3185 people participated in the study. The results indicated the presence of a unidimensional structure and good reliability indices for the OCS in each country. The alignment method indicated that the OCS is an invariant measure of COVID-19 obsession among the populations of seven Latin American countries. The findings based on IRT analysis indicated that all OCS items had adequate discrimination and difficulty parameters. The findings contribute to the understanding of the internal structure of the scale in different countries at the same time, something that has been pending evaluation.
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  • Psychometric Properties of the Coach-Created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C) in a Brazilian Sample of Athletes: An ESEM Approach

    Angelo, Daniela Lopes; Duda, Joan L.; Balaguer, Isabel; Rosado, Antônio; Corrêa, Mariana; Anunciação, Luis; Tutte, Veronica; Júnior, Marcelo Villas Boas; Bossio, Mário Reyes; Brandão, Regina (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023-03-01)
    The objectives of this study were to assess the psychometric properties of the Coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C) by testing four different hypotheses. A procedure of translation and adaptation of the instrument between different languages and cultures was carried out. A total of 350 national level Brazilian athletes (aged between 15 and 17 years; mean = 17.0, SD = 1.7) completed the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) were performed. Consistent with previous work on the EDMCQ-C, all solutions failed to achieve suitable levels of fit for a hierarchical model represented by five climate dimensions (autonomy-supportive, controlling, task-involving, ego-involving, and socially-supportive) and two global dimensions (empowering and disempowering). The 2-ESEM solution provided a satisfactory fit for the first-order model with two global factors supported. The 2-ESEM version of the questionnaire showed adequate predictive and discriminant validity, good internal consistency, and invariance across gender. Such results suggest that the EDMCQ-C is a promising scale to assess Brazilian athletes’ perception of the over-arching empowering and disempowering features of the coach-created motivational climate.
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  • COVID-19 Bereavement in Ten Latin American Countries: Measurement Invariance of the Pandemic Grief Scale and Its Relation to Suicidal Ideation

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Valencia, Pablo D.; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Lee, Sherman A.; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Vivanco-Vidal, Andrea; Saroli-Araníbar, Daniela; Reyes-Bossio, Mario; White, Michel; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moreta-Herrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Rivera, Marlon Elías Lobos; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Tapia, Bismarck Pinto; Ferrari, Ilka Franco; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Gallegos, Walter L.Arias (SAGE Publications Inc., 2023-12-01)
    The present study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) in ten Latin American countries. A total of 2,321 people who had lost a family member or other loved one due to COVID-19 participated, with a mean age of 34.22 years old (SD = 11.99). In addition to the PGS, a single item of suicidal ideation was applied. The unidimensional model of the PGS had adequate fit in most countries and good reliability estimates. There was evidence of measurement invariance by country and gender. Also, a one-point increase in the PGS was associated with an almost twofold increase in the odds of suicidal ideation. Scores greater than or equal to 4 on the PGS are proposed as a cut off to identify individuals with suicidal ideation. Strong evidence of the cross-cultural validity of the PGS is provided.
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  • Association between knowledge and attitudes towards pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and dental specialty

    Díaz-Díaz, María Fernanda; Schlaefli-Arrieta, Ximena; Caballero García, Stefany; Geller Palti, Dafna (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2023-01-01)
    Objective: To associate the knowledge and attitudes about Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (POSA) with the specialty of dentists in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional, analytical observational study was carried out during 2021–2022. Two hundred and ten orthodontists and pediatric dentists were surveyed using the adapted and validated Spanish translation of the OSAKA-KIDS questionnaire and additional sociodemographic questions. Results: The data indicated an association between dental specialty and the professional’s knowledge about POSA. Orthodontists were 59% less likely to have acceptable knowledge, compared to pediatric dentists (p =.013, IC 95% 0.21–0.83). The study revealed an association between the professional’s attitudes and three intervening variables: age (p =.025), clinical experience (p =.049) and sector of practice (p =.020). Conclusion: Knowledge was associated with the dental specialty of professionals in the sample included, whilst attitudes were not.
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  • Call for emergency action to restore dietary diversity and protect global food systems in times of COVID-19 and beyond: Results from a cross-sectional study in 38 countries

