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  • Intelligent gravitational search random forest algorithm for fake news detection

    Natarajan, Rathika; Mehbodniya, Abolfazl; Rane, Kantilal Pitambar; Jindal, Sonika; Hasan, Mohammed Faez; Vives, Luis; Bhatt, Abhishek (World Scientific, 2022-01-01)
    Online social media has made the process of disseminating news so quick that people have shifted their way of accessing news from traditional journalism and press to online social media sources. The rapid rotation of news on social media makes it challenging to evaluate its reliability. Fake news not only erodes public trust but also subverts their opinions. An intelligent automated system is required to detect fake news as there is a tenuous difference between fake and real news. This paper proposes an intelligent gravitational search random forest (IGSRF) algorithm to be employed to detect fake news. The IGSRF algorithm amalgamates the Intelligent Gravitational Search Algorithm (IGSA) and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The IGSA is an improved intelligent variant of the classical gravitational search algorithm (GSA) that adds information about the best and worst gravitational mass agents in order to retain the exploitation ability of agents at later iterations and thus avoid the trapping of the classical GSA in local optimum. In the proposed IGSRF algorithm, all the intelligent mass agents determine the solution by generating decision trees (DT) with a random subset of attributes following the hypothesis of random forest. The mass agents generate the collection of solutions from solution space using random proportional rules. The comprehensive prediction to decide the class of news (fake or real) is determined by all the agents following the attributes of random forest. The performance of the proposed algorithm is determined for the FakeNewsNet dataset, which has sub-categories of BuzzFeed and PolitiFact news categories. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the results are also evaluated with decision tree and random forest algorithms. The proposed IGSRF algorithm has attained superlative results compared to the DT, RF and state-of-the-art techniques.
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  • Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Flexible Debris Flow Barriers for Control of Huaycos Using Satellite Images and GIS, in the Basin of Rímac River, Perú

    Pareja Dominguez, Marco Antonio; Pascual Figueroa, Henry Douglas; Silva Dávila, Marisa Rosana (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-01-01)
    Recurrent economic and human losses occur in populated areas caused by the debris flow, known in Peru as “huayco” and for which there is little information. To determine the effectiveness of debris flow barriers installed in 2016 in three high-risk creeks with slopes ranging from 29 to 35%, it was analyzed satellite images with the Geographical Information System (GIS). For that, it is necessary to obtain the volumes of both soil erosion in the upper basin transported by the debris flow and the retained solids by the barriers. Topographic, geological, geomorphological, and hydrological characteristics were evaluated, as well as the evolution of the population in the dejection cone. It was no possible to obtain results for all the destructive events because there are no cartographies, and the available satellite images do not have enough temporal or spatial resolution or present cloudiness greater than 20%. The field investigations after the ENSO 2017 occurrence made it possible to verify that the debris flow barriers allowed to avoid the loss of human life and material damage. The field measured volumes of the solids retained by the barriers and the previously estimated volumes of erosion were compared, and retention efficiency of 80–90% was obtained. It recommends continuing with this research because it is necessary to know debris flow characteristics for analyzing the convenience and technical requirements for the implementation of retention barriers in other dangerous streams that are difficult to access.
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  • Factors associated with nutritional deficiency biomarkers in candidates for bariatric surgery: A cross-sectional study in a peruvian high-resolution clinic

