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  • Whole genome analysis of extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Peru

    Santos-Lazaro, David; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Solari, Lely; Vigo, Aiko N.; Puyen, Zully M. (Nature Research, 2021-12-01)
    Peru has the highest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Americas region. Since 1999, the annual number of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) Peruvian cases has been increasing, becoming a public health challenge. The objective of this study was to perform genomic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains obtained from Peruvian patients with XDR-TB diagnosed from 2011 to 2015 in Peru. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 68 XDR-TB strains from different regions of Peru. 58 (85.3%) strains came from the most populated districts of Lima and Callao. Concerning the lineages, 62 (91.2%) strains belonged to the Euro-American Lineage, while the remaining 6 (8.8%) strains belonged to the East-Asian Lineage. Most strains (90%) had high-confidence resistance mutations according to pre-established WHO-confident grading system. Discordant results between microbiological and molecular methodologies were caused by mutations outside the hotspot regions analysed by commercial molecular assays (rpoB I491F and inhA S94A). Cluster analysis using a cut-off ≤ 10 SNPs revealed that only 23 (34%) strains evidenced recent transmission links. This study highlights the relevance and utility of WGS as a high-resolution approach to predict drug resistance, analyse transmission of strains between groups, and determine evolutionary patterns of circulating XDR-TB strains in the country.
    Acceso abierto
  • Lives versus Livelihoods? Perceived economic risk has a stronger association with support for COVID-19 preventive measures than perceived health risk

    Nisa, Claudia F.; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Faller, Daiane G.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Mierau, Jochen O.; Austin, Maura M.K.; Schumpe, Birga M.; Sasin, Edyta M.; Agostini, Maximilian; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Bernardo, Allan B.I.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanović, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Grzymala-Moszczynska, Joanna; Hamaidia, Ali; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kurapov, Anton; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lemay, Edward P.; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma Iqbal; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nyúl, Boglárka; O’Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Lissa, Caspar J.; van Veen, Kees; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh; Žeželj, Iris Lav (Nature Research, 2021-12-01)
    This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (2) perceived risk to suffer economic losses due to coronavirus, and (3) their interaction effect. Individual and country-level variables were added as covariates in multilevel regression models. We examined compliance with various preventive health behaviors and support for strict containment policies. Results show that perceived economic risk consistently predicted mitigation behavior and policy support—and its effects were positive. Perceived health risk had mixed effects. Only two significant interactions between health and economic risk were identified—both positive.
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  • Genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic Peruvian women: a community-based study

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Becerra-Goicochea, Lorena; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Pinillos-Vilca, Luis; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Taco-Masias, Andre Alonso; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Sarmiento-Ramirez, Cynthia Wendy; Del Valle, Luis J. (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Objective: To determine the general and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV and to identify potential risk factors for the infection in a population-based screening of Peruvian women. Results: A total of 524 samples were analyzed by PCR and a total of 100 HPV positive samples were found, of which 89 were high-risk, 19 were probably oncogenic, 9 were low-risk and 27 other HPV types. The 26–35 and 36–45 age groups showed the highest proportion of HPV positive samples with a total of 37% (37/100) and 30% (30/100), respectively. Moreover, high-risk HPV was found in 33.7% of both groups and probably oncogenic HPV in 52.6% and 31.6%, respectively. High-risk HPV were the most frequent types identified in the population studied, being HPV-52, HPV-31 and HPV-16 the most commonly detected with 17.6%, 15.7% y 12.9%, respectively. Demographic characteristics and habits were assessed in the studied population. A total of 62% high-risk HPV were detected in married/cohabiting women. Women with two children showed the highest proportion (33.8%) of high-risk HPV, followed by women with only one child (26.9%). Those women without history of abortion had a higher frequency of high-risk HPV (71.9%), followed by those with one abortion (25.8%).
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  • Spread of the fascioliasis endemic area assessed by seasonal follow-up of rDNA ITS-2 sequenced lymnaeid populations in Cajamarca, Peru