    Hoteit, Maha; Hoteit, Reem; Aljawaldeh, Ayoub; Van Royen, Kathleen; Pabian, Sara; Decorte, Paulien; Cuykx, Isabelle; Teunissen, Lauranna; De Backer, Charlotte; Bergheim, Ina; Staltner, Raphaela; Devine, Amanda; Sambell, Ros; Wallace, Ruth; Allehdan, Sabika Salem; Alalwan, Tariq Abdulkarim; Al-Mannai, Mariam Ahamad; Ouvrein, Gaëlle; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Maldoy, Katrien; Matthys, Christophe; Smits, Tim; Vrinten, Jules; DeSmet, Ann; Teughels, Nelleke; Geuens, Maggie; Vermeir, Iris; Proesmans, Viktor; Hudders, Liselot; De Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ostermann, Cristina; Brock, Ana Luiza; Favieiro, Cynthia; Trizotto, Rafaela; Stangherlin, Isadora; Mafra, Anthonieta Looman; Correa Varella, Marco Antônio; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Fisher, Maryanne L.; MacEacheron, Melanie; White, Katherine; Habib, Rishad; Dobson, David S.; Schnettler, Berta; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Wen-Yu Chang, Angela; Jiao, Wen; Liu, Matthew Tingchi; Grunert, Klaus G.; Christensen, Rikke Nyland; Reisch, Lucia; Janssen, Meike; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Encalada, Lorena; Kamel, Iman; Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Salmivaara, Laura; Mäkelä, Johanna; Torkkeli, Kaisa; Mai, Robert; Risch, Pamela Kerschke; Altsitsiadis, Efthymios; Stamos, Angelos; Antronikidis, Andreas; Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Sinead; McCarthy, Mary; Micalizzi, Alessandra; Schulz, Peter J.; Farinosi, Manuela; Komatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kubota, Hiromi; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J.; Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Ibrahim, Mohammed O.; Hammouh, Fadwa; Dashti, Somaia; Dashti, Basma; Alkharaif, Dhuha; Alshatti, Amani; Al Mazedi, Maryam; Mansour, Rania; Naim, Elissa; Mortada, Hussein; Gutierrez Gomez, Yareni Yunuen; Geyskens, Kelly; Goukens, Caroline; Roy, Rajshri; Egli, Victoria; Morenga, Lisa Te; Waly, Mostafa; Qasrawi, Radwan; Hamdan, Motasem; Sier, Rania Abu; Al Halawa, Diala Abu (Elsevier Ltd, 2023-11-01)
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the fragility of the global food system, sending shockwaves across countries' societies and economy. This has presented formidable challenges to sustaining a healthy and resilient lifestyle. The objective of this study is to examine the food consumption patterns and assess diet diversity indicators, primarily focusing on the food consumption score (FCS), among households in 38 countries both before and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 37 207 participants (mean age: 36.70 ± 14.79, with 77 % women) was conducted in 38 countries through an online survey administered between April and June 2020. The study utilized a pre-tested food frequency questionnaire to explore food consumption patterns both before and during the COVID-19 periods. Additionally, the study computed Food Consumption Score (FCS) as a proxy indicator for assessing the dietary diversity of households. Findings: This quantification of global, regional and national dietary diversity across 38 countries showed an increment in the consumption of all food groups but a drop in the intake of vegetables and in the dietary diversity. The household's food consumption scores indicating dietary diversity varied across regions. It decreased in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, including Lebanon (p < 0.001) and increased in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries including Bahrain (p = 0.003), Egypt (p < 0.001) and United Arab Emirates (p = 0.013). A decline in the household's dietary diversity was observed in Australia (p < 0.001), in South Africa including Uganda (p < 0.001), in Europe including Belgium (p < 0.001), Denmark (p = 0.002), Finland (p < 0.001) and Netherland (p = 0.027) and in South America including Ecuador (p < 0.001), Brazil (p < 0.001), Mexico (p < 0.0001) and Peru (p < 0.001). Middle and older ages [OR = 1.2; 95 % CI = [1.125–1.426] [OR = 2.5; 95 % CI = [1.951–3.064], being a woman [OR = 1.2; 95 % CI = [1.117–1.367], having a high education (p < 0.001), and showing amelioration in food-related behaviors [OR = 1.4; 95 % CI = [1.292–1.709] were all linked to having a higher dietary diversity. Conclusion: The minor to moderate changes in food consumption patterns observed across the 38 countries within relatively short time frames could become lasting, leading to a significant and prolonged reduction in dietary diversity, as demonstrated by our findings.
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  • Time-on-task effects on human pupillary and saccadic metrics after theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation over the frontal eye field