    Riva-Moscoso, Adrian; Martinez-Rivera, Raisa N.; Cotrina-Susanibar, Gianfranco; Príncipe-Meneses, Fortunato S.; Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Salinas-Sedo, Gustavo; Toro-Huamanchumo, Carlos J. (MDPI, 2022-01-01)
    Previous studies have described multiple nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery (BS). However, few studies have evaluated these deficiencies prior to BS, specifically in Latin America. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with nutritional deficiency biomarkers in candidates for BS in Peru. We included adults of both sexes, aged 18 to 59 years, admitted to a Peruvian clinic with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2; they were candidates for BS from 2017 to 2020. We considered the serum levels of hemoglobin and albumin (in tertiles) as the nutritional deficiency biomarkers. In order to assess the associated factors, we calculated crude (cPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We analyzed 255 patients: 63.1% were males, with a mean age of 37.1 ± 10.3 years and mean hemoglobin and albumin values of 14.0 ± 1.5 g/dL and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/dL, respectively. We found that males (aPR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.26–2.73; p = 0.002), participants between 30 and 49 (aPR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.24–3.28; p = 0.004) or 50 years or more (aPR = 2.42; 95%CI: 1.35–4.35; p = 0.003), participants with a BMI ≥40 kg/m2 (aPR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.09–2.60; p = 0.018), participants with impaired high-density lipoprotein levels (aPR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.01–2.05; p = 0.049) and individuals in the high tertile of C-reactive protein (aPR = 6.94; 95%CI: 3.37–14.32; p < 0.003) had a higher probability of being in the lower tertile of albumin. In addition, we found that the male sex (aPR = 6.94; 95%CI: 3.37–14.32; p < 0.001) and elevated cholesterol levels (aPR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.52–0.97; p = 0.034) were associated with the lowest hemoglobin tertile. In our setting, nutritional deficiency biomarkers were associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory markers. The pre-bariatric surgery correction of nutritional deficiencies is essential, and can prevent major complications after surgery.
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  • Sociodemographic Predictors Associated with the Willingness to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19 in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Vizcardo, David; Salvador, Linder Figueroa; Nole-Vara, Arian; Dávila, Karen Pizarro; Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Mejia, Christian R. (MDPI, 2022-01-01)
    During the race for the development of a vaccine against COVID-19, even before its commercialization, part of the population has already shown a growing fear of its application. We designed an analytical cross-sectional study using an anonymous survey in the 25 departments of Peru. We surveyed whether the participants were planning on getting vaccinated, as well as other characteristics that were cross-checked in a uni-, bi-and multivariate manner. Of the 1776 respondents, 70% (1251) stated that they were planning to be vaccinated, 20% (346) did not know yet or doubted it, and 10% (179) did not want to be vaccinated. We observed that those who did not get infected with COVID-19 exhibited a higher frequency to not wanting or were uncertain about getting vaccinated (aPR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09–1.81; p-value = 0.008). In contrast, there was a lower frequency of vaccine refusal among university students (aPR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61–0.92; p-value = 0.005) and healthcare workers (aPR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44–0.80; p-value = 0.001); adjusted by place of residence. There is still an important percentage of respondents who do not want to be vaccinated or are hesitant to do it, which was associated with educational level, being a healthcare worker and if they were previously infected with COVID-19. Our results could offer useful information about COVID-19 vaccination campaigns.
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  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression in Healthcare Personnel During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in the Department of Piura, Peru

    Espinoza-Ascurra, Gonzalo; Gonzales-Graus, Iván; Meléndez-Marón, Mónica; Cabrera, Rufino (Asociacion Colombiana de Psiquiatria, 2022-01-01)
    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the magnitude of mental illnesses such as depression, not only in the general population, but also in healthcare personnel. However, in Peru the prevalence, and the associated factors for developing depression in healthcare personnel, are not known. The objective was to determine the prevalence and identify the factors associated with depression in healthcare personnel, in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September, 2020 in healthcare establishments. A sample of 136 health workers were included and a survey was applied to collect the data. Depression as a dependent variable was measured using the Zung self-report scale. To identify the associated factors, the bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression with STATA v 14. Results: The prevalence of depression was 8.8% (95%CI, 4.64-14.90). Having a family member or friend who had died from COVID-19 was associated with depression (OR = 6.78; 95%CI, 1.39-32.90; P = 0.017). Whereas the use of personal protective equipment was found to be a protective factor against developing depression (OR = 0.03; 95%CI, 0.004-0.32; P = 0.003). Conclusions: Approximately 1 in 10 healthcare professionals and technicians developed depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in this study. In addition, having relatives or friends who had died from COVID-19 was negatively associated with depression and use of personal protective equipment was identified as a protective factor.
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  • Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with sars-cov-2 infection admitted to a peruvian hospital