    Bardales-Valdivia, J. N.; Bargues, M. D.; Hoban-Vergara, C.; Bardales-Bardales, C.; Goicochea-Portal, C.; Bazán-Zurita, H.; Del Valle-Mendoza, J.; Ortiz, P.; Mas-Coma, S. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-12-01)
    Fascioliasis is a worldwide emerging snail-borne zoonotic trematodiasis with a great spreading capacity linked to animal and human movements, climate change, and anthropogenic modifications of freshwater environments. South America is the continent with more human endemic areas caused by Fasciola hepatica, mainly in high altitude areas of Andean regions. The Peruvian Cajamarca area presents the highest human prevalences reported, only lower than those in the Bolivian Altiplano. Sequencing of the complete rDNA ITS-2 allowed for the specific and haplotype classification of lymnaeid snails collected in seasonal field surveys along a transect including 2007–3473 m altitudes. The species Galba truncatula (one haplotype preferentially in higher altitudes) and Pseudosuccinea columella (one haplotype in an isolated population), and the non-transmitting species Lymnaea schirazensis (two haplotypes mainly in lower altitudes) were found. Climatic seasonality proved to influence G. truncatula populations in temporarily dried habitats, whereas L. schirazensis appeared to be more climatologically independent due to its extreme amphibious ecology. Along the southeastern transect from Cajamarca city, G. truncatula and L. schirazensis shared the same site in 7 localities (46.7% of the water collections studied). The detection of G. truncatula in 11 new foci (73.3%), predominantly in northern localities closer to the city, demonstrate that the Cajamarca transmission risk area is markedly wider than previously considered. Lymnaea schirazensis progressively increases its presence when moving away from the city. Results highlight the usefulness of lymnaeid surveys to assess borders of the endemic area and inner distribution of transmission foci. Similar lymnaeid surveys are still in need to be performed in the wide northern and western zones of the Cajamarca city. The coexistence of more than one lymnaeid transmitting species, together with a morphologically indistinguishable non-transmitting species and livestock movements inside the area, conform a complex scenario which poses difficulties for the needed One Health control intervention.
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  • Sexual health norms and communication patterns within the close social networks of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru: a 2017 cross-sectional study

    Ayer, Amrita; Segura, Eddy R.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Chavez-Gomez, Susan; Fernandez, Rosario; Gutierrez, Jessica; Suárez, Karla; Lake, Jordan E.; Clark, Jesse L.; Cabello, Robinson (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Background: Social networks, norms, and discussions about sexual health may inform sexual practices, influencing risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. To better understand social networks of Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (trans women), we examined key social network members (SNMs), participant perceptions of these network members’ opinions toward sexual health behaviors, and associations between network member characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Methods: In a 2017 cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 565 MSM and trans women with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus was asked to identify three close SNMs; describe discussions about HIV and STI prevention with each; and report perceived opinions of condom use, HIV/STI testing, and partner notification of STIs. Generalized estimating equations evaluated relationships between SNM characteristics, opinions, and discussions and participant-reported CAI. Results: Among participants who identified as MSM, 42.3% of key SNMs were perceived to identify as gay. MSM “never” discussed HIV and STI prevention concerns with 42.4% of heterosexual SNMs, but discussed them “at least once weekly” with 16.9 and 16.6% of gay- and bisexual- identifying SNMs, respectively. Among participants who identified as trans women, 28.2% of key SNMs were perceived as heterosexual; 25.9%, as bisexual; 24.7%, as transgender; and 21.2%, as gay. Trans women discussed HIV/STI prevention least with cis-gender heterosexual network members (40.2% “never”) and most with transgender network members (27.1% “at least once weekly”). Participants perceived most of their close social network to be completely in favor of condom use (71.2% MSM SNMs, 61.5% trans women SNMs) and HIV/STI testing (73.1% MSM SNMs, 75.6% trans women SNMs), but described less support for partner STI notification (33.4% MSM SNMs, 37.4% trans women SNMs). Most participants reported CAI with at least one of their past three sexual partners (77.5% MSM, 62.8% trans women). SNM characteristics were not significantly associated with participant-reported frequency of CAI. Conclusions: Findings compare social support, perceived social norms, and discussion patterns of Peruvian MSM and trans women, offering insight into social contexts and sexual behaviors. Trial registration: The parent study from which this analysis was derived was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03010020) on January 4, 2017.
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  • Comprehensive virtual screening of 4.8 k flavonoids reveals novel insights into allosteric inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>PRO</sup>