    Wang, Chin An; Muggleton, Neil G.; Chang, Yi Hsuan; Barquero, Cesar; Kuo, Ying Chun (Elsevier B.V., 2023-12-01)
    Pupil size undergoes constant changes primarily influenced by ambient luminance. These changes are referred to as the pupillary light reflex (PLR), where the pupil transiently constricts in response to light. PLR kinematics provides valuable insights into autonomic nervous system function and have significant clinical applications. Recent research indicates that attention plays a role in modulating the PLR, and the circuit involving the frontal eye field (FEF) and superior colliculus is causally involved in controlling this pupillary modulation. However, there is limited research exploring the role of the human FEF in these pupillary responses, and its impact on PLR metrics remains unexplored. Additionally, although the protocol of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) is well-established, the period of disruption after cTBS is yet to be examined in pupillary responses. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of FEF cTBS on pupillary and saccadic metrics in relation to time spent performing a task (referred to as time-on-task). We presented a bright stimulus to induce the PLR in visual- and memory-delay saccade tasks following cTBS over the right FEF or vertex. FEF cTBS, compared to vertex cTBS, resulted in decreased baseline pupil size, peak constriction velocities, and amplitude. Furthermore, the time-on-task effects on baseline pupil size, peak amplitude, and peak time differed between the two stimulation conditions. In contrast, the time-on-task effects on saccadic metrics were less pronounced between the two conditions. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that FEF cTBS affects human PLR metrics and that these effects are modulated by time-on-task.
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  • Respiratory, Cardiac, and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Postacute Sequelae of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Lima, Peru

    Rahman, Rifat S.; Tovar, Marco A.; Peinado, Jesús; Palomino, J. Santiago; Ramirez, Claudio; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Peralta, Ernesto; Valderrama, Gissela; Ramos Cordova, Lourdes B.; Sanchez Cortez, Lucero I.; Rodriguez, German; Lahood, Allison N.; Franke, Molly F.; Mitnick, Carole D.; Lecca, Leonid; Velásquez, Gustavo E. (Oxford University Press, 2023-07-01)
    Background: Few studies have examined the burden of postacute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (PASC) in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to characterize PASC with self-reported questionnaires and clinical examinations of end-organ function in Lima, Peru. Methods: From January to July 2021, we recruited participants at least 8 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis from a case registry in Lima, Peru. We evaluated participants for PASC with questionnaires, neuropsychiatric evaluations, chest X-ray, spirometry, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. We used multivariable models to identify risk factors for PASC. Results: We assessed 989 participants for PASC at a median 4.7 months after diagnosis. Clinically significant respiratory symptoms were reported by 68.3% of participants, particularly those who had been severely ill during acute COVID-19, and were associated with cardiac findings of ventricular hypertrophy or dilation on echocardiogram. Neuropsychiatric questionnaires were consistent with depression in 20.7% and cognitive impairment in 8.0%. Female sex and older age were associated with increased risk of respiratory (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.36 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.69-3.31] and aOR, 1.01 [95% CI, 1.00-1.03], respectively) and neuropsychiatric sequelae (aOR, 2.99 [95% CI, 2.16-4.18] and aOR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.03], respectively). Conclusions: COVID-19 survivors in Lima, Peru, experienced frequent postacute respiratory symptoms and depression, particularly among older and female participants. Clinical examinations highlighted the need for cardiopulmonary rehabilitation among persons with severe COVID-19; psychosocial support may be required among all COVID-19 survivors.
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  • Diversity and dissemination of viruses in pathogenic protozoa

