Now showing items 21-40 of 768

    • Body mass index and vigorous physical activity in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

      Braithwaite, Irene E; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Wall, Clare R; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; irene.braithwaite@mrinz.ac.nz (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017-08-01)
      Aim: To examine the relationship between reported vigorous physical activity (VPA) and body mass index (BMI) in children (6–7 years) and adolescents (13–14 years). Methods: In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three, 75 895 children's parents and 199 502 adolescents answered questions relating to VPA, height and weight. The association between VPA and BMI was analysed using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Results: Compared to children who undertook no VPA, those in the infrequent group (once or twice per week) and those in the frequent group (three or more times per week) had mean (95% CI) BMI values 0.07 kg/m 2 (0.03–0.11) and 0.09 kg/m 2 (0.03–0.15) greater, respectively (p = 0.001). Compared to adolescents reporting no VPA, those in the infrequent group had a BMI 0.19 kg/m 2 (0.15–0.23) greater while those in the frequent group had a BMI 0.01 kg/m 2 (−0.03–0.05) greater (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Reported VPA is not associated with lower BMI among children and adolescents. Investigation of VPA and BMI may be best undertaken in conjunction with other variables in the energy expenditure equation. A focus on VPA alone may be an inefficient way to manage BMI.
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    • Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

      Wall, Clare R; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A; c.wall@auckland.ac.nz (MDPI AG, 2018-03-07)
      Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m² lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of -0.079 kg/m². In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.
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    • Are environmental risk factors for current wheeze in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase three due to reverse causation?

      Silverwood, Richard J; Rutter, Charlotte E; Mitchell, Edwin A; Asher, M Innes; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Strachan, David P; Pearce, Neil; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group.; neil.pearce@lshtm.ac.uk (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019-04-01)
      Background: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) measured the global prevalence of symptoms of asthma in children. We undertook comprehensive analyses addressing risk factors for asthma symptoms in combination, at both the individual and the school level, to explore the potential role of reverse causation due to selective avoidance or confounding by indication. Objective: To explore the role of reverse causation in risk factors of asthma symptoms. Methods: We compared two sets of multilevel logistic regression analyses, using (a) individual level exposure data and (b) school level average exposure (ie prevalence), in two different age groups. In individual level analyses, reverse causation is a possible concern if individual level exposure statuses were changed as a result of asthma symptoms or diagnosis. School level analyses may suffer from ecologic confounding, but reverse causation is less of a concern because individual changes in exposure status as a result of asthma symptoms would only have a small effect on overall school exposure levels. Results: There were 131 924 children aged 6-7 years (2428 schools, 25 countries) with complete exposure, outcome and confounder data. The strongest associations in individual level analyses (fully adjusted) were for current paracetamol use (odds ratio = 2.06; 95% confidence interval 1.97-2.16), early life antibiotic use (1.65; 1.58-1.73) and open fire cooking (1.44; 1.26-1.65). In school level analyses, these risk factors again showed increased risks. There were 238 586 adolescents aged 13-14 years (2072 schools, 42 countries) with complete exposure, outcome and confounder data. The strongest associations in individual level analyses (fully adjusted) were for current paracetamol use (1.80; 1.75-1.86), cooking on an open fire (1.32; 1.22-1.43) and maternal tobacco use (1.23; 1.18-1.27). In school level analyses, these risk factors again showed increased risks. Conclusions & clinical relevance: These analyses strengthen the potentially causal interpretation of previously reported individual level findings, by providing evidence against reverse causation.
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    • Are Environmental Factors for Atopic Eczema in ISAAC Phase Three due to Reverse Causation?

      Rutter, Charlotte E; Silverwood, Richard J; Williams, Hywel C; Ellwood, Philippa; Asher, Innes; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Strachan, David P; Pearce, Neil; Langan, Sinéad M; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; Sinead.langan@lshtm.ac.uk (Elsevier B.V., 2019-05-01)
      Some previously described environmental associations for atopic eczema may be due to reverse causation. We explored the role of reverse causation by comparing individual- and school-level results for multiple atopic eczema risk factors. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (i.e, ISAAC) Phase Three surveyed children in schools (the sampling unit) regarding atopic eczema symptoms and potential risk factors. We assessed the effect of these risk factors on atopic eczema symptoms using mixed-effect logistic regression models, first with individual-level exposure data and second with school-level exposure prevalence. Overall, 546,348 children from 53 countries were included. At ages 6–7 years, the strongest individual-level associations were with current paracetamol use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37–1.54), which persisted at school-level (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.10–2.21), early-life antibiotics (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.34–1.48), and early-life paracetamol use (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.21–1.36), with the former persisting at the school level, whereas the latter was no longer observed (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.00–1.82 and OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.69–1.28, respectively). At ages 13–14 years, the strongest associations at the individual level were with current paracetamol use (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.51–1.63) and open-fire cooking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.33–1.62); both were stronger at the school level (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.84–3.59 and OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.52–3.73, respectively). Association with exposure to heavy traffic (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.27–1.36) also persisted at the school level (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07–1.82). Most individual- and school-level effects were consistent, tending to exclude reverse causation.
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    • Maternal post-natal tobacco use and current parental tobacco use is associated with higher body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

      Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A; Chiarella, Pascual; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group; irene.braithwaite@mrinz.ac.nz (BioMed Central Ltd., 2015-12-24)
      Background: We investigated whether maternal smoking in the first year of life or any current parental smoking is associated with childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a multi-centre, multi-country, cross-sectional study (ISAAC Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 years completed questionnaires about their children's current height and weight, whether their mother smoked in the first year of the child's life and current smoking habits of both parents. Adolescents aged 13-14 years completed questionnaires about their height, weight and current parental smoking habits. A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and parental smoking. Results: 77,192 children (18 countries) and 194 727 adolescents (35 countries) were included. The BMI of children exposed to maternal smoking during their first year of life was 0.11 kg/m 2 greater than those who were not (P = 0.0033). The BMI of children of currently smoking parents was greater than those with non-smoking parents (maternal smoking: +0.08 kg/m 2 (P = 0.0131), paternal smoking: +0.10 kg/m 2 (P < 0.0001)). The BMI of female adolescents exposed to maternal or paternal smoking was 0.23 kg/m 2 and 0.09 kg/m 2 greater respectively than those who were not exposed (P < 0.0001). The BMI of male adolescents was greater with maternal smoking exposure, but not paternal smoking (0.19 kg/m 2 , P < 0.0001 and 0.03 kg/m 2 , P = 0.14 respectively). Conclusion: Parental smoking is associated with higher BMI values in children and adolescents. Whether this is due to a direct effect of parental smoking or to confounding cannot be established from this observational study.
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    • Over 675,000 lay people trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation worldwide - The "World Restart a Heart (WRAH)" initiative 2018.

      Böttiger, B W; Lockey, A; Aickin, R; Bertaut, T; Castren, M; de Caen, A; Censullo, E; Escalante, R; Gent, L; Georgiou, M; Kern, K B; Khan, A M S; Lim, S H; Nadkarni, V; Nation, K; Neumar, R W; Nolan, J P; Rao, S S C C; Stanton, D; Toporas, C; Wang, T-L; Wong, G; Perkins, G D (Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 2019-05-01)
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    • Programa basado e mindfulness para la reducción de la ansiedad precompetitniva en deportistas de artes marciales [Artículo]

      Trujillo-Torrealva, Daniel; Reyes Bossio, Mario; mario.reyes@upc.edu.pe (Federación Española de Asociaciones Docentes de Educación Física, 2019-01)
      El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el efecto de un programa de intervención con componente mindfulness para la reducción de la ansiedad precompetitiva, el cual fue adaptado de programas que han demostrado su eficacia. La intervención estuvo compuesta por 12 sesiones de 1 hora de duración. Participaron en el estudio 33 deportistas de artes marciales (M = 18.97 años, DE = 1.64; 69.7% hombres). La ansiedad precompetitiva fue evaluada con la versión revisada del Inventario de Ansiedad Estado Competitiva -2 (CSAI-2R; Cox, Martens y Rusell, 2003), antes y después del periodo de la intervención. De acuerdo al grado de participación en la intervención, la muestra fue dividida en 2 grupos: Grupo Control (GC, n = 16) y Grupo Experimental (GE, n = 17). Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias significativas con tamaños del efecto grandes en la medida post test del GE, revelando una disminución en los niveles de ansiedad somática y cognitiva, y un aumento en los niveles de autoconfianza. Mientras, en el GC, no se obtuvo diferencias significativas y los tamaños del efecto fueron irrelevantes
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    • Postbuckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

      Soncco, K; Jorge, X; Arciniega, R.A. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2019-02-26)
      This paper studies the geometrically non-linear bending behavior of functionally graded beams subjected to buckling loads using the finite element method. The computational model is based on an improved first-order shear deformation theory for beams with five independent variables. The abstract finite element formulation is derived by means of the principle of virtual work. High-order nodal-spectral interpolation functions were utilized to approximate the field variables which minimizes the locking problem. The incremental/iterative solution technique of Newton's type is implemented to solve the nonlinear equations. The model is verified with benchmark problems available in the literature. The objective is to investigate the effect of volume fraction variation in the response of functionally graded beams made of ceramics and metals. As expected, the results show that transverse deflections vary significantly depending on the ceramic and metal combination.
    • Relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and maternal employment status in Peru: A sub-analysis of the Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey

      Chávez-Zárate, Airin; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Quichiz-Lara, Antoinette Danciana; Zapata-Fajardo, Patricia Edith; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; airinchz1@hotmail.com (Public Library of Science, 2019-04)
      Objectives This study aimed to determine the relationship between stunting in children 6 to 36 months old and maternal employment status in Peru. Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted using information from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Peru. We used a representative sample of 4637 mother-child binomials to determine the association between stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age and the employment status of their mothers. Results The prevalence of stunting among children was 15.9% (95% CI: 13.9–16.7). The prevalence of working mothers was 63.7%. No association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.9 to 1.2; p = 0.627). However, on multivariate analysis we found that the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher among children of mothers performing unpaid work (12.4%) (PR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.2–1.6; p < 0.001) compared with those of paid working mothers. Conclusion No significant association was found between maternal employment status and the presence of stunting in children 6 to 36 months of age. However, children of mothers doing unpaid work are at higher risk of stunting. These findings support the implementation of educational programs and labour policies to reduce the prevalence of stunting among children. © 2019 Chávez-Zárate et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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    • Comments on the Study "The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and Its Associated Factors"

      Poletti-Jabbour, G.; Elejalde-Farfán, N.; giordi_poletti@hotmail.com (NLM (Medline), 2019-03-14)
      Comments were made on the article “The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy of Warning Signs in Predicting Severe Dengue, the Severe Dengue Prevalence and Its Associated Factors” found in the journal “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health” based on the CASP Checklist’s guide for the assessment of diagnostic tests.
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    • Organically vs conventionally-grown dark and white chia seeds (salvia hispanica L.): Fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity and techno-functional properties

      K., Alvites-Misajel; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Miranda-Rodríguez, C.; Ramos-Escudero, F.; diomedes.fernando@gmail.com (CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 2019-04-02)
      The effects of organic and conventional crop systems on chemical composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties were evaluated in white and dark chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds. The organic system reduced the total protein content, and increased the total carbohydrates but did not change polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic or flavonoids. Organic white chia seeds showed the best techno-functional properties. The antioxidant capacity of chia extracts varied in relation to the chemical complexity and differential rate kinetics of different assays. Extractable total phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity were better in organic white chia seeds. In this first approach, we have demonstrated that the organic white chia seed has a better total antioxidant capacity measured by direct quencher approaches than its conventionally-grown counterpart. To summarize, we conclude that the organic white chia seed could be a dietary source of antioxidants with a potential to promote health benefits in systemic functions and/or microbiota and the use of its techno-functional properties for the food industry.
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    • Nosocomial infections increase the length of hospital stay

      Carpio-Zevallos, Marcelo Sebastián; Sobrado-Jara, Katherine Susana; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-04-30)
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    • Social license to operate in the mining industry: the case of Peru

      Sícoli Pósleman, Claudia; Sallan, Jose M.; claudia.sicoli@upc.pe (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019-03-15)
      Mining is an important industry in Peru, but local communities where mining takes place do not perceive its benefits. Mining corporations need to achieve legitimacy within these communities. The main objective of this study is to identify the factors that determine the provision of social licenses to operate in Peru’s mining regions. We conducted this research using a case study of two Peruvian mining companies. Our study concludes with the identification of four essential factors needed to achieve a social license to operate within these communities: a deep understanding of the socioeconomic environment, a strong commitment to the community, an active presence of Government, and effective communication between the actors involved in mining activities. The combination of these elements can result in improved trust levels between companies and society, enabling all agents to recognize the costs and benefits resulting from mining.
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    • Cloud Model for Purchase Management in Health Sector of Peru based on IoT and Blockchain

      Celiz, Rodrigo Cubas; De La Cruz, Yasmin Escriba; Sanchez, David Mauricio; u201316958@upc.edu.pe (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-01)
      Purchase management of medical supplies is a critical and important process that affects the services provision quality. Nonetheless, it is facing a growing pressure to provide visibility and traceability of the purchase, to reduce fraud, to improve flexibility and to ensure communication between everyone involved. Currently, private health institutions in Peru choose to implant different software products within the same company with restricted visibility access to other concerned parties and based on information from a single source. A new alternative is Blockchain technology, since it provides a single source of shared truth to all participants and ensures that the information cannot be altered, thus offering high levels of transparency that, together with IoT technology, creates not only visibility about where things are, but also traceability, showing the current state of things.
    • Migration crisis in Venezuela: impact on HIV in Peru

      Rebolledo-Ponietsky, K; Munayco, C V; Mezones-Holguín, E; kirbeliz1609@gmail.com (Oxford University Press, 2019-02-01)
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    • Is manual therapy based on neurodynamic techniques effective in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome? A randomized controlled trial.