    Jiménez-Avalos, Gabriel; Vargas-Ruiz, A. Paula; Delgado-Pease, Nicolás E.; Olivos-Ramirez, Gustavo E.; Sheen, Patricia; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Quiliano, Miguel; Zimic, Mirko; Agurto-Arteaga, Andres; Antiparra, Ricardo; Ardiles-Reyes, Manuel; Calderon, Katherine; Cauna-Orocollo, Yudith; de Grecia Cauti-Mendoza, Maria; Chipana-Flores, Naer; Choque-Guevara, Ricardo; Chunga-Girón, Xiomara; Criollo-Orozco, Manuel; De La Cruz, Lewis; Delgado-Ccancce, Elmer; Elugo-Guevara, Christian; Fernández-Sanchez, Manolo; Guevara-Sarmiento, Luis; Gutiérrez, Kristel; Heredia-Almeyda, Oscar; Huaccachi-Gonzalez, Edison; Huerta-Roque, Pedro; Icochea, Eliana; Isasi-Rivas, Gisela; Juscamaita-Bartra, Romina A.; Licla-Inca, Abraham; Montalvan, Angela; Montesinos-Millan, Ricardo; Núñez-Fernández, Dennis; Ochoa-Ortiz, Adiana; Páucar-Montoro, Erika; Pauyac, Kathy; Perez-Martinez, Jose L.; Perez-M, Norma; Poma-Acevedo, Astrid; Quiñones-Garcia, Stefany; Ramirez-Ortiz, Ingrid; Ramos-Sono, Daniel; Rios-Angulo, Angela A.; Rios-Matos, Dora; Rojas-Neyra, Aldo; Romero, Yomara K.; Salguedo-Bohorquez, Mario I.; Sernaque-Aguilar, Yacory; Soto, Luis F.; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Ticona, Julio; Vallejos-Sánchez, Katherine; Villanueva-Pérez, Doris; Ygnacio-Aguirre, Freddy (Nature Research, 2021-12-01)
    SARS-CoV-2 main protease is a common target for inhibition assays due to its high conservation among coronaviruses. Since flavonoids show antiviral activity, several in silico works have proposed them as potential SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors. Nonetheless, there is reason to doubt certain results given the lack of consideration for flavonoid promiscuity or main protease plasticity, usage of short library sizes, absence of control molecules and/or the limitation of the methodology to a single target site. Here, we report a virtual screening study where dorsilurin E, euchrenone a11, sanggenol O and CHEMBL2171598 are proposed to inhibit main protease through different pathways. Remarkably, novel structural mechanisms were observed after sanggenol O and CHEMBL2171598 bound to experimentally proven allosteric sites. The former drastically affected the active site, while the latter triggered a hinge movement which has been previously reported for an inactive SARS-CoV main protease mutant. The use of a curated database of 4.8 k flavonoids, combining two well-known docking software (AutoDock Vina and AutoDock4.2), molecular dynamics and MMPBSA, guaranteed an adequate analysis and robust interpretation. These criteria can be considered for future screening campaigns against SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
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  • Intracystic Glucose Levels Appear Useful for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Guzmán-Calderón, Edson; Md, Belen Martinez Moreno; Casellas, Juan A.; Aparicio, José Ramón (Springer, 2021-01-01)
    Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the pancreatic cystic fluid is the most important biomarker for differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). However, recent studies have shown that glucose levels in pancreatic cystic fluid can discriminate mucinous from non-mucinous cysts. Aims: To perform a meta-analysis to determine the utility of intracystic fluid glucose of pancreatic mucinous cysts compared with intracystic CEA. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, OVID Medline, and Cochrane databases. This meta-analysis considers studies published up to October 2020. Results: Six studies comprising 506 patients were selected; 61.2% of the population was female. Of the 480 PCLs, 287 (59.7%) were mucinous. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of cystic fluid glucose levels for mucinous PCLs were 91% and 85%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 6.33 and 0.11, respectively. Pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 60.94. The pooled area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was 0.959. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of pancreatic cystic fluid CEA levels were 61% and 93%. The PLR and NLR were 8.51 and 0.40, respectively. Pooled DOR was 23.52, and the pooled area under the SROC curve was 0.861. Conclusion: Glucose has become a useful method and appears to be better than CEA for differentiating between mucinous PCLs and non-mucinous PCLs. We suggest that the analysis of glucose in PCLs be routinely performed for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
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  • Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ulloque-Badaracco, Juan R.; Ivan Salas-Tello, W.; Al-kassab-Córdova, Ali; Alarcón-Braga, Esteban A.; Benites-Zapata, Vicente A.; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Hernandez, Adrian V. (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2021-01-01)
    Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an accessible and widely used biomarker. NLR may be used as an early marker of poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of the NLR in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Observational studies that reported the association between baseline NLR values (ie, at hospital admission) and severity or all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Random effects models and inverse variance method were used for meta-analyses. The effects were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Small study effects were assessed with the Egger's test. Results: We analysed 61 studies (n = 15 522 patients), 58 cohorts, and 3 case-control studies. An increase of one unit of NLR was associated with higher odds of severity (OR 6.22; 95%CI 4.93 to 7.84; P <.001) and higher odds of all-cause mortality (OR 12.6; 95%CI 6.88 to 23.06; P <.001). In our sensitivity analysis, we found that 41 studies with low risk of bias and moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 53% and 58%) maintained strong association between NLR values and both outcomes (severity: OR 5.36; 95% CI 4.45 to 6.45; P <.001; mortality: OR 10.42 95% CI 7.73 to 14.06; P =.005). Conclusions: Higher values of NLR were associated with severity and all-cause mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients.
    Acceso abierto
  • Agile Logistics Management Model to Reduce Service Times and Improve Processes Using Lean Service Methodology in Companies in the Electrical Sector