    Heeren, Senne; Maes, Ilse; Sanders, Mandy; Lye, Lon Fye; Adaui, Vanessa; Arevalo, Jorge; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Garcia, Lineth; Lemey, Philippe; Beverley, Stephen M.; Cotton, James A.; Dujardin, Jean Claude; Van den Broeck, Frederik (Nature Research, 2023-12-01)
    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play a significant role in the evolution of many organisms and ecosystems. In pathogenic protozoa, the presence of viruses has been linked to an increased risk of treatment failure and severe clinical outcome. Here, we studied the molecular epidemiology of the zoonotic disease cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru and Bolivia through a joint evolutionary analysis of Leishmania braziliensis and their dsRNA Leishmania virus 1. We show that parasite populations circulate in tropical rainforests and are associated with single viral lineages that appear in low prevalence. In contrast, groups of hybrid parasites are geographically and ecologically more dispersed and associated with an increased prevalence, diversity and spread of viruses. Our results suggest that parasite gene flow and hybridization increased the frequency of parasite-virus symbioses, a process that may change the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region.
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  • The Role of a Chatbot Personality in the Attitude of Consumers Towards a Banking Brand

    Palomino, Natalia; Arbaiza, Francisco (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023-01-01)
    In the recent years, it has been seen that brands have opted to implement chatbots as part of their digital customer service channels, especially since they can be hosted on social networks such as Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp. Although the use of this has become widespread, users perceive them as inefficient and of little credibility. The design of the personality of a chatbot arises as an alternative for the brand to generate a more human interaction with the user and show its brand values to generate a positive experience. In addition, a projected growth of the business value of chatbots for brands of 3.9 trillion dollars is estimated by 2022. For this reason, knowing how brands can rely on the correct implementation of the personality of a chatbot creating a positive influence on its users is important in a growing industry. The present research seeks to know how the personality of the chatbot influences the formation of consumer attitudes towards a brand. This exploratory study used a qualitative methodology of phenomenological design with young adults from Lima. Subsequently, it was analysed through descriptive coding. It was found that the social dynamics, the social role and the physique of the chatbot are the aspects that influence the attitude towards the brand and generate a feeling of trust and closeness between the chatbot and the brand.
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  • Confidence when performing single root canal treatments of the 4th and 5th year students of the Dentistry at a Private University of Lima

    Valdez Sosa, A. F.; Ayma-León, V.; Caballero-García, Carmen Stefany (Ediciones Avances S.L., 2023-04-01)
    Objective: To determine the confidence when performing single root canal treatments of the 4th and 5th year students of the Dentistry at a Private University of Lima. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one dental students from a private university in Lima were evaluated through a survey of the article prepared by Davey to measure their confidence when performing single root canal treatment. Internal validity was verified through questionnaire translation processes, expert judgment and a pilot test. Adequate coefficient of Aiken’s V (0.91), Cronbach’s Alpha (0.89), and Spearman’s correlation (0.61) were obtained. Descriptive statistical measures were obtained (Mean, S.D, Median, and IQR) and for the bivariate analysis, U Mann Whitney’s, Kruskal Wa-llis, Dunn Test and Spearman’s Correlation tests were used. Results: Students had a high confidence score (8.51) when performing a single root canal treatment and the lowest scores were when determining the length of work and the obturation of the canals with an average of 8.19 and 8.01 respectively. Likewise, the variables as previous experience, perception of complication and having had difficulties were statistically significant. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the dimensions of the variable perception of teaching in endodontics (p=0.003) (p=0.000) (p=0.000) and the variable confidence. Conclusions: There is high confidence when performing single root canal treatment by the students of 4th and 5th year of the Dentistry career.
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  • Protocol for a Randomized Trial Comparing Intracranial Pressure Monitor?Based Management of Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury with Management Based on Imaging and Clinical Examination Without Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

