Malnutrición por exceso en niños y adolescentes y su relación con el estilo de vida de sus padres en el Hospital Uldarico Rocca año 2015
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KeywordsNutrición del niño
Gestión y Docencia en Alimentación y Nutrición
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AbstractBackground: Childhood overweight/obesity is a global epidemic which represents an important public health issue in Peru. Numerous studies have characterized the risk factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity, however there is little known regarding the characteristic of parents with children affected by the mentioned epidemic. Knowing the mentioned parental factors will enable us to better understand this multifactor phenomenon. Methods: We conducted a case-control study at Hospital EsSalud Uldarico Rocca Fernández in Villa El Salvador district in Lima. We enrolled parents from children between 2 and 15 years old at the outpatient ward from the healthy child control and pediatrics services. A case was defined as the parent of a child with overweight/obesity according with WHO standard deviation tables (>3SD in children between 2 and 5 years old, and BMI tables in children between 5 and 15 years old). A control was defined as the parent of a eutrophic child according to the mentioned tables. We assigned controls to cases by a 2 to 1 ratio. After obtaining consent/assent from participants, we collected anthropometric measures from children and parents, and we conducted a survey in parents collecting sociodemographic data, food intake habits, and physical activity. We performed a bivariate analysis by using student t-test, chi2 and logistic regression, and finally we conducted a multivariate analysis including all the variables considered important according to the conceptual framework by using a logistic regression for OR calculation. Results: Between June and December 2015, we enrolled 307 participants into the study (105 cases and 202 controls). Regarding age, controls were significantly younger than cases (36.3 years vs 32.5 years, p<0.001), and controls were less frequently overweight/obese p<0.001). There were no significant differences regarding gender (p=0.139), height (p=0.143), or degree of education (p=0.329). The logistic regression bivariate analysis found coming from a rural area conferred protection towards childhood overweight/obesity (OR=0.49). In addition, a family monthly income over 2000 PEN showed a significant risk towards childhood overweight/obesity (OR=5.27, p <0.001). The multivariate model found that after adjusting for the variables previously associated regarding the conceptual framework, the resulting factor associated with childhood overweight/obesity is having a family income over 2000 PEN (OR=4.86, p<0.001), and the protecting factors are having breakfast from 6 to 7 times per week (OR=0.39, p=0.046), and sleeping over 6 hours a day (OR=0.38, p=0.007). Conclusions: In or study we have found an association between the parents characteristics and the development of overweight/obesity in their children. A high family income in a low/middle income area is strongly associated with childhood overweight/obesity. In contrast, regarding parental habits, having breakfast frequently and an adequate number of sleeping hours reduces the risk of childhood overweight/obesity in our sample.
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