    Palomino, Viviana Barriga; Raffo, Sotelo; Fernando, Juan Luis (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-03-01)
    In recent years, according to Osinergmin, the production of electrical energy has increased up to 2.4%. This sector represents 1.5% of GDP and encompasses more than 6.6 million users, so its consumption continues at a growth rate for the country's development. This growth depends on the response time that companies today provide users; many of them operate their logistics management manually and traditionally, which leads to delays in service and dissatisfaction of both the external and internal clients. Likewise, companies in the sector, by working traditionally, do not use technology as a point of competitiveness within the market, since 60% of companies use software for their operations. To do this, an agile logistics management model is proposed that will consist of reducing purchase order attention time by 50% and improving internal processes and procedures under the Lean Service methodology. It will start by identifying the main problem and the expected objectives, then the Lean Service, Business Process Management and Agile Logistics tools will be executed, which will help to reestablish new processes and procedures.
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  • Leptospirosis in febrile patients with suspected diagnosis of dengue fever

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Palomares-Reyes, Carlos; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Tarazona-Castro, Yordi; Kym, Sungmin; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Del Valle, Luis J.; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Martins-Luna, Johanna; Peña-Tuesta, Isaac; Verne, Eduardo; Silva-Caso, Wilmer (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis among febrile patients with a suspicious clinical diagnosis of dengue fever in northern Peru. Results: A total of 276 serum samples from patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) and suspected diagnosis for dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed. We identified an etiological agent in 121 (47.5%) patients, DENV was detected in 30.4% of the cases, leptospirosis in 11.2% and co-infection by both pathogens was observed in 5.9% of the patients. In this study the most common clinical symptoms reported by the patients were: headache 89.1%, myalgias 86.9% and arthralgias 82.9%. No differences in symptomatology was observed among the different study groups.
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  • Characterization of the gut microbiota in diabetes mellitus II patients with adequate and inadequate metabolic control

    Hamasaki-Matos, Angie Joyce; Cóndor-Marín, Katherine Marlene; Aquino-Ortega, Ronald; Carrillo-Ng, Hugo; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana (BioMed Central Ltd, 2021-12-01)
    Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the composition of the gut microbiota in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients with adequate and inadequate metabolic control, and its relationship with fiber consumption. Results: A total of 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled, of which 7 (26.9%) cases had adequate metabolic control (HbA1c < 7%) and 19 (73.1%) inadequate metabolic control (HbA1c ≥ 7%). It was observed that among patients with controlled T2DM, 2 (28.6%) cases presented good intake of fiber and 5 (71.4%) cases a regular intake. In contrast, in patients with uncontrolled T2DM, 13 (68.4%) patients reported a regular intake and 6 (31.6%) a poor intake. In relation to the identification of the gut microbiota, both groups presented a similar characterization. There were differences in the population of bacteria identified in both groups, however, the results were not statistically significant. The most frequently identified bacteria in controlled and uncontrolled T2DM patients were Prevotella (71.4% vs 52.6%), followed by Firmicutes (71.4% vs 42.1%), Proteobacteria (71.4% vs 36.8%) and Bacteroidetes (57.1% vs 37.8%). On the other hand, Fusobacterium, Actinobacteria were not identified in either of the two groups of study.
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  • An Evaluation of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Perceived Social Distancing Policies in Relation to Planning, Selecting, and Preparing Healthy Meals: An Observational Study in 38 Countries Worldwide