    Chesnut, Randall; Temkin, Nancy; Pridgeon, James; Sulzbacher, Stephen; Lujan, Silvia; Videtta, Walter; Moya-Barquín, Luis; Chaddock, Kelley; Bonow, Robert; Petroni, Gustavo; Guadagnoli, Nahuel; Hendrickson, Peter; Ramírez Cortez, Grimaldo; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri; Vargas Aymituma, Alcides; Anchante, Daniel; Caqui, Patrick; Ramírez, Alberto; Munaico Abanto, Manuel; Ortiz Chicchon, Manuel; Cenzano Ramos, José; Mazate-Mazariegos, Analy; Castro Darce, María Del Carmen; Sierra Morales, Roberto; Brol Lopez, Pedro; Menendez, Willy; Posadas Gutierrez, Sofía; Kevin, Vicente; Mazariegos, Andrea; De Leon, Elie; Rodas Barrios, Rodolfo Enrique; Rodríguez, Sandra; Flores, Sandra; Alvarado, Ovidio; Guzman Flores, Luis José; Moisa Martinez, Melvin; Gonzalez, Pablo (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications CODEN NRSRD, 2023-07-06)
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major global public health problem. It is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adolescents worldwide. Although increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is common and associated with death and poor outcome after pediatric TBI, the efficacy of current ICP-based management remains controversial. We intend to provide Class I evidence testing the efficacy of a protocol based on current ICP monitor-based management vs care based on imaging and clinical examination without ICP monitoring in pediatric severe TBI. METHODS: A phase III, multicenter, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial performed in intensive care units in Central and South America to determine the impact on 6-month outcome of children aged 1-12 years with severe TBI (age-Appropriate Glasgow Coma Scale score ?8) randomized to ICP-based or non-ICP-based management. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Primary outcome is 6-month Pediatric Quality of Life. Secondary outcomes are 3-month Pediatric Quality of Life, mortality, 3-month and 6-month Pediatric extended Glasgow Outcome Score, intensive care unit length of stay, and number of interventions focused on treating measured or suspected intracranial hypertension. DISCUSSION: This is not a study of the value of knowing the ICP in sTBI. This research question is protocol-based. We are investigating the added value of protocolized ICP management to treatment based on imaging and clinical examination in the global population of severe pediatric TBI. Demonstrating efficacy should standardize ICP monitoring in severe pediatric TBI. Alternate results should prompt reassessment of how and in which patients ICP data should be applied in neurotrauma care.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Association between supplementation with vitamin A, iron and micronutrients with adequate psychomotor development in children from 9 to 36 months in Peru

    Chaponan-Lavalle, Andres; Randich, Karla Hernandez; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V. (Elsevier B.V., 2023-11-01)
    Background: Worldwide, it is estimated that 52.9 million children <5 years of age experience delayed psychomotor development, which is associated with multiple factors. Our primary objective is to evaluate whether there is an association between supplementation with Vitamin A, Iron, and Micronutrients and Adequate Psychomotor Development in children aged 9–36 months at the national level in Peru. Methods: The study was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on the secondary analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey databases from 2018 to 2020. The independent variables include the consumption of Vitamin A, Iron, and Micronutrients. The dependent variables encompass Motor Development in children aged 9–18 months, Psychological Development in children aged 9–18 months, and Psychological Development in children aged 19–36 months. Results: The study included a total of 24 838 participants. In the adjusted regression model, the factors associated with adequate motor development between 9 and 18 months of age were: region of residence, overcrowding, and exclusive breastfeeding. For adequate cognitive development between 9 and 18 months of age, the associated factors were: vitamin A consumption, mother's education, child sex, delivery complications, and complete vaccinations. Regarding adequate psychological development in children aged 19–36 months, the associated factors were: mother's education, maternal employment, child sex, and birth weight. Conclusions: There was no association found between nutritional supplementation and adequate development, except for the relationship between Vitamin A consumption and adequate psychological development in children aged 9–18 months. Therefore, further research, such as cohort studies and clinical trials, is suggested to corroborate this association.
    Acceso abierto
  • Test of Invariance of the Anomie Brief Scale with the Alignment Method in 12 Latin American Countries