      Miranda-Medina, José; Cavigiolo, Mateo Barba; Soto, Alonso; Wolny, T; Linek, Pawel (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2019-01-28)
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    • Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults with sarcopenia of a hospital from Callao, Peru 2010–2015

      Altuna-Venegas, Sofia; Aliaga-Vega, Raul; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Parodi, Jose F.; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M. (Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 2019-06)
      Introduction: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength. The prevalence in people between 60–70 years is about 5–13% and in adults over 80 years, between 11–50% in the USA. Sarcopenia increases the risk of mortality and nosocomial infections. Community-acquired pneumonia is the first infectious-related cause of death in elderly people. However, there is lack of evidence about the association between sarcopenia and pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults with sarcopenia in a Peruvian hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the geriatrics service of Centro Medico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Tavara”. Sarcopenia was defined by “European Consensus of Sarcopenia” criteria. MultivariatePoisson regression model was conducted to estimate the effect of the independent association between sarcopenia and pneumonia. Results: A total of 1598 subjects were enrolled, 59.0% were male; with a mean age of 78.3 ± 8.6 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.3–16.8) and the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia was 15.14% (95%CI 13.4–16.9). In the multivariate model, we found a higher incidence of pneumonia in sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic, RR(a) 3.88 (95% CI: 2.82–5.33). Discussion: Our study showed a higher incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in sarcopenic subject. Results provide information on the importance of detecting this syndrome because it gives us scientific evidence of the interest of a correct comprehensive geriatric assessment in older patients with a high risk of pneumonia.
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    • Hipótesis alternativas sobre los beneficios de los fermentados sobre la microbiota intestinal

      Bernardi Espinoza, Diego; Jiménez Guerrero, Carlos Fernando; Milon, Pohl (ARAN Ediciones S.A., 2018-11)
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    • Dengue diagnosis in an endemic area of Peru: Clinical characteristics and positive frequencies by RT-PCR and serology for NS1, IgM, and IgG

      Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; del Valle, Luis J.; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Claudia; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Viñas-Ospino, Adriana; Stimmler, Luciana; Mallqui Espinoza, Naysha; Aquino Ortega, Ronald; Espinoza Espíritu, Walter; Misaico, Erika; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; juana.delvalle@upc.pe (Elsevier B.V., 2019-04)
      Background: Huánuco is a central eastern region of Peru whose geography includes high forest and low jungle, as well as a mountain range that constitutes the inter-Andean valleys. It is considered a region endemic for dengue due to the many favorable conditions that facilitate transmission of the virus. Methods: A total of 268 serum samples from patients in Huánuco, Peru with an acute febrile illness were assessed for the presence of dengue virus (DENV) via RT-PCR and NS1, IgM, and IgG ELISA during December 2015 and March 2016. Results: DENV was detected in 25% of samples via RT-PCR, 19% of samples by NS1 antigen ELISA, and 10.5% of samples by IgM ELISA. DENV IgG was detected in 15.7% of samples by ELISA. The most frequent symptoms associated with fever across all groups were headache, myalgia, and arthralgia, with no significant difference between the four test methods Conclusions: In this study, DENV was identified in up to 25% of the samples using the standard laboratory method. In addition, a correlation was established between the frequency of positive results and the serological tests that determine NS1, IgM, and IgG. There is an increasing need for point-of-care tests to strengthen epidemiological surveillance in Peru.
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    • Association between social media use (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook) and depressive symptoms: Are Twitter users at higher risk?

      Jeri-Yabar, Antoine; Sanchez-Carbonel, Alejandra; Tito, Karen; Ramirez-delCastillo, Jimena; Torres-Alcantara, Alessandra; Denegri, Daniela; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2019-02)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between social media dependence and depressive symptoms and also, to characterize the level of dependence. It was a transversal, analytical research. Subjects and Methods: The stratified sample was 212 students from a private university that used Facebook, Instagram and/or Twitter. To measure depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory was used, and to measure the dependence to social media, the Social Media Addiction Test was used, adapted from the Internet Addiction Test of Echeburúa. The collected data were subjected for analysis by descriptive statistics where STATA12 was used. Results: The results show that there is an association between social media dependence and depressive symptoms (PR [Prevalence Ratio] = 2.87, CI [Confidence Interval] 2.03–4.07). It was also shown that preferring the use of Twitter (PR = 1.84, CI 1.21–2.82) over Instagram (PR = 1.61, CI 1.13–2.28) is associated with depressive symptoms when compared to the use of Facebook. Conclusion: Excessive social media use is associated with depressive symptoms in university students, being more prominent in those who prefer the use of Twitter over Facebook and Instagram.
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