    Backer, Charlotte De; Teunissen, Lauranna; Cuykx, Isabelle; Decorte, Paulien; Pabian, Sara; Gerritsen, Sarah; Matthys, Christophe; Sabbah, Haleama Al; Royen, Kathleen Van; Bergheim, Ina; Staltner, Raphaela; Devine, Amanda; Sambell, Ros; Wallace, Ruth; Allehdan, Sabika Salem; Alalwan, Tariq Abdulkarim; Al-Mannai, Mariam Ahamad; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Backer, Charlotte De; Ouvrein, Gaelle; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Maldoy, Katrien; Matthys, Christophe; Smits, Tim; Vrinten, Jules; Desmet, Ann; Teughels, Nelleke; Geuens, Maggie; Vermeir, Iris; Proesmans, Viktor; Hudders, Liselot; De Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ostermann, Cristina; Brock, Ana Luiza; Favieiro, Cynthia; Trizotto, Rafaela; Stangherlin, Isadora; Mafra, Anthonieta Looman; Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Fisher, Maryanne L.; Maceacheron, Melanie; White, Katherine; Habib, Rishad; Dobson, David S.; Schnettler, Berta; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Chang, Angela Wen Yu; Jiao, Wen; Tingchi, Matthew; Liu; Grunert, Klaus G.; Christensen, Rikke Nyland; Reisch, Lucia; Janssen, Meike; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Encalada, Lorena; Kamel, Iman; Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Salmivaara, Laura; Makela, Johanna; Torkkeli, Kaisa; Mai, Robert; Kerschke-Risch, Pamela; Altsitsiadis, Efthymios; Stamos, Angelos; Antronikidis, Andreas; Tsafarakis, Stelios; Delias, Pavlos; Rasekhi, Hamid; Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Majid, Karandish; Eftekhari, Hassan; Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Sinead; McCarthy, Mary; Micalizzi, Alessandra; Schulz, Peter J.; Farinosi, Manuela; Komatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kubota, Hiromi; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J.; Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Ibrahim, Mohammed O.; Hammouh, Fadwa; Dashti, Somaia; Dashti, Basma; Alkharaif, Dhuha; Alshatti, Amani; Mazedi, Maryam Al (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-02-04)
    Objectives: To examine changes in planning, selecting, and preparing healthy foods in relation to personal factors (time, money, stress) and social distancing policies during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: Using cross-sectional online surveys collected in 38 countries worldwide in April-June 2020 (N = 37,207, Mage 36.7 SD 14.8, 77% women), we compared changes in food literacy behaviors to changes in personal factors and social distancing policies, using hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results: Increases in planning (4.7 SD 1.3, 4.9 SD 1.3), selecting (3.6 SD 1.7, 3.7 SD 1.7), and preparing (4.6 SD 1.2, 4.7 SD 1.3) healthy foods were found for women and men, and positively related to perceived time availability and stay-at-home policies. Psychological distress was a barrier for women, and an enabler for men. Financial stress was a barrier and enabler depending on various sociodemographic variables (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Stay-at-home policies and feelings of having more time during COVID-19 seem to have improved food literacy. Stress and other social distancing policies relate to food literacy in more complex ways, highlighting the necessity of a health equity lens.
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  • Telemedicine in Peru as a Result of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspective from a country with limited internet access