    Caycho-Rodríguez, Tomás; Vilca, Lindsey W.; Venturaleón, José; Carbajal-León, Carlos; Valencia, Pablo D.; Reyesbossio, Mario; Delgado-Campusano, Mariel; Yupanquilorenzo, Daniel E.; Paredes-Angeles, Rubí; Rojas-Jara, Claudio; Gallegos, Miguel; Cervigni, Mauricio; Martino, Pablo; Polanco-Carrasco, Roberto; Palacios, Diego Alejandro; Moretaherrera, Rodrigo; Samaniego-Pinho, Antonio; Lobos-Rivera, Marlon Elías; Figares, Andrés Buschiazzo; Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Calderón, Raymundo; Gallegos, Walter L.Arias; Petzold, Olimpia; Camargo, Andrés; Torales, Julio; Arkangel Monge Blanco, J.; González, Pedronel; Smithcastroa, Vanessa; Rivera, Wendy Yamilet Matute; Ferrufinoborja, Daniela; Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Muñoz-Del-carpiotoia, Agueda; Palacios, Jorge; Burgos-Videla, Carmen; León, Ana María Eduviges Florez; Vergara, Ibeth; Vega, Diego; Schulmeyer, Marion K. (2023-01-01)
    The Social Anomie Brief Scale (SAS10) is a self-report measure of social anomie against new social standards implemented during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the invariance of the cross-cultural measurement of the SAS10 in a sample of 12 Latin American countries. Additionally, the difficulty and discrimination characteristics of the items were evaluated using the IRT and social anomie was compared between the participating countries. A total of 4,911 people from 12 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) selected by non-probabilistic snowball sampling participated. The results indicated that the original two-factor model of the SAS10 shows estimation problems and low fit indices in several countries. However, a model of two related dimensions (behavioral and affective) of nine items (SAS-9) presented adequate fit indices in all countries. This model presents adequate estimation of reliability and approximate cross-cultural measurement invariance. Peru was the country with the highest score in the behavioral dimension of social anomie; while Venezuela and Bolivia presented the highest scores in the affective dimension. Mexico was one of the countries with the lowest anomie scores. The results of the IRT would indicate that the characteristics of the SAS-9 items were appropriate. It is concluded that the SAS-9 has shown good psychometric properties when evaluated in 12 Latin American countries and can be used in future studies that compare social anomie cross-culturally.
    Acceso abierto
  • Adaptation of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) in Spanish

    Copez-Lonzoy, Anthony; Vallejos-Flores, Miguel; Capa-Luque, Walter; Salas-Blas, Edwin; Montero Doig, Ana María; Dias, Paulo C.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos (Elsevier B.V., 2023-11-01)
    The impact of social networks on people's daily lives is worrisome, particularly in adolescents and young people, who seem to exceed the limits of normal use. Constant excessive use can lead to pathological behaviors linked to social media addiction (SMA). Our objectives were to 1) adapt the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) to Spanish and 2) evaluate its psychometric properties in a young population. The BSMAS was adapted to Spanish, involving experts on social media addiction and people from the target population during the adaptation process. For the psychometric evaluation, 650 Peruvian college students responded to the Spanish version (53.5 % women aged 18 to 40, M = 21.5 SD = 2.7). The one-dimensional measurement model proposed for the original BSMAS was confirmed for our version (X2(9) = 23.9315, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.990, SRMR = 0.032, RMSEA = 0.061). The reliability was good (α = 0.863; 95 % CI: 0.848–0.870; ω = 0.864; 95 % CI: 0.846–0.844), and the measurement invariance was confirmed for sex and age by fitting models. The concurrent validity with external social media addiction and mental health indicators was also confirmed. This study provides new and relevant information on the BSMAS validity and allows its application to Spanish-speaker college students from Peru and similar countries.
    Acceso abierto