    Rodríguez-Portilla, Ricardo; Llaque-Quiroz, Patricia; Guerra-Ríos, Claudia; Cieza-Yamunaqué, Liliana Paola; Coila-Paricahua, Edgar Juan; Baique-Sánchez, Pedro Michael; Pinedo-Torres, Isabel (Instituto Nacional de Salud, 2021-04-01)
    We carried out an observational, retrospective and descriptive study in order to identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a Peruvian national referral hospital. We included patients from one month old to fourteen years old hospitalized between March and August 2020. A total of 125 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 18.4% (n = 23) had critical illness and 16.8% (n = 21) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). The absence of comorbidities and previous history of epidemiological contact were more frequent in patients with MIS-C. Patients in critical condition and patients with MIS-C had lower lymphocyte and platelet counts, and higher C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer values than patients who did not have said conditions. Six (4.8%) out of 125 children died, as well as 3 (13%) children from the group of patients in critical condition. None of the children with MIS-C died.
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  • Concordance between the Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tests for Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    Campos-Vasquez, F.; Valdez-Murrugarra, N.; Soto-Tarazona, A.; Camacho-Caballero, K.; Rodriguez-Cuba, M. A.; Parodi, J. F.; Runzer-Colmenares, F. M. (Pleiades journals, 2021-07-01)
    Abstract: Determine the level of concordance between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Short Portable Mental State Examination (SPMSQ), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screening test for cognitive impairment in older adults. A cross-sectional study based on an original cohort study. 1683 patients over 60 years-old were included between 2010 and 2015. Demographic information was collected and the MMSE, MoCA, and SPMSQ scores were obtained. Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages, while numerical ones as median and interquartile range. The agreement was measured and adjusted by the number of years of education by Cohen’s Kappa index (k) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The agreement was considered as good if k > 0.80. MMSE classified 43.32% of the patients as having cognitive impairment, MoCA 43.14%, and SPMSQ 24.84%. MMSE and MoCA showed an agreement (k) of 0.99 with a 95% CI of 0.99–1.00; MoCA and SPMSQ showed a k of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.38–0.46). Finally, MMSE and SPMSQ showed a k of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37–0.46). The results did not change when performing the analysis by education subgroups. There was a strong concordance between MoCA and MMSE tests. Nevertheless, the SPMSQ was discordant with the other tests.
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  • Sleep Quality and Perinatal Depression in Pregnant Women Treated in a Primary Care Centre in Lima, Peru

    Choquez-Millan, Luis; Soto, Alonso (Elsevier Doyma, 2021-01-01)
    Objective: The aim is to evaluate the association between sleep quality and perinatal depression in pregnant women between the 12th week of gestation and the 36th week of gestation in a maternity and child centre in Lima. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study in pregnant women cared for in a primary care centre between August and December 2019. The data were collected through a self-administered survey. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. The evaluation of perinatal depression was performed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). For the multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust variances was used to calculate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective confidence intervals. Results: The sample was composed of 200 participants. The median [IQR] age was 26 [22-32] years, and 111 (55.5%) pregnancies were unplanned. 52% presented a poor quality of sleep and the risk of perinatal depression was 31.5%. Poor quality of sleep was associated with a significantly higher frequency of perinatal depression (aPR = 4.8 for those with poor quality of sleep warranting medical attention, and aPR = 6.6 for those with poor quality of sleep warranting medical attention and treatment). Conclusions: There is a possible association between poor sleep quality and perinatal depression in pregnant women between weeks 12 and 36 of gestation. Operational research should be promoted to assess whether interventions to improve sleep quality could have a positive impact on reducing perinatal depression.
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  • Factors associated with home remedy use by adults who do not attend health care facilities: Evidence from peruvian population-based survey, 2019

    Peralta-Vera, F. Guadalupe; Castillo-Céspedes, Enzo; Galup-Leyva, Mariajose; Rucoba-Ames, Joaquín; Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Benites-Zapata, Vicente A. (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2021-11-01)
    We estimated home remedy use (HRU) prevalence and associated factors in adults who present symptoms, disease, or accidents using the National Household Survey 2019. The estimation was performed in a population that did not access a health care facility. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study in adults over 18 years of age. The dependent variable was HRU (Yes/No) as the main reason for not going to health care facilities. We collected these variables: age, sex, education, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, chronic diseases or disability, and health insurance. The HRU prevalence was associated with older participants, who lived in the highlands or the jungle, belonged to Quechua or Aymara ethnic groups, and had comprehensive health insurance. In contrast, there was a lower HRU prevalence for those enrolled in private insurance. The HRU was associated with various socio-demographic factors in adults with any symptoms, illness, or accidents not attending health centers.
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  • Is Vitamin A Supplementation Associated With Anemia in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Peru: Secondary Analysis of the “Demographic Health Survey” 2015-2018?