    Alvarez-Risco, Aldo; Del-Aguila-Arcentales, Shyla; Yañez3, Jaime A. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2021-07-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the worldwide implementation of telemedicine because of the need for medical care for patients, especially those with chronic diseases. This perspective paper presents the current situation of telemedicine in Peru, showing advances in regulation, cases of successful implementation, and the current challenges. Access to health should be available to all, and more efforts need to be implemented to offer access to the internet to achieve high-quality telemedicine to all the vulnerable groups in Peru.
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  • Intergenerational conflicts of interest and prosocial behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Jin, Shuxian; Balliet, Daniel; Romano, Angelo; Spadaro, Giuliana; van Lissa, Caspar J.; Agostini, Maximilian; Bélanger, Jocelyn J.; Gützkow, Ben; Kreienkamp, Jannis; Leander, N. Pontus; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum Abdul; Ahmedi, Vjollca; Akkas, Handan; Almenara, Carlos A.; Kurapov, Anton; Atta, Mohsin; Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem; Basel, Sima; Kida, Edona Berisha; Buttrick, Nicholas R.; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Choi, Hoon Seok; Cristea, Mioara; Csaba, Sára; Damnjanovic, Kaja; Danyliuk, Ivan; Dash, Arobindu; Di Santo, Daniela; Douglas, Karen M.; Enea, Violeta; Faller, Daiane Gracieli; Fitzsimons, Gavan; Gheorghiu, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel; Han, Qing; Helmy, Mai; Hudiyana, Joevarian; Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Jiang, Ding Yu; Jovanović, Veljko; Kamenov, Željka; Kende, Anna; Keng, Shian Ling; Kieu, Tra Thi Thanh; Koc, Yasin; Kovyazina, Kamila; Kozytska, Inna; Krause, Joshua; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Kutlaca, Maja; Lantos, Nóra Anna; Lemay, Edward P.; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Louis, Winnifred R.; Lueders, Adrian; Malik, Najma; Martinez, Anton; McCabe, Kira O.; Mehulić, Jasmina; Milla, Mirra Noor; Mohammed, Idris; Molinario, Erica; Moyano, Manuel; Muhammad, Hayat; Mula, Silvana; Muluk, Hamdi; Myroniuk, Solomiia; Najafi, Reza; Nisa, Claudia F.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Osuna, Jose Javier Olivas; Osin, Evgeny N.; Park, Joonha; Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Rees, Jonas; Reitsema, Anne Margit; Resta, Elena; Rullo, Marika; Ryan, Michelle K.; Samekin, Adil; Santtila, Pekka; Sasin, Edyta; Schumpe, Birga Mareen; Selim, Heyla A.; Stanton, Michael Vicente; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Sultana, Samiah; Sutton, Robbie M.; Tseliou, Eleftheria; Utsugi, Akira; van Breen, Jolien Anne; van Veen, Kees; vanDellen, Michelle R.; Vázquez, Alexandra; Wollast, Robin; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Zand, Somayeh (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-03-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic presents threats, such as severe disease and economic hardship, to people of different ages. These threats can also be experienced asymmetrically across age groups, which could lead to generational differences in behavioral responses to reduce the spread of the disease. We report a survey conducted across 56 societies (N = 58,641), and tested pre-registered hypotheses about how age relates to (a) perceived personal costs during the pandemic, (b) prosocial COVID-19 responses (e.g., social distancing), and (c) support for behavioral regulations (e.g., mandatory quarantine, vaccination). We further tested whether the relation between age and prosocial COVID-19 responses can be explained by perceived personal costs during the pandemic. Overall, we found that older people perceived more costs of contracting the virus, but less costs in daily life due to the pandemic. However, age displayed no clear, robust associations with prosocial COVID-19 responses and support for behavioral regulations. We discuss the implications of this work for understanding the potential intergenerational conflicts of interest that could occur during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Translation and Telefiction: Multimodal Analysis of Paratextual Pieces for HBO’s Looking

    Villanueva-Jordán, Iván (Universitat Jaume I, 2021-07-27)
    This paper presents an analysis of the trailers for a telefiction series originally produced in English and simultaneously distributed in Spanish in Latin America. Looking (aired between 2014 and 2016 by HBO) was a contemporary dramedy series, a hybrid genre typical of the quality TV promoted by HBO, that told the story of three gay friends living in San Francisco. The aesthetics of the series reveals the auteur cinematic work of Andrew Haigh, a film director who applied his visual narrative repertoire to Looking. Using the multimodal analysis model proposed by Kaindl (2020) and the structure of communicative modes proposed by Chaume (2004) and Stöckl (2004), this paper analyzes the translation and Latin American adaptation of two trailers of the series to understand whether the semiotic integration of the paratexts represents or intensifies the narrative aspects of the hybrid genre series.
    Acceso abierto
  • La gamificación en el desarrollo de la alfabetización informacional desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes universitarios

    Flores-Bueno, Daniel; Limaymanta, Cesar H.; Uribe-Tirado, Alejandro (Escuela Interamericana de Bibliotecologia, 2021-05-01)
    En los últimos años, el uso de la gamificación en la educación superior se ha orientado a mejorar el nivel de compromiso de los estudiantes en el aprendizaje. El modelo de educación por competencias no es ajeno a esta pedagogía que hoy se apoya en la creatividad del docente y en la participación del estudiante. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar cómo el uso de la gamificación incide en el incremento de dominio de la competencia informacional en estudiantes universitarios. El enfoque utilizado es mixto. En la fase cuantitativa con diseño cuasi experimental se utilizó el cuestionario ALFIN-Humass para medir la percepción del desarrollo de la competencia (pre y pos) y se demostró que hay diferencias significativas entre el pretest y postest del grupo experimental en la percepción del desarrollo de ALFIN (t = –4,63; p < 0,01). En la cualitativa, se llevó a cabo un grupo focal cuyos resultados confirmaron los hallazgos cuantitativos. La contribución de este trabajo radica en señalar la pertinencia de la gamificación como estrategia didáctica en el desarrollo de las competencias informacionales.
    Acceso abierto
  • Lenguaje, racismo y poder en el YouTube: Representaciones hegemónicas sobre los parlamentarios cultos peruanos

    Lovón Cueva, Marco Antonio; Quispe Lacma, Alexandra Paola (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2021-06)
    En este artículo, se analizan los comentarios positivos y negativos que se visualizan en la plataforma digital YouTube a raíz del debate por el proyecto de la Ley de La Preservación, Uso y Difusión de las Lenguas: discusión entre las congresistas peruanas Martha Hildebrandt y María Sumire, que se suscitó el 6 de setiembre de 2007. Mediante el Análisis Crítico del Discurso (Fairclough, 1995, Van Dijk, 1999, Wodak y Meyer, 2003), se estudian cómo los comentaristas generan discursos de discriminación y racismo al usar estrategias lingüísticas. Los discursos se dividen en dos grupos: uno a favor y en defensa del actuar de Martha Hildebrandt y el otro en contra del mismo personaje, pero en defensa de la parte contraria: María Sumire. En base a ello, se demuestra cómo a través de los comentarios realizados virtualmente se reproducen relaciones jerárquicas y se legitiman prácticas sociales excluyentes en relación con ambas congresistas, quienes representan imágenes sociales distintas.
    Acceso abierto
  • Peruvian undergraduate students' usage of digital technology in academic context

    Gallardo-Echenique, Eliana; Bullen, Mark; Castillo, Andrea (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-03-01)
    This paper presents the results of an interview of first-year university students at a private face-to-face university in Lima city on how they use digital technologies in their social and academic lives. This study was positioned in the interpretive paradigm with qualitative research design. Semi-structured interview with 13 open-ended questions was selected as the means of data. Atlas.ti. were used to analysed and coded all the interviews. To provide a well-structured approach to handling a large data set, thematic analysis was employed to analyse the verbatim transcription as outlined by Braun and Clarke. Contrary to the assumption that young learners are seen as highly adept technology users, the findings show that social networks (Facebook and Instagram) and WhatsApp are the most important applications for the participants.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente
  • Higher medical education facing the covid-19 infodemia

    Félix Cayo Rojas, César; Miranda Dávila, Ana Sofía (Editorial Ciencias Medicas, 2020-01-01)
    Carta al editor
    Acceso abierto
  • Predictive model to reduce the dropout rate of university students in Perú: Bayesian Networks vs. Decision Trees

    Medina, Erik Cevallos; Chunga, Claudio Barahona; Armas-Aguirre, Jimmy; Grandon, Elizabeth E. (IEEE Computer Society, 2020-06-01)
    This research proposes a prediction model that might help reducing the dropout rate of university students in Peru. For this, a three-phase predictive analysis model was designed which was combined with the stages proposed by the IBM SPSS Modeler methodology. Bayesian network techniques was compared with decision trees for their level of accuracy over other algorithms in an Educational Data Mining (EDM) scenario. Data were collected from 500 undergraduate students from a private university in Lima. The results indicate that Bayesian networks behave better than decision trees based on metrics of precision, accuracy, specificity, and error rate. Particularly, the accuracy of Bayesian networks reaches 67.10% while the accuracy for decision trees is 61.92% in the training sample for iteration with 8:2 rate. On the other hand, the variables athletic person (0.30%), own house (0.21%), and high school grades (0.13%) are the ones that contribute most to the prediction model for both Bayesian networks and decision trees.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente

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