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  • Los retos de las democracias liberales europeas: Situación política de España y la Unión Europea

    Alonso, María Luisa (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC), 2021-05-07)
    Los retos de las democracias liberales europeas: Situación política de España y la Unión Europea. La crisis económica de 2018 generó un cambio de paradigma de representación política. Las sociedades europeas empezaron a exigir a sus gobernantes más transparencia, honestidad, representatividad de la sociedad; ante esos retos los partidos tradicionales europeos respondieron de formas muy diferentes, unos adaptándose y otros con inmovilismo. En paralelo surgieron nuevos partidos de corte liberal y otros populistas de tendencia nacionalista, o de izquierdas o conservadores. Todo ello ha llevado a una inestabilidad, no sólo de los gobiernos nacionales, sino también en el seno de la Unión Europea.
    Acceso abierto
  • Asociación entre sobrepeso u obesidad y consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas en el estudio Niños del Milenio 2009 - 2016

    Segura, Eddy R; Cordova Reyes, Esthefany Mariella; Pino Atao, Sara María (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC)PE, 2020-05-12)
    Objetivo: Determinar la exposición al consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas en adolescentes y jóvenes del estudio Niños del Milenio y su asociación al desarrollo de sobrepeso u obesidad. Diseño: Se utilizó la base de datos de Niños del Milenio, que es un estudio longitudinal dividido en cohorte menor y mayor, la primera se inició alrededor del primer año de vida y la segunda entre 7 y 8 años. Los involucrados fueron cuatro países en vías de desarrollo, Perú, Vietnam, Etiopía e India (Andhra Pradesh y Telangana) con una población total de 12000 personas. Esta base consta de rondas que agrupan ambas cohortes, hasta la fecha existen 5 rondas, siendo la primera del año 2002 y la última del 2016. Si bien en un principio se buscaban las causas y consecuencias de la pobreza en estos países, se ha logrado darle otro fin con los datos evidenciados como la formulación de políticas públicas que sean efectivas..
    Acceso restringido
  • Association between household socioeconomic level and consumption of fast food and soft drinks: A cross-sectional assessment of the Young Lives cohort in Peru

    Najar, Carol Argelia; Vila-Quispe, Jessi Nataly; Astete-Robilliard, Laura; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio (Asociacion Espanola de Dietistas-Nutricionistas, 2020-01-01)
    Introduction: The consumption of fast food and soft drinks is a risk factor for developing overweight and obesity. This study aimed at assessing if there is association between household socioeconomic level and the consumption of fast food and soft drinks among children. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional assessment of the data from the third round (2009-2010) of the youngest cohort of the Young Lives study in Peru was conducted. Sampling was conducted in three stages: In the first one, the country was divided into equal geographical regions, excluding the 5% of the richest district; in the second stage, 20 sentinel sites were chosen and an area within each sentinel site was selected. Finally, in the third stage, eligible children were selected. Outcomes were the self-reported consumption of fast food and soft drinks (never, sometimes, and always), whereas the exposure was household socioeconomic status (in quintiles). Crude and adjusted models were created between variables of interest using Poisson regression models, with robust variance, to report prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Data of 1901 children, of which 942 (49.6%) were girls, with a mean age of 7.5 (SD: 0.5) was analyzed. A total of 24.1% (95%CI: 22.2%-26.1%) reported always consuming fast food, whilst this number was 22.4% (20.5%-24.3%) for soft drinks. Compared to the lowest socioeconomic quintile, those who were in higher socioeconomic status had more probability of consuming fast food and soft drinks (Chi-squared for trends <0.001). The highest socioeconomic quintile had a greater probability to always consume fast food (PR=1.42; 95%CI: 1.08-1.88) and soft drinks (PR=1.71; 95%CI: 1.24-2.37). Conclusions: This study shows that there is a significant association between the household socioeconomic level and the consumption of soft drinks and fast food.
    Acceso abierto
  • Screening and Assessment of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Periodontopathic Bacteria in Peruvian Patients with Periodontitis: A Pilot Study

    Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Casas Apayco, Leslie; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; De Lama-Odría, María del Carmen; Weilg, Claudia; Mazulis, Fernando; Silva-Caso, Wilmer Gianfranco; Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana Mercedes (Hindawi Limited, 2021-01-01)
    Background. Severe periodontal disease is highly prevalent worldwide, affecting 20% of the population between the ages of 35 and 44 years. The etiological epidemiology in Peru is scarce, even though some studies describe a prevalence of 48.5% of periodontal disease in the general population. Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent oral diseases associated with site-specific changes in the oral microbiota and it has been associated with a socioeconomic state. This study aimed to determine the etiology and resistance profile of bacteria identified in a group of Peruvian patients with periodontal disease. Methods. Six subgingival plaque samples were collected from eight patients with severe periodontitis. Bacterial identification was carried out by an initial culture, PCR amplification, and subsequently DNA sequencing. We evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion method. Results. Variable diversity in oral microbiota was identified in each one of the eight patients. The bacterial genus most frequently found was Streptococcus spp. (15/48, 31.3%) followed by Rothia spp. (11/48, 22.9%), Actinomyces spp. (9/48, 18.8%), and Eikenella spp. (4/48, 8.3%). The most common species found was Rothia dentocariosa (8/48, 16.7%). The antimicrobial susceptibility assay varied according to the species tested; however, among all the isolates evaluated, Actinomyces naeslundii was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline; Eikenella corrodens was resistant to dicloxacillin; and Rothia dentocariosa was resistant to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and metronidazole but also susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions. The most prevalent periodontal bacterium found in this study was Rothia dentocariosa. Specific antimicrobial therapy is required to improve the treatment outcomes of patients with periodontal disease and avoid antibiotic resistance.
  • Surgical Treatment and Reconstruction of Nasal Defects According to the Aesthetic Subunits Principles

    Núñez-Castañeda, José Miguel; Chang-Grozo, Silvana Lucia (Springer, 2021-01-01)
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal skin cancer, its location by facial aesthetic subunits and the type of reconstructive procedures performed for each nasal subunit after excision for nasal skin tumors. Observational cross-sectional study of all consecutive patients with the diagnosis of skin tumor located in the nasal unit, treated from 2018 to 2019 by the department of head and neck surgery of a general hospital. 60 patients were treated with nasal skin tumors excisions. A total of 52 patients (86,6%) had basal cell skin cancer, 7 (11,6%) had squamous cell skin cancer and 1 (1,6%) had melanoma. Fifty-nine patients (98.33%) presented a primary tumor and just 1 case (1,66%) recived a previous surgical treatment. Regardless of the type of tumor, the tip subunit was the most often involved with 29 (48,33%) cases in total. Despite of the nasal aesthetic subunit affected, the most frequent type of procedure used for reconstruction was the rotation or advancement flap, based on aesthetic nasal subunits, which was performed in 39 cases (65%). Nasal reconstruction after skin cancer can be very complex, especially since all patients have high expectations about the results. In order to achieve good results, there is a necessity for careful analysis of the defect, correct planning and excellent technical execution of the procedures Frequently, staged procedures will be needed to achieve an optimal result.
    Acceso restringido temporalmente

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