    Ribaudo, Isabella; Aramburú-Duclos, Camila B.; Blitchtein, Dora (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021-01-01)
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects 12% of Peruvians under 5 years of age. Recent studies have shown an association with hematopoiesis and iron metabolism. In Peru, 3-quarters of a million children have anemia. We aimed to identify an association between Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and anemia in children under 5 years of age. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study from the Peruvian Demographic Survey and Family Health (DHS) was conducted. The primary outcome, anemia, was measured through hemoglobin concentration and adjusted by altitude. The DHS interviewer ensured the participant’s VAS in the last 6 months through a structural healthcare card. The association was statistically significant using crude regression but disappeared when adjusted per socioeconomic level and gender. VAS was not significantly associated with a lower prevalence of anemia. Further studies are required to help identify the association between VAS and anemia.
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  • The Elipse® swallowable intragastric balloon: First experience in Peru

    Piskulich-Negrillo, Erick; Torres-Pesantes, Luciana; Rodriguez-Sagastegui, Julio O.; Salinas-Sedo, Gustavo; Toro-Huamanchumo, Carlos J. (Medical Body of the Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo National Hospital, 2021-06-30)
    Carta al editor
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  • Politicization of COVID-19 health-protective behaviors in the United States: Longitudinal and cross-national evidence

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Lemay, Edward P.; Schiavone, William M.; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjolica; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanksi, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Jaya Lemsmana, Cokorda Bagus; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Olivas Osuna, Jose Javier; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga M.; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav; Zheng, Bang; Zick, Andreas (Public Library of Science, 2021-10-01)
    During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow recommendations. Accordingly, we predicted that—as a result of politicization of the pandemic—politically conservative Americans would be less likely to enact recommended health-protective behaviors. In two longitudinal studies of U.S. residents, political conservatism was inversely associated with perceived health risk and adoption of health-protective behaviors over time. The effects of political orientation on health-protective behaviors were mediated by perceived risk of infection, perceived severity of infection, and perceived effectiveness of the health-protective behaviors. In a global cross-national analysis, effects were stronger in the U.S. (N = 10,923) than in an international sample (total N = 51,986), highlighting the increased and overt politicization of health behaviors in the U.S.
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  • Buckling analysis of laminated composite beams by using an improved first order formulation

    Ayala, Shammely; Vallejos, Augusto; Arciniega, Roman (Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2021-01-01)
    In this work, a finite element model based on an improved first-order formulation (IFSDT) is developed to analyze buckling phenomenon in laminated composite beams. The formulation has five independent variables and takes into account thickness stretching. Threedimensional constitutive equations are employed to define the material properties. The Trefftz criterion is used for the stability analysis. The finite element model is derived from the principle of virtual work with high-order Lagrange polynomials to interpolate the field variables and to prevent shear locking. Numerical results are compared and validated with those available in literature. Furthermore, a parametric study is presented.
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  • Data Visualization Techniques for Monitoring Real-Time Information of Cold Chain

    Rivas Tucto, Jerson; Castillo Talexio, Nora; Shiguihara Juárez, Pedro (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021-01-01)
    Real-time monitoring of temperature is a critical factor in ensuring the integrity of food during the cold chain. In this work, we compare techniques related to real-time data visualization to contribute to more efficient monitoring of the cold chain. Three real-time data display attributes were evaluated, and we constructed a dataset based on the Frisbee database (CDD). In this paper, we proposed graphics containing different line and area techniques to be evaluated for a specialist. The proposed graphs contained the line and area techniques that, when performing the experiment, obtained a higher success rate compared to the auto-charting technique. However, it was evidenced that elements such as color facilitate the detection of anomalies and trends in temperature change due to its high percentage of effectiveness in the results.
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  • Códigos Emergentes de "Dadvertising": Representaciones Paternas con Enfoque Equitativo

    Morales Vivanco, Verónica; Gallardo-Echenique, Eliana Esther (Universidad de Sevilla, 2022-01)
    Este estudio analizó los códigos de dadvertising asociados a la equidad de género. El dadvertising es un tipo de publicidad paternal que promueve representaciones cercanas y multifacéticas de los hombres en su rol de padres dentro del hogar. Al ser una tendencia emergente, no hay suficientes estudios enfocados en construir mensajes publicitarios empáticos e inclusivos dirigido a los padres. Se adoptó una metodología cualitativa para analizar el spot “Más tiempo para crecer” de la marca bancaria Interbank. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 15 padres de familia de 25 a 39 años de edad. Como resultado, los códigos de dadvertising asociados a la equidad de género en el spot son: protección, satisfacción, compañerismo, empoderamiento emocional, valores de equidad, expresión emocional y equilibrio trabajo-familia. Estos códigos contribuyen a la construcción de un discurso publicitario alejado de estereotipos tradicionales, para generar una identificación y actitud positiva de marca con los padres de familia.
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  • Global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health: Results of an international survey

    Etti, Melanie; Alger, Jackeline; Salas, Sofia P.; Saggers, Robin; Ramdin, Tanusha; Endler, Margit; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Alfven, Tobias; Ahmed, Yusuf; Callejas, Allison; Eskenazi, Deborah; Khalil, Asma; Le Doare, Kirsty (Public Library of Science, 2021-09-01)
    Background The World Health Organization's "Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus"outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID- 19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. Method This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH WG. Analysis of questionnaire data was undertaken to identify key similarities and differences among respondents according to questionnaire language, location and specialty. Following elimination of the seven lowest ranking priorities, the questionnaire was recirculated to the original pool of respondents. Thematic analysis of final questionnaire data was undertaken by the MNCH WG from which four priority research themes emerged. Results Questionnaire 1 was completed by 225 respondents from 29 countries. Questionnaire 2 was returned by 49 respondents. The four priority research themes which emerged from the analysis were 1) access to healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the direct and 3) indirect effects of COVID-19 on pregnant and breastfeeding women and children and 4) the transmission of COVID-19 and protection from infection. Conclusion The results of these questionnaires indicated a high level of concordance among continents and specialties regarding priority research themes. This prioritized list of research uncertainties, developed to specifically highlight the most urgent clinical needs as perceived by healthcare professionals and researchers, could help funding organizations and researchers to answer the most pressing questions for clinicians and public health professionals during the pandemic. It is hoped that these identified priority research themes can help focus the discussion regarding the allocation of limited resources to enhance COVID-19 research in MNCH globally.
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  • Prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and metaanalysis

    Yovera-Aldana, Marlon; Velasquez-Rimachi, Victor; Huerta-Rosario, Andrely; More-Yupanqui, M. D.; Osores-Flores, Mariela; Espinoza, Ricardo; Gil-Olivares, Fradis; Quispe-Nolazco, Cesar; Quea-Velez, Flor; Moran-Mariños, Christian; Pinedo-Torres, Isabel; Alva-Diaz, Carlos; Pacheco-Barrios, Kevin (Public Library of Science, 2021-05-01)
    Aims The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Materials and methods We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EMBASE and LILACS databases of published observational studies in LAC up to December 2020. Meta-analyses of proportions were performed using random-effects models using Stata Program 15.1. Heterogeneity was evaluated through sensitivity, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Evidence certainty was performed with the GRADE approach. Results Twenty-nine studies from eight countries were included. The estimated prevalence of DPN was 46.5% (95%CI: 38.0-55.0) with a significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98.2%; p<0.01). Only two studies reported incidence, and the pooled effect size was 13.7% (95%CI: 10.6-17.2). We found an increasing trend of cumulative DPN prevalence over time. The main sources of heterogeneity associated with higher prevalence were diagnosis criteria, higher A1c (%), and inadequate sample size. We judge the included evidence as very low certainty. Conclusion The overall prevalence of DPN is high in LAC with significant heterogeneity between and within countries that could be explained by population type and methodological aspects. Significant gaps (e.g., under-representation of most countries, lack of incidence studies, and heterogenous case definition) were identified. Standardized and population-based studies of DPN in LAC are needed.
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  • Themes of scientific production of the cuban journal of pharmacy indexed in scopus (1967-2020)

    Chung, Sun Ah; Olivera, Selma; Román, Brenda Rojas; Alanoca, Evelyn; Moscoso, Stephanie; Terceros, Bianca Limpias; Álvarez-Risco, Aldo; Yáñez, Jaime A. (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2021-01-01)
    Introduction: The Cuban Journal of Pharmacy celebrated this year its fifty-fourth anniversary, and during all these years it has successfully published more than 1110 works indexed in Scopus bibliographic database until 2020. Objective: Describe the scientific production from the thematic point of view of the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy indexed in Scopus. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out, based on the systematic review of scientific literature published by the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy, available in Scopus. Publications were grouped by thematic areas according to the authors' criteria, based on the keywords presented in the abstracts and the central theme of the article. The thematic areas defined were eight, with eight sub-themes. Conclusions: Since 1967, the Cuban Journal of Pharmacy has strived to promote the development of science and research in its home country, Cuba. However, because of the variety of its articles it is of great value to foreign researchers and students too. The studies presented have been characterized by the diversity of topics related to pharmacology, the use of Cuban medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes and the methodology for better drug’s production and laboratory procedures.
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  • Combination of stem cells and rehabilitation therapies for ischemic stroke

    Berlet, Reed; Anthony, Stefan; Brooks, Beverly; Wang, Zhen Jie; Sadanandan, Nadia; Shear, Alex; Cozene, Blaise; Gonzales-Portillo, Bella; Parsons, Blake; Salazar, Felipe Esparza; Lezama Toledo, Alma R.; Monroy, Germán Rivera; Gonzales-Portillo, Joaquín Vega; Borlongan, Cesario V. (MDPI, 2021-09-01)
    Stem cell transplantation with rehabilitation therapy presents an effective stroke treatment. Here, we discuss current breakthroughs in stem cell research along with rehabilitation strategies that may have a synergistic outcome when combined together after stroke. Indeed, stem cell transplantation offers a promising new approach and may add to current rehabilitation therapies. By reviewing the pathophysiology of stroke and the mechanisms by which stem cells and rehabilitation attenuate this inflammatory process, we hypothesize that a combined therapy will provide better functional outcomes for patients. Using current preclinical data, we explore the prominent types of stem cells, the existing theories for stem cell repair, rehabilitation treatments inside the brain, rehabilitation modalities outside the brain, and evidence pertaining to the benefits of combined therapy. In this review article, we assess the advantages and disadvantages of using stem cell transplantation with rehabilitation to mitigate the devastating effects of stroke.
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  • Determinants of Eye Care Service Utilization among Peruvian Adults: Evidence from a Nationwide Household Survey

    Barrenechea-Pulache, Antonio; Portocarrero-Bonifaz, Andres; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Portocarrero-Ramos, Carlos; Moscoso-Carrasco, Jenny (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021-01-01)
    Purpose: This study analyzes the factors associated with eye care service utilization among Peruvians 50 years of age and older, measured as self-reporting of having undergone examination of visual acuity during the last 12 months. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for its acronym in Spanish) database was carried out. We estimated the weighted proportion of adults 50 years of age and older that reported having undergone a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months and the frequency according to the variables of interest. Crude (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of eye care service utilization were constructed using generalized linear models. Results: Approximately 28.8% of Peruvians 50 years of age and older underwent a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months. Having a higher education (aPR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33–2.40), health insurance such as EsSalud (aPR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28–1.87), a previous diagnosis of cataracts (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.67–2.09) and being part of the richest wealth quintile (aPR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.74–3.20) were associated with greater utilization of eye care services, while living in the jungle was associated with a lower likelihood of utilization of these services. Conclusion: The unequal distribution of health resources within the territory and socioeconomic gaps among the population could explain our findings. Further efforts are needed to fulfill the eye health needs of the Peruvian